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Development of Hybrid System for Mid-Size Sedan

2011-11-07
The energy crisis and rising gas price in the 2000s led to a growing popularity of hybrid vehicles. Hyundai-Kia Motors has been challenging to develop the new efficient eco-technology since introducing the mild type compact hybrid electric vehicle for domestic fleet in 2004 to meet the needs of the increasing automotive-related environmental issues. Now Hyundai has recently debuted a full HEV for global market, Sonata Hybrid. This system is cost effective solution and developed with the main purpose of improving fuel consumption and providing fun to drive. Presenter Seok Joon Kim, Hyundai Motor Company
Journal Article

Development of Nano Diamond Polymer Coating on Piston Skirt for Fuel Efficiency

2011-04-12
2011-01-1401
Various polymer-based coatings are applied on piston skirt to reduce friction loss between the piston skirt and cylinder bore which is one of main factors of energy loss in an automotive engine system. These coatings generally consist of polymer binder (PAI) and solid lubricants (graphite or MoS₂) for low friction property. On the other hand, the present study found that PTFE as a solid lubricant and nano diamond as hard particles can be used to improve the low friction and wear resistance simultaneously. In the process of producing coating material, diamond particles pulverized to a nano size tend to agglomerate. To prevent this, silane (silicon coupling agent) treatment was applied. The inorganic functional groups of silane are attached to the nano diamond surface, which keep the diamond particles are apart.
Technical Paper

Development of Effective Exhaust Gas Heat Recovery System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1171
The success of improved fuel economy is the proper integration of thermal management components which are appropriately performed to reduce friction and wasted energy. The thermal management systems of vehicle are able to balance the multiple needs such as heating, cooling, or appropriate operation within specified temperature ranges of propulsion systems. Since the propulsion systems of vehicle have changed from a single energy source based on conventional internal combustion engine to hybrid system including more electrical system such as full type of hybrid electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, a new transition associated with vehicle thermal management arises. More efficient thermal management systems are required to improve the fuel economy in the hybrid electric vehicles because of the driving of electric traction motor and the increase of engine off time. The decrease of engine operation time may not sustain the proper temperature ranges of engine and gearbox.
Technical Paper

Hyundai's New Generation 1.8L Gasoline Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0417
Hyundai has developed a new 1.8L gasoline engine replacing the previous engine for new compact/mid-size vehicles. This new engine will be installed on the debut of the new 2011 Hyundai Elantra in the North American market. The new engine has achieved high performance and improved fuel consumption by applying dual continuously variable valve timing and a two step variable induction system, which has enabled both low and mid speed torque as well as high speed power. In addition, reduced noise levels were realized by optimizing lower structure components and induction parts while also focusing on maintaining lighter weight. The engine meets U.S. SULEV and EURO 5 emission regulations. This paper presents an overview of the new 1.8L I4 gasoline engine (Nu Engine) as well as the features of each technology which embodies a well tuned engine with respect to high engine performance, lowered fuel consumption, reduced emissions and reduced NVH.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Dual Loop EGR of a V6 3.0 Liter Diesel Engine for CO2 Reduction

2013-04-08
2013-01-0316
As the markets require a more environmentally friendly and high fuel consumption vehicle, we have to satisfy bilateral target. Though many new after-treatment techniques like LNT, SCR are investigated to meet both strong emission regulations and low fuel consumption, high cost of these techniques should be solved to adopt widely. This paper describes how to optimize the dual loop EGR as a tool to reduce CO₂ emission of a HSDI diesel engine in the passenger car application. Focus is not only on the optimization to obtain the maximum CO₂ reduction but also on how to assess and overcome various side effects. As a result of careful optimization, as much as 6% CO₂ reduction was achieved by introduction of low pressure EGR loop, maintaining the same boundary conditions as those with high pressure EGR loop only.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cabin Air Quality with Fractional Air Recirculation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1494
A fractional recirculation of cabin air was proposed and studied to improve cabin air quality by reducing cabin particle concentrations. Vehicle tests were run with differing number of passengers (1, 2, 3, and 4), four fan speed settings and at 20, 40, and 70 mph. A manual control was installed for the recirculation flap door so different ratios of fresh air to recirculated air could be used. Full recirculation is the most efficient setting in terms of thermal management and particle concentration reduction, but this causes elevated CO₂ levels in the cabin. The study demonstrated cabin CO₂ concentrations could be controlled below a target level of 2000 ppm at various driving conditions and fan speeds with more than 85% of recirculation. The proposed fractional air recirculation method is a simple yet innovative way of improving cabin air quality. Some energy saving is also expected, especially with the air conditioning system.
Technical Paper

Diesel/Gasoline Dual Fuel Powered Combustion System based on Diesel Compression Ignition Triggered Ignition Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-1718
The author's new approach, diesel and gasoline dual fuel powered combustion system based on diesel CI triggered ignition control, provides not only how key ideas extracted from LTC concept could be established in a small bore HSDI turbocharged diesel engine but also which mechanism works to bring almost same benefits as we have experienced in both conventional diesel combustion and LTC based advanced combustion systems like HCCI, PCCI and PPCI combustions. The combustion system presented in the paper physically combines both mixing controlled diesel compression ignition combustion and gasoline premixed charge combustion in one power generation cycle. Gasoline fuel in the system is provided by the conventional gasoline PFI system firstly into the cylinder in which premixed charge spreads out. In compression stroke, the exact amount of diesel fuel is injected into the highly diluted EGR ambient with premixed gasoline charge.
Technical Paper

Impact of Hilly Road Profile on Optimal Energy Management Strategy for FCHEV with Various Battery Sizes

2013-10-14
2013-01-2542
This study investigates how hilly road profiles affect the optimal energy management strategy for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) with various battery sizes. First, a simplified FCHEV model is developed to describe power and energy flows throughout the powertrain and evaluate hydrogen consumption. Then, an optimal control problem is formulated to find the globally optimal energy management strategy of FCHEV over driving cycles with road elevation profile. In order to solve the optimal energy management problem of the FCHEV, Dynamic Programming, a dynamic optimization method, is used, and their results are analyzed to find out how hilly road conditions affect the optimal energy management strategies. The results show that the optimal energy management with a smaller battery tends to actively prepare (e.g. pre-charge/pre-discharge) for uphill/downhill roads in order not to violate the battery state of charge (SoC) bounds.
Technical Paper

A Study for Fuel Economy Improvement on Applying New Technology for Torsional Vibration Reduction of Crank Pulley

2013-10-14
2013-01-2514
The method of Front End Auxiliary Drive (FEAD) system optimization can be divided into two ways. One is to use a mechanical device that decouples crank pulley from torsional vibration of crank shaft by using characteristics of spring. The other is to control belt tension through auto-tensioner in addition of alternator pulley device. Because the former case has more potential to reduce belt tension than the latter case, the development of mechanically decoupled crank pulley, despite of its difficulty of development, is getting popular among the industry. This paper characterizes latest crank pulley technologies, Crank Decoupler and Isolation Pulley, for torsional vibration reduction through functionality measurement result which composed of irregularity, slip, tensioner movement, belt span vibration, bearing hubload of idler and so on. Also it investigates their potential of belt tension reduction through steady state point fuel consumption test on dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Optimal Rear Suspension Design for the Improvement of Ride Comfort and Suspension Noise

2012-04-16
2012-01-0975
The purpose of this paper is to identify and reduce a knocking noise from a rear suspension. First, the characteristics of a knocking noise are analyzed experimentally in the frequency domain. It was found that the knocking noise of a passenger room and vibration at a lower arm, a subframe and a floor are strongly correlated. Second, the knocking noise sensitivity is strongly dependent on suspension dynamics characteristics. Moreover, the improvement of ride comfort and noise was achieved simultaneously based on simulation analysis, principle vehicle testing. A design parameter study shows that the trailing arm bush stiffness, shock absorber bump/rebound damping characteristics, floor stiffness and shock absorber insulator bushing are one of the most sensitive parameter to affect the suspension knocking noise. Finally, this paper shows how the suspension knocking noise and ride comfort can be improved considering handling performance.
Technical Paper

Engine Room Lay-out Study for Fuel Efficiency and Thermal Performance

2012-04-16
2012-01-0639
Systematic numerical simulations were performed for the improvement of fuel efficiency and thermal performance of a compact size passenger vehicle. Both aerodynamic and thermal aspects were considered concurrently. For the sake of systematic evaluation, our study was conducted employing various design changes in multiple steps: 1) analysis of the baseline design; 2) elimination of the engine room components; 3) modification of the engine room component layout; 4) modification of the aerodynamic components (such as under body cover and cooling ducts). The vehicle performance characteristics corresponding to different design options were analyzed in terms of aerodynamic coefficient, engine coolant temperature, and surface temperatures of thermally critical components such as battery and exhaust manifold. Finally optimal design modification solutions for better vehicle performance were proposed.
Technical Paper

High Strength Light-Weight Valve Spring for Automotive Engine to Enhance Fuel Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-0528
High strength oil-tempered wire was developed to apply to light-weight valve spring for automotive engine. By adding Mo, V, B and Ni, tensile strength increased by 20% compared to the conventional oil-tempered wire. Higher tensile strength of wire enabled a constant of valve spring to lower by reducing the size of spring. As a result, reduction of spring constant lowers the load of spring, thereby enhancing fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

A Study of LNT & Urea SCR on DPF System to Meet the Stringent Exhaust Emission Regulation

2014-10-13
2014-01-2810
In diesel engine development, the new technology is coming out to meet the stringent exhaust emission regulation. The regulation demands more eco-friendly vehicles. Euro6c demands to meet not only WLTP mode, but also RDE(Real Driving Emission). In order to satisfy RDE mode, the new technology to reduce emissions should cover all operating areas including High Load & High Speed. It is a big challenge to reduce NOx on the RDE mode and a lot of DeNOx technologies are being developed. So the new DeNOx technology is needed to cover widened operating area and strict acceleration / deacceleration. The existing LNT(Lean NOx Trap) and Urea SCR(Selective Catalytic Reduction) is necessary to meet the typical NEDC or WLTP, but the RDE mode demands the powerful DeNOx technology. Therefore, the LNT & Urea SCR on DPF was developed through this study.
Technical Paper

Energy Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

2015-03-10
2015-01-0019
This paper is concerned with the energy management strategy of hybrid electric vehicle using stochastic dynamic programming. The aim is the control strategy of the power distribution for hybrid electric vehicle powertrains to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining drivability. The fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicle is strongly influenced by power management control strategy. Rule-based control strategy is popular strategy thanks to its effectiveness in real-time implementation, but rule should be designed and efficiency of entire drive trains is not optimized. Dynamic programming, one of optimization-based control strategy presents outstanding performance, but cannot be used as real-time control strategy directly, since its non-causal property and drawback that global optimal solution can only be obtained for specific driving cycle. In this paper, stochastic dynamic programming is applied to parallel hybrid electric vehicle to optimize vehicle performance in average sense.
Technical Paper

Development of Mild Hybrid City Bus with a Single Voltage Source of 28 V

2008-04-14
2008-01-0086
The most popular issues nowadays in the automotive industry include reduction of environmental impacts by emission materials from automobiles as well as improvement of fuel economy. This paper deals with development of a ¡mild-hybrid¡ system for a city bus as an effort to increase fuel economy in a relatively reasonable expense. Three different technical tactics are employed; an engine is shut down at an engine idle state, a vehicle kinetic energy when the bus is decelerated is re-saved to a battery in the form of electricity, and finally the radiator cooling fan is operated by an electric motor using the saved electric energy with an optimal speed control. It has been demonstrated through the driving tests in a specific city mode, ¡Suwon city mode¡, that an average fuel economy is improved more than 12%, and the system can be a feasible choice in a city bus running in a city mode experiencing many stop and go¡s.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Spray-guided Gasoline DI Engine

2007-08-05
2007-01-3531
Adopting the Spray-guided Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) concept, a new multi-cylinder engine has designed. The engine has piezo injectors at the central position of its combustion chamber, while sparkplugs are also at the center. The sparkplug location is designed so that the spark location is at the outer boundary of the fuel spray where the appropriate air-fuel mixture is formed. A few important operating parameters are chosen to investigate their effects on the combustion stability and fuel consumption. The final experimental results show a good potential of the SGDI engine; the fuel consumption rate was much less than that of the base Multi Port Injection (MPI) engine at various engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Control of Automotive PEM Fuel Cell Systems

2007-08-05
2007-01-3491
In order to understand the automotive PEM fuel cell system, mathematical system modeling is conducted and the model is implemented and simulated by using the Matlab®/Simulink®. The components such as fuel cell stack, air supplier, and radiator are modeled individually and integrated into a system level. The PEM fuel cell system operation control includes thermal management, air supply control, hydrogen supply control, fuel cell stack protection control, and load following control. In the thermal management, the inlet and outlet temperature of coolant are controlled to operate the fuel cell stack in desired temperature range and to prevent flooding inside the fuel cell stack. In air supply control and hydrogen supply control, the flow rates of air and hydrogen are controlled not to starve the fuel cell stack according to the output current. A control structure for the system is developed and confirmed by using the developed simulation model.
Technical Paper

Tumble Flow Measurements Using Three Different Methods and its Effects on Fuel Economy and Emissions

2006-10-16
2006-01-3345
In-cylinder flows such as tumble and swirl have an important role on the engine combustion efficiencies and emission formations. In particular, the tumble flow which is dominant in current high performance gasoline engines has an important effect on the fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions under part load conditions. Therefore, it is important to understand the effect of the tumble ratio on the part load performance and optimize the tumble ratio for better fuel economy and exhaust emissions. First step in optimizing a tumble flow is to measure a tumble ratio accurately. In this research the tumble ratio was measured, compared, and correlated using three different measurement methods: steady flow rig, 2-Dimensional PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry), and 3-Dimensional PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry). Engine dynamometer test was also conducted to find out the effect of the tumble ratio on the part load performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Consumption of Passenger Diesel Engine with 2 Stage Turbocharger

2006-04-03
2006-01-0021
High specific power, additional hardware and mapping optimization was done to achieve reduction of fuel economy for current engine in this study. 2 stage turbocharger with serial configuration was best candidate not only for high specific power at high engine speed but also for increase of low end torque for current engine. This increase of low end torque is important for development of transient characteristic of vehicle. DoE and efficient EGR Cooler was applied for optimization of fuel economy. DoE was useful for optimization of fuel consumption affected by various fuel injection parameters. This DoE was also efficient for matching optimal fuel economy after change of engine hardware. Performance improvement of engine with 2 stage turbocharger VGT was evaluated and additional development of fuel economy was performed in this study.
Technical Paper

New “Energy Efficient” Balance Shaft / Oil Pump Module for Hyundai NF

2006-04-03
2006-01-0405
The Balance Shaft/Oil Pump Module for the new Hyundai Sonata NF Inline 4-cylinder engine family combines excellent NVH (noise, vibration and harshness, or “pleasibility”) and power consumption performance with minimized contribution to oil aeration. A two-stage drive ratio step-up and a balance shaft operating shape control strategy help minimize drive system noise emissions. Oil system noise emissions are minimized by dividing work between two gerotor pumps, and by the avoidance of cavitation at high speeds. Oil system performance benefits include high displacement at low speeds without attendant high power consumption or risk of cavitation at high speeds. A jet pump is used to efficiently recycle unused engine oil at high speeds, to both preserve energy and to resist cavitation, by boosting inlet pressure to the low speed flow-supplementing gerotor.
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