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Technical Paper

An Application of Magnesium Alloy to Passenger Air Bag Housing

2000-03-06
2000-01-1115
To achieve a mass goal and minimize the bell mouthing phenomenon of Passenger Air Bag Housing which takes place when the air bag is in explosive action and detrimental to the safety of passenger side because excessive canister bell mouthing may distort and crash the top surface of instrument panel, a study on the replacing process of a PAB housing to a different material and process was performed. The explosive action of current steel PAB housing was firstly analized to evaluate the reaction forces transferred through the PAB and find out the adaptable material for replacing process. Due to the properties among the die casting alloys, the AM60B alloy was chosen for our new material for PAB housing. Then, stress analysis by the finite element method was performed for a design modification of magnesium one piece housing.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Gear Shift Mechanisms by R-R Chart Method

2001-03-05
2001-01-1163
A new point of view in automatic transmission is proposed by R-R chart, which is a new analytic method based on the linearity of planetary gear and gear shift mechanism. The R-R chart is a visual tool to describe the whole motion of each rotational element of planetary gears in relation to the gear shift mechanism. Therefore, anyone can easily find on R-R chart not only the substance of the gear shift mechanisms in present automatic transmissions but also new gear shift mechanisms for the future automatic transmissions. This paper shows that the R-R chart is unique in 4-speed automatic transmissions with fixed compound planetary gear sets. As a result of the R-R chart application, this paper classifies the fixed compound planetary gear sets with 4 elements into 12 sets and the gear shift mechanisms into 3 types. Also, 4 R-R characteristic equations are derived as a correlation between speed ratios in 4-speed automatic transmissions.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Suspension Fundamental Mode Frequency with Extraction of Dynamic Properties of Automotive Shock Absorbers and Tire

2001-03-05
2001-01-0498
The automotive shock absorber has various functions in car performance. Particularly, it is a dominant tuning parameter to get good primary and secondary ride characteristics within 1-35Hz ranges in car development. Thus, understanding of characteristics of shock absorber in this frequency range is indispensable to both test and analysis engineers for an effective and systematic approach. In this study, tire is also investigated from the same point of view. Frequency dependent stiffness and damping coefficient are extracted by discrete sine swept test under constant velocity of 25, 50, 100mm/sec which represent typical road surface conditions[1]. The responses are analyzed on frequency domain and the basic theoretical background for this approach is introduced.
Technical Paper

Hyundai Full Scale Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel

2001-03-05
2001-01-0629
A new Hyundai Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel (HAWT) has been opened in the Nam-yang Technical Center of Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) since August 1999. This wind tunnel has a 3/4 semi-open jet test section and a closed circuit in order to improve aerodynamic and wind noise and thermodynamic characteristics of vehicles. The HMC technical center had started the feasibility study of full-scale wind tunnel in 1995, to improve the aerodynamic characteristics and to meet fuel consumption regulations. The main purpose of this facility is conduct various kinds of tests on customer driving conditions, including aerodynamic and aero-acoustic tests and engine cooling simulations, etc. The technical specification was made on the basis of HMC engineers' experience of their own model scale and full-scale wind tunnels (like MIRA or DNW) during last 10 years.
Technical Paper

The COANDA Flow Control and Newtonian Concept Approach to Achieve Drag Reduction of Passenger Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1267
In order to reduce total drag during aerodynamic optimization process of the passenger vehicle, induced drag should be minimized and pressure drag should be decreased by means of applying streamlined body shape. The reduction of wake area could decrease pressure drag, which was generated by boundary layer separation. The induced drag caused by rear axle lift and C-pillar vortex can be reduced by the employing of trunk lid edge and kick-up or an optimized rear spoiler. When a rear spoiler or kick-up shape was installed on the rear end of a sedan vehicle, drag was reduced but the wake area became larger. This contradiction cannot be explained by simply using Bernoulli’s principle with equal transit or longer path theory. Newtonian explanation with COANDA effect is adopted to explain this phenomenon. The relationships among COANDA effect, down wash, C-pillar vortex, rear axle lift and induced drag are explained.
Technical Paper

The Studies of Crash Characteristics According to Chassis Frame Types

2001-03-05
2001-01-0119
There are various tests for evaluating how well a vehicle protects people in a crash. The frontal and offset crash test is one of the most important tests that evaluate the crashworthiness of a vehicle. In this paper, we will discuss some parameters that have a major effect on the amount and pattern of intrusion into the occupant compartment during the frontal and offset crash test. And the characteristics of impact are described according to the types of chassis frame, T-type frame and #-type frame. The T-frame has worse performance than #-frame in crash, So it is necessary to make stronger dash compartments in T-frame. We will design a vehicle which has optimized body, chassis structure and material selections by controlling major parameters of frontal crash performance.
Technical Paper

A Study of Flow Characteristics Inside the Two Types of Exhaust Manifold and CCC Systems

1999-03-01
1999-01-0457
A study of unsteady compressible flow for two types of exhaust manifold and CCC (Close-Coupled Catalyst) systems attached to a 4-cylinder DOHC gasoline engine was carried out to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases and finally to make the conversion efficiency of catalyst better. An experimental study was conducted, using LDV technique, to measure the velocity distributions inside exhaust manifolds and CCC under practical engine conditions. In this study, through experiment and calculation, the effects of geometric configuration of exhaust manifold on flow maldistribution in monolith were mainly investigated to understand the exhaust flow structure in terms of flow uniformity and to improve the conversion efficiency. As a result of this fundamental study, the modified exhaust manifold (Type B) was designed and manufactured. Full load performance tests and vehicle emission tests were performed to see the effects of flow characteristics on engine performance and emission.
Technical Paper

Improvement on Efficiency of the Composite Sound (TTS) and It’s Application in Vehicle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0257
In the meantime, clarity and naturalness has been used as a standard for the TTS speech synthesis evaluation. However, the standard for speech synthesis evaluation should now be the human-voice and comprehension scale for the further application. This paper introduces subject on quality improvement of the composite sound explaining dB type and it’s gathering procedure, PS-RELP algorithm ending with explanation of various cases how the improved TTS can be applied in vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of Special Heat Treatment to Improve the Bearing Fatigue Life

1999-03-01
1999-01-0289
A new technique of heat treatment is developed for the bearings of automotive transmission and chassis to maximize their service life under contaminated and severe environments. This study demonstrates an improvement of the microstructure of bearing steels by applying special heat treatments. The microstructure is developed by optimizing various heat treating parameters (temperature, cycle time and gas atmosphere, etc.) as well as by modifying the quenching processes (double quenching and press quenching). We obtained a desirable microstructure of dense and fine martensite with optimum levels of retained austenite and compressive residual stress on the subsurface. The size and distribution of carbides and grains are found to be very fine and homogeneous. The endurance test results show that the specimens with new treatment have an excellent fatigue life compared with the conventional bearing samples.
Technical Paper

Development of Finite Element US-SID and Euro-SID Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0160
In contrast to the other types of crash simulation, integrated analysis is needed to perform the side impact simulation, and the acquired injury values are so sensitive that they are difficult to assess by the deformed vehicle structure itself. Therefore, the accurate FE side impact dummy (US-SID, Euro-SID) models are needed to predict the various injury values in side impact simulation. In the past, rigid body model or coarse FE model have been used. The advantage of these models is low computing power, but they have lack of predictability especially in the high-speed crash analysis such as NCAP and car-to-car simulations. The deviations are caused by inaccurate geometry and improper material characteristic expression of the side impact dummy models. In this paper, the development of new side impact dummy models and their applications at full car simulations are introduced. Also, the analyses about injury values are illustrated in side impact simulation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Vehicle Electric Power Simulator for Optimizing the Electric Charging System

2000-03-06
2000-01-0451
The electric power system of a modern vehicle has to supply enough electrical energy to numerous electrical and electronic systems. The electric power system of a vehicle consists of two major components: a generator and a battery. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands, and the driving environment such as road, season, and vehicle weight are required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. In order to avoid the over/under design problem of the electric power system, an easy-to-use and inexpensive simulation program may be needed. In this study, a vehicle electric power simulator is developed. The simulator can be utilized to determine the optimized capacities of generators and batteries appropriately. To improve the flexibility and easy usage of the simulation program, the program is organized in modular structures, and is run on a PC.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fatigue Strength of Automatic Transmission Gear by Developing Controlled Rolled Alloy Steel

2000-03-06
2000-01-0614
The controlled rolling process has been introduced to increase strength and toughness of alloy steels for the application of transmission gear. Cr-Mo alloy steel containing 0.02% Nb was controlled rolled in the temperature range of 870-970°C, showed fine austenite grain size, about ASTM No.11, resulted from the effects of recrystallization and Nb(C,N) precipitation. To investigate the effects of grain refinement on mechanical properties, several tests were conducted for the newly developed controlled rolled steel and conventional Ni-Cr-Mo alloy steel after carburizing. The new steel showed 2.1 times higher pitting resistance than the conventional steel. Fatigue limits of new and conventional steels were 950 and 930 MPa respectively. Charpy impact energy of new steel was improved about 35% compared with the conventional steel. Consequently, the pinion gear from the new steel instead of conventional one showed enhanced performance, especially pitting resistance, in dynamometer test.
Technical Paper

Development Work on HMC'S Natural Gas-Fueled 1.5 L MPI DOHC Engine

1993-11-01
931869
Thii paper describes Hyundai's research and development work on the dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) engine, A conventional light duty gasoline engine, a 1.5 liter four cylinder DOHC, has been modified to run on natural gas (NG) by a gas injection system and engine dynamometer test has been performed with emphasis on optimizations of compression ratio and intake port. Also presented are the results on the exhaust emissions characteristic and the purification performance of three-way catalytic converters developed for NG engine. Fuel composition and THC emissions are analyzed quantitatively using gas chromatography devices.
Technical Paper

Tuning of Suspension Parameters to Improve Dynamic Performance of Passenger Car

1987-11-08
871179
The purpose of this paper is an attempt to make a good compromise between ride and handling without deteriorating each other. Compromise between ride and handling has been a problem for suspension designer. Attempts are made by varing suspension parameters. Effects of each combination has been tested with basic ride and handling test methods. For ride to maintain a constant natural frequency through all load range was a primary target. And for handling to get adequate roll angle at 0.5g lateral acceleration was a target. In conclusion, combination of polyurethane suspension bump and normal rear spring was proved to be able to provide the best compromise, low cost, light weight and better performance. This also showed polyurethane bumper could carry out spring aids successfully.
Technical Paper

A Study of Flame Propagation for Different Combustion Chamber Configurations in an SI Engine

1997-02-24
970876
High speed natural light motion picture records synchronized with head gasket ionization probe and in-cylinder pressure data have been made in the transparent engine of different combustion chamber configurations. For knocking cycles, the head gasket ionization current method simultaneously taken with pressure data was able to find the location of knocking occurrence. To investigate the effects of combustion chamber configurations, the flame propagation experiments for pent-roof combustion chamber with center ignition ( Modified Type I engine ) and modified pent-roof ( Type II engine ) combustion chamber were performed with high speed natural light photography technique. The flame propagation of Modified Type I engine represents more uniform patterns than that of Type II engine. The investigation of knocking combustion was also made possible by observing flame propagation with the measuring techniques that use head gasket ionization probe and in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Influence of Plastic Intake Manifold on the Performance and NVH of In-line 4 Cylinder Gasoline Engine

1998-02-01
980728
The primary purpose of using a plastic material instead of conventional aluminum cast for intake manifold is to reduce its weight and cost. Moreover, the use of plastic for intake manifold is regarded as a key for further development of so called an “intake modular system”. As a secondary effect, the engine power can be increased with the help of improved interior surface roughness and lowered air temperature. With regard to NVH, however, plastic intake manifold is considered somewhat negative since it is less rigid and less dense than aluminum one. In this paper, the mechanism that plastic intake manifold affects the performance and NVH of in-line 4 cylinder gasoline engine is presented. In connection with engine performance, air flow efficiency of not only intake manifold itself but also other components of intake system and also cylinder head is evaluated.
Technical Paper

Developing the Thermoplastic Water Pump and Power Steering Pulley for a Passenger Car

1998-02-01
980736
The thermoplastic automotive pulley has been developed and will be commercialized to high volume production that achieves cost saving and weight reduction over other automotive pulleys in the metal and thermosetting resin by Hyundai Motor Company. Design feature incorporated in this automotive pulley allow it to be manufactured and assembled onto the water pump more efficiently in consequence of design integration with the water pump and power steering pulley. However, the harsh environment and dynamic loads that the thermoplastic pulley has to withstand required extensive CAE analysis and testing of the molded parts and the standard glass reinforced PA was selected for the application to maximize cost savings. The key aspects of the plastic automotive pulley as well as its advantage are presented.
Technical Paper

A Study of Design Methodology to Develop Improved Door System of a Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0616
In the past few years, technological innovations in the automobile industry took vehicle performance to the next level. One such innovation is frame integrated panel door. This type of door helps automobile companies to have the advantages of both conventional panel and frame type doors. Though it has a good number of advantages, there are some drawbacks too. It requires improvements in its quality, NVH performance, weight and etc. Quality of a door is low due to the limitations in structural design and manufacturing technologies. And it is difficult to have a robust structure which leads to degradation of key performing factors such as NVH. For a lightweight vehicle, it is important to design an optimized structure for saving weight, without compromising its performance. In order to overcome these drawbacks a new optimized design structure is required for door system.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Holographic Lighting

2019-04-02
2019-01-0846
A signal lamp performs a function to inform the position and behavior of the vehicle. And it represents a specific design identity of the vehicle or brand identity. Recently it implements the unique three-dimensional effect while using a LED. However, a number of LEDs and complex form of the lens shape have to be applied, so results in the size, weight, cost increase. In this study, the hologram technology that is an exemplary technique for implementing the described three-dimensional image is applied. With a hologram, it is possible to reproduce a complex shape three-dimensional image by using a hologram film. Therefore the number of parts can be reduced. And it is possible to copy the film has a mass production benefits.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Auxiliary Belt Drive System for Actual Fuel Saving

2017-03-28
2017-01-0898
The engine indicated torque is not delivered entirely to the wheels, because it is lowered by losses, such as the pumping, mechanical friction and front auxiliary power consumption. The front auxiliary belt drive system is a big power consumer-fueling and operating the various accessory devices, such as air conditioning compressor, electric alternator, and power steering pump. The standard fuel economy test does not consider the auxiliary driving torque when it is activated during the actual driving condition and it is considered a five-cycle correction factor only. Therefore, research on improving the front end auxiliary drive (FEAD) system is still relevant in the immediate future, particularly regarding the air conditioning compressor and the electric alternator. An exertion to minimize the auxiliary loss is much smaller than the sustained effort required to reduce engine friction loss.
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