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Technical Paper

Strength Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction of an Extra Large Dump Truck Deck and Subframe

2013-04-08
2013-01-1211
An engineering strategy to develop a new 27-ton dump truck is introduced in the process of design and analysis. Main engineering concerns in development of the new dump truck are focused on reducing weight as much as 180kg without deteriorating structural strength and fatigue life of its upper body - deck and subframe. To achieve this goal, a stress analysis and a fatigue life prediction based on CAE technique are employed at the early stage of design process. A finite element model of the full vehicle was constructed for the strength analysis. Then the fatigue life was predicted through the strength analysis and an S-N curve of high strength steel. The S-N curve for welded structures made of high strength steel was used along with a prototype vehicle's endurance test in order to set strength targets. As a result, the upper body was successfully developed without any fatigue issues.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Advanced Technology Analysis Process of Steering System for Idle Performance

2007-05-15
2007-01-2339
This paper describes the optimal design process of the steering column system and the supporting system. At the initial concept stage of development process, a design guide is proposed to obtain sufficient stiffness of the steering system while reducing idle vibration sensitivity of the system. Case studies on resonance isolation are summarized, in which separated vibration modes among systems by applying Vibration Mode Map at the initial stage of design process. This study also makes it possible to provide design guideline for optimal dynamic damper system using CAE (computer aided engineering) analysis. The damper FE (finite element) model is added to vehicle model to analyze the relation between the frequency and the sensitivity of steering column system. This analysis methodology enables target performance achievement in early design stage and reduction of damper tuning activity after proto car test stage.
Technical Paper

Solution for the Torque Steer Problem of a Front-wheel Drive Car with a High-torque Engine in Vehicle Development Stages

2007-08-05
2007-01-3656
This paper describes a torque steer reduction process for a front-wheel drive car with a high torque engine at the initial stage of vehicle development. Literature reviews for the reduction process and vehicle integration tradeoffs among chassis components, driveline components, and loading condition are included. Drive shaft angle and its stiffness, differential gear stiffness, and power train mount, and vehicle weight distribution are mainly considered. In addition, wheel alignment data such as kingpin offset, kingpin inclination, camber angle, ride height, and dynamic tire radius are also discussed to solve the torque steer problem. This paper introduces an example solution to improve the torque steer during vehicle development stage. In that case, the vehicle parameters should be considered the factors to achieve many requirements. In spite of that restriction of alteration, the result of improvement became better than that of its competitor.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study on Power Steering Shudder

2008-04-14
2008-01-0501
Shudder vibration of a hydraulic power steering system during parking maneuver was studied with numerical and experimental methods. To quantify vibration performance of the system and recognize important stimuli for drivers, a shudder metric was derived by correlation between objective measurements and subjective ratings. A CAE model for steering wheel vibration analysis was developed and compared with measured data. In order to describe steering input dependency of shudder, a new dynamic friction modeling method, in which the magnitude of effective damping is determined by average velocity, was proposed. The developed model was validated using the measured steering wheel acceleration and the pressure change at inlet of the steering gear box. It was shown that the developed model successfully describes major modes by comparing the calculated FRF of the hydraulic system with measured one from the hydraulic excitation test.
Technical Paper

E3 System – A Two speed Accessory Belt Drive System for Reduced Fuel Consumption

2008-06-23
2008-01-1521
All vehicles have some or all accessories such as alternators, air conditioner compressors, power steering pumps, and water pumps. These devices are mounted on the front of the engine and are powered by a pulley mounted on the front of the crankshaft. This power represents a parasitic loss and this loss is greater at higher engine speeds. To reduce the impact of the accessories on the engine, a two speed transmission that reduces the accessories speed at off-idle conditions was designed, implemented, and tested on several vehicles. The vehicles were tested for fuel economy on the Japanese 10.15 Mode driving cycle, the FTP75 city cycle, and the HWFET Highway Cycle. Results showed an average of 5% reduction in fuel consumption and a corresponding 5% in CO2 with no impact of accessory performance and vehicle drivability. Simulations with GT-Drive software was used to determine the optimum speed reduction and the threshold switching speed that maximizes fuel savings.
Technical Paper

Developing the Thermoplastic Water Pump and Power Steering Pulley for a Passenger Car

1998-02-01
980736
The thermoplastic automotive pulley has been developed and will be commercialized to high volume production that achieves cost saving and weight reduction over other automotive pulleys in the metal and thermosetting resin by Hyundai Motor Company. Design feature incorporated in this automotive pulley allow it to be manufactured and assembled onto the water pump more efficiently in consequence of design integration with the water pump and power steering pulley. However, the harsh environment and dynamic loads that the thermoplastic pulley has to withstand required extensive CAE analysis and testing of the molded parts and the standard glass reinforced PA was selected for the application to maximize cost savings. The key aspects of the plastic automotive pulley as well as its advantage are presented.
Technical Paper

A Study of Design Methodology to Develop Improved Door System of a Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0616
In the past few years, technological innovations in the automobile industry took vehicle performance to the next level. One such innovation is frame integrated panel door. This type of door helps automobile companies to have the advantages of both conventional panel and frame type doors. Though it has a good number of advantages, there are some drawbacks too. It requires improvements in its quality, NVH performance, weight and etc. Quality of a door is low due to the limitations in structural design and manufacturing technologies. And it is difficult to have a robust structure which leads to degradation of key performing factors such as NVH. For a lightweight vehicle, it is important to design an optimized structure for saving weight, without compromising its performance. In order to overcome these drawbacks a new optimized design structure is required for door system.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Auxiliary Belt Drive System for Actual Fuel Saving

2017-03-28
2017-01-0898
The engine indicated torque is not delivered entirely to the wheels, because it is lowered by losses, such as the pumping, mechanical friction and front auxiliary power consumption. The front auxiliary belt drive system is a big power consumer-fueling and operating the various accessory devices, such as air conditioning compressor, electric alternator, and power steering pump. The standard fuel economy test does not consider the auxiliary driving torque when it is activated during the actual driving condition and it is considered a five-cycle correction factor only. Therefore, research on improving the front end auxiliary drive (FEAD) system is still relevant in the immediate future, particularly regarding the air conditioning compressor and the electric alternator. An exertion to minimize the auxiliary loss is much smaller than the sustained effort required to reduce engine friction loss.
Technical Paper

Study of Active Steering Algorithm Logic in EPS Systems by Detecting Vehicle Driving Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-1481
Conventional EPS (Electric Power Steering) systems are operated by one type of steering tuning map set by steering test drivers before being released to customers. That is, the steering efforts can't change in many different driving conditions such as road conditions (low mu, high mu and unpaved roads) or some specific driving conditions (sudden stopping, entering into EPS failure modes and full accelerating). Those conditions can't give drivers consistent steering efforts. This paper approached the new concept technology detecting those conditions by using vehicle and EPS sensors such as tire wheel speeds, vehicle speed, steering angle, steering torque, steering speed and so on. After detecting those conditions and judging what the best steering efforts for safe vehicle driving are, EPS systems automatically can be changed with the steering friction level and selection of steering optimized mapping on several conditions.
Technical Paper

Steering Wheel Torque Control of Steer-by-Wire System for Steering Feel

2017-03-28
2017-01-1567
This paper proposes a reference steering wheel torque map and a torque tracking algorithm via steer-by-wire to achieve the targeted steering feel. The reference steering wheel torque map is designed using the measurement data of rack force and steering characteristic of a target performance of the vehicle at transition steering test. Since the target performance of the vehicle is only tested in nominal road condition, various road conditions such as disturbances and tire-road friction are not considered. Hence, the measurement data of the rack force that reflects the road conditions in the reference steering wheel torque map have been used. The rack force is the net force which consists of tire aligning moment, road friction force and normal force on the tire kingpin axis. A motor and a magnetorheological damper are used as actuators to generate the desired steering feel using the torque tracking algorithm.
Technical Paper

Development of Crash Performance of the Front Bumper System by Adopting Target Cascading Scheme

2018-04-03
2018-01-1054
A practical application of the Target Cascading scheme for the development of the front bumper system of a passenger car is investigated in this paper. The Target cascading in the crash performance of vehicle developments requires a systematic approach, propagating from the desired vehicle-level performance target to appropriate specifications in a system- and/or component-level. To define the values of design specification in the front bumper system, three physical variables are derived by analyzing the vehicle-level performance of the frontal impact under the high-speed (56kph NCAP frontal impact) and the low-speed (15kph RCAR structural test) crash conditions. To ensure the sequential deformation in the high-speed frontal impact and to minimize the damage of the structural member in the low-speed crash, the maximum collapse load of a crash box should be smaller than the collapse load of a front side member.
Technical Paper

Control of Steer by Wire System for Reference Steering Wheel Torque Tracking and Return-Ability

2018-04-03
2018-01-0566
This paper proposes a torque tracking algorithm via steer by wire to achieve the target steering feel and proposed a modified friction model to obtain return-ability. A three dimensional reference steering wheel torque map is designed using the measurement data of the steering characteristics of the target vehicle at a transition test and a weave test. In order to track the reference steering wheel torque, a sliding mode control is used in the tracking algorithm. In addition, to achieve return-ability, the modified friction model for steer by wire is used instead of the friction model defined in the reference steering wheel torque map. The modified friction model is composed of various models according to the angular velocity. The angular velocity and the angular acceleration used in the control algorithm are estimated using a kalman filter.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Steering Performance Using Steering Rack Force Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1234
Drivers continually require steering performance improvement, particularly in the area of feedback from the road. In this study, we develop a new electrically-assisted steering logic by 1) analyzing existing steering systems to determine key factors, 2) modeling an ideal steering system from which to obtain a desirable driver torque, 3) developing a rack force observer to faithfully represent road information and 4) building a feedback compensator to track the tuned torque. In general, the estimator uses the driver torque, assist torque and other steering system signals. However, the friction of the steering system is difficult to estimate accurately. At high speed, where steering feeling is very important, greater friction results in increased error. In order to solve this problem, we design two estimators generated from a vehicle model and a steering system model. The observer that uses two estimators can reflect various operating conditions by using the strengths of each method.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Model Based Torque Feedback Control with Disturbance Observer for Electric Power Steering System

2019-04-02
2019-01-1233
Electric Power Steering (EPS) needs to meet both functional and stability requirements, it plays significant role in controlling vehicle motion. In the meantime, customers emphasizes natural steering feel which can reflect vehicle motion and road surface information while isolate unwanted external disturbances. In general, conventional EPS control algorithms exert assist torque according to driver torque measured from torque sensor, while maintaining stability using stabilizing compensator. However, there exist significant trade-off between steering feel and stability, because the performances of assist torque control and stabilizing compensator are strongly coupled. In this paper a torque feedback control algorithm for EPS system is proposed in order to overcome the trade-off, and to achieve more natural, robust steering feel.
Journal Article

Development of Logistic Regression Models to Classify Seat Fit

2020-04-14
2020-01-0869
The digital evaluation process of vehicle-seat dimensions is an efficient and cost-effective way to achieve better seating comfort and proper fit. The present study is intended to quantify the statistical relationships between seat dimensions (e.g., insert width and bolster height defined at SAE J2732) and subjective seat fit (e.g., too tight, right fit, or too wide). Subjective fit evaluations for 45 different vehicle seats and the corresponding vehicle seat dimensions at various cross-sectional planes were collected by seat engineers (experts). The best subset logistic regression analyses were applied to quantify the relationships between the collected expert evaluations and seat dimensions at each cross-sectional plane. As a result, significant seat dimensions on the seat fit were identified and their statistical relationships were quantified as regression coefficients.
Technical Paper

Development of the Rig and Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Bench for Evaluating Steering Performance

2020-04-14
2020-01-0647
The development of vehicles faces changes in many future flows. The vehicle’s power transfer systems are being changed from conventional types to Hybrid, Electric and Hydrogen vehicles. At this moment, the technology of EPS (Electric Power Steering) system has been expanding from a simple torque assist system to LKAS(Lane Keeping Assist System), PAP(Park Assist Pilot), ALCAS(Active Lane Change System), ADAS(Advanced Driver Assistance System). A good test bench is necessary for the evaluation of both hardware and control logics of EPS in these complexities of development process. Simultaneous Rig and HILS tests can be performed to check that the steering hardware system can perform to the concept of the development vehicle and develop EPS control logic performances. The hardware performance of the steering system might be evaluated based on measured friction and stiffness, taking into account various driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Pre-Validation Method of Steering System by Using Hybrid Simulation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0645
In this study, the preliminary validation method of the steering system is constructed and the objective is to satisfy the target performance in the conceptual design stage for minimizing the problems after the detailed design. The first consideration about steering system is how to extract the reliable steering effort for parking. The tire model commonly used in MBD(Multi-Body Dynamics) has limited ability to represent deformations under heavy loads. Therefore, it is necessary to study adequate tire model to simulate the behavior due to the large deformation and friction between the ground and the tire. The two approaches related with F tire model and mathematical model are used. The second is how to extract each link’s load in the conceptual design stage. Until now, each link’s load could be derived only by actual vehicle test, and a durability analysis was performed using only pre-settled RIG test conditions.
Technical Paper

Appropriate Damping Loss Factor of Vehicle Interior Cavity for Valid Application of Statistical Energy Analysis

2020-09-30
2020-01-1524
It is known that SEA is a rapid and simple methodology for analyzing complex vibroacoustic systems. However, the SEA principle is not always valid and one has to be careful about the physical conditions at which the SEA principle is acceptable. In this study, the appropriate damping loss factor of the vehicle interior cavity is studied in the viewpoint of the modal overlap factor of the cavity and the decay per mean free path (DMFP) of the cavity. Virtual SEA tests are performed with an FE model combination, which is suggested by a previous study of Stelzer et al. for the simulation of the sound transmission loss (STL) of vehicle panel structure. The FE model combination is consisting of the body in white (BIW), an acoustical-excited hemisphere-shaped exterior cavity, and the interior cavity. It is found that the DMFP of the interior cavity is appropriate between 0.5 ~ 1 dB for applying SEA principle.
Technical Paper

Development, System Integration and Experimental Investigation of an Active HVAC Noise Control System for a Passenger Car

2020-09-30
2020-01-1538
Current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and consistent lightweight construction increasingly enable the application of active control systems for the further reduction of noise in vehicles. As different stochastic noise sources such as rolling and wind noise as well as noise radiated by the ventilation system are becoming more noticeable and as passive measures for NVH optimization tend to be heavy and construction-space intensive, current research activities focus on active reduction of noise caused by the latter mentioned sources. This paper illustrates the development, implementation and experimental investigation of an active noise control system integrated into the ventilation duct system of a passenger car.
Technical Paper

Body Cross-sectional Stiffness Criteria for the Optimal Developmet of the BIW Weight and Torsional Stiffness

2021-04-06
2021-01-0797
Body-In-White (BIW) is the essential system of vehicles playing a role in protecting passengers in the crash, enduring the external forces like cornering force and mounting all other sub-systems as a basic frame. The elementary test for BIW is the body stiffness test. Body stiffness is closely related with the full-vehicle performance such as body durability, R&H, etc. There have been many attempts to comprehend the relationship between body stiffness and full-vehicle performance. Especially, the relationship between torsional body stiffness and body durability is a popular theme among them. Generally, it is widely known that the torsional stiffness and body durability is in a linear relationship. There are numerous development examples which verify this relationship, but it seems that this relationship isn't always true. In this paper, the relationship between the body torsional stiffness and body durability is studied.
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