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Video

A Framework for Simulation-Based Development and Calibration of VCU-Functions for Advanced PHEV Powertrains

2012-05-23
Due to the integration of many interacting subsystems like hybrid vehicle management, energy management, distance management, etc. into the VCU platform the design steps for function development and calibration become more and more complex. This makes an aid necessary to relieve the development. Therefore, the aim of the proposed simulation-based development and calibration design is to improve the time-and-cost consuming development stages of modern VCU platforms. A simulation-based development framework is shown on a complex function development and calibration case study using an advanced powertrain concept with a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) concept with two electrical axles. Presenter Thomas Boehme, IAV GmbH
Video

Development of a Hybrid Control Strategy for an Advanced Parallel HEV Powertrain with Two Electrical Axles

2012-05-29
This paper proposes a current limits distribution control strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (parallel HEV) which includes an advanced powertrain concept with two electrical driving axles. One of the difficulties of an HEV powertrain with two electrical driving axles is the ability to distribute the electrical current of one high voltage battery appropriately to the two independent electrical motors. Depending on the vehicle driving condition (i.e., car maneuver) or the maximization of the entire efficiency chain of the system, a suitable control strategy is necessary. We propose an input-output feedback linearization strategy to cope with the nonlinear system subject to input constraints. This approach needs an external, state dependent saturation element, which translates the state dependent control input saturation to the new feedback linearizing input and therefore preserves the properties of the differential geometric framework.
Technical Paper

Electronic Data Processing Center for Engine Dynamometers

1966-02-01
660751
The dynamometer evaluation of internal combustion engines has involved a great deal of tedious interpretation and presentation of results. In the past, engine test cells have not been fully utilized, and skilled test engineers have been occupied with routine work, time which could better be spent in actual development work. This paper describes steps taken by Robert Bosch GmbH in its new engine test laboratory, to streamline procedures for observation, computation, plotting, and presentation of results. Measurements from the engine test cell are delivered electrically to a central data processing center. These data are recorded, computed electronically, and plotted on an electric plotting machine functioning from punched paper tape.
Technical Paper

The Fuel Quantity Indicator - A New Measuring Device for Volumetric Evaluation of Individual Fuel Injection Quantities

1966-02-01
660750
The paper describes an instrument developed for the purpose of quantitatively evaluating and registering individual injections in diesel fuel injection systems, and “quantity versus-rack” deliveries by a volumetric measuring method and electronic display or registration. The operating principle and construction of this quantity indicator are explained and the results of pertinent experimental tests are discussed.
Journal Article

Next Generation Engine Start/Stop Systems: “Free-Wheeling”

2011-04-12
2011-01-0712
Engine Start/Stop systems reduce CO₂ emissions by turning off the combustion engine at vehicle standstill. This avoids the injection of fuel that would otherwise be needed simply to overcome internal combustion engine losses. As a next development step, engine losses at higher vehicle speeds are to be addressed. During deceleration, state-of-the-art engine technology turns off fuel injection as soon as the driver releases the gas pedal, thus the combustion engine is motored by the vehicle. The engine's drag torque could be desired by the driver, e.g., as a brake assist during downhill driving. However, quite frequently the driver wishes to coast at almost constant speed. Similar to Start/Stop operation, in such situations fuel is injected to simply overcome the combustion engine's drag torque. An operation mode referred to as "Free-Wheeling" reduces CO₂ emissions under such coasting conditions by disconnecting the combustion engine from the powertrain and by turning it off.
Technical Paper

A Thermodynamic Study on Boosted HCCI: Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0905
Stricter emissions legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with boosted air systems on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising, yet challenging, approach. Naturally aspirated (NA) HCCI has already shown considerable potential in combustion efficiency gains. Nevertheless, since the volumetric efficiency is limited in the NA HCCI operation range due to the hot residuals required to ignite the mixture and slow down reaction kinetics, only part-load operation is feasible in this combustion mode. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified in downsized gasoline engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of controlled, boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow Field / Spray Injection Interaction within a DISI IC Engine Using High-Speed PIV

2011-04-12
2011-01-1288
This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

ISO 26262 Release Just Ahead: Remaining Problems and Proposals for Solutions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1000
The release of ISO 26262 is only about three months after the 2011 World Congress. However, there are still some contentious aspects that can introduce challenges or cause a disproportionate effort. In this paper, we will show how to avoid these problems. ISO 26262 provides a detailed method for classifying the Automotive Safely Integrity Level (ASIL) of in-vehicle electronic systems. However, the ASIL value for a specific function/product can vary significantly across the industry. Applying a lower level than the industry norm can cause substantial liability problems. Applying a higher level can initiate an “arms race” with competitors. This is particularly true if there are no vehicle-related reasons for choosing the higher level or if it doesn't make the product any safer. To encourage international harmonization, this paper will define ASIL classifications for the main automotive components. Most functions/products are currently being developed using parts of existing products.
Technical Paper

Ethernet and IP - The Solution to Master Complexity, Safety and Security in Vehicle Communication Networks?

2011-04-12
2011-01-1042
The development of vehicle communication networks is challenged not only by the increasing demand in data exchange and required data rate but also the need to connect the vehicle to external sources for personal connectivity of driver and car to infrastructure applications. Solutions are required to master complexity of in-vehicle communication networks, e.g. diagnostic access, flashing of Electronic Control Units, the data backbone connecting the vehicle domains and the data transfer of cameras. Safety (data transfer) and security (violation) issues of the communication networks gain more importance especially by introducing interfaces to external sources either via mobile devices or by connecting the vehicle to other external sources, e.g. Internet and Car to Infrastructure applications. The Internet Protocol (IP) appears to be an ideal solution to address these challenges, especially in connection with an Ethernet physical layer for fast data transfer.
Technical Paper

J2716 SENT - Single Edge Nibble Transmission, Updates and Status

2011-04-12
2011-01-1034
The SAE J2716 SENT (Single Edge Nibble Transmission) Protocol has entered production with a number of announced products. The SENT protocol is a point-to-point scheme for transmitting signal values from a sensor to a controller. It is intended to allow for high resolution data transmission with a lower system cost than available serial data solution. The SAE SENT Task Force has developed a number of enhancements and clarifications to the original specification which are summarized in this paper.
Technical Paper

Model Based Engine Speed Evaluation for Single-Cylinder Engine Control

2012-10-23
2012-32-0044
In order to fulfil emission legislation and achieve good drivability of combustion-engine-powered vehicles, information about the air charge and feedback about the engine condition is necessary. In current systems, different sensors are used, e.g. the MAP (manifold air pressure) sensor and a lambda sensor. Aiming at reducing costs, efforts are being made to reduce the number of sensors while still retrieving the necessary information. Various engine speed based functions are state-of-the-art for automotive engines, e.g. for fuel-calibration, misfire-detection etc. Those functions evaluate the engine speed fluctuations during a working cycle induced by combustion. For multiple-cylinder engines, those influences are overlapping, therefore evaluation possibilities are limited. The work presented is based on the effect that at a single-cylinder engine, there is no overlap of combustion influences of various cylinders on the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Knock Control on Small Four-Two-Wheeler Engines

2012-10-23
2012-32-0052
Today, knock control is part of standard automotive engine management systems. The structure-borne noise of the knock sensor signal is evaluated in the electronic control unit (ECU). In case of knocking combustions the ignition angle is first retarded and then subsequently advanced again. The small-sized combustion chamber of small two-wheeler engines, uncritical compression ratios and strong enrichment decrease the knock tendency. Nevertheless, knock control can effectuate higher performance, lower fuel consumption, compliance with lower legally demanded emission limits, and the possibility of using different fuel qualities. The Knock-Intensity-Detector 2 (KID2) and the Bosch knock control tool chain, based on many years of experience gained on automotive engines, provides an efficient calibration method that can also be used for two-wheeler engines. The raw signal of the structure-borne noise is used for signal analysis and simulation of different filter settings.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Fuel Economy for 125cc Motorcycles with Carburetor or Electronic Port Fuel Injection Based on Different Drive Cycles

2012-10-23
2012-32-0067
Based on the fuel consumption analysis methods published on last year's SETC [1], we compared fuel economies of a typical 125cc production motorcycle equipped with either electronic (port) fuel injection (EFI/PFI) engine management system (EMS) or constant vacuum carburetor (Carb). In addition to earlier discussed PFI results, stationary engine map measurements of fuel consumption on an engine dynamometer (dyno) were conducted for the Carb engine. The powerful development tool of fuel consumption test cycle simulation uses these stationary engine dyno results to calculate fuel consumption of real transient vehicle operation. Here it was employed to assess economy of both fuel system configurations under different driving conditions. Besides the Indian Driving Cycle (IDC) and the World Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC), we investigated real world drive patterns typical for emerging markets in terms of a Bangalore urban cycle and a Malaysian suburban cycle.
Technical Paper

Advanced Turbocharger Model for 1D ICE Simulation - Part I

2013-04-08
2013-01-0581
Standard compressor and turbine maps obtained from steady-state test bench measurements are not sufficient for assessing transient turbocharger behavior. This also makes them inappropriate for gauging combustion-engine response and fuel consumption. Nor do they allow for the widely differing operating conditions which, apart from aerodynamics, have a major influence on heat transfer and turbocharger efficiency. This paper looks at a more complex approach of modeling the turbocharger as well developing appropriate measurement methods (“advanced turbocharger model”). This includes non-destructive measurements under various heat transfer conditions to define the turbocharger's adiabatic behavior needed to describe charge-air pressure increase in the compressor and engine exhaust gas backpressure from the turbine for transient engine operation.
Journal Article

A Representative Testing Methodology for System Influence on Automotive Fuel Filtration

2013-04-08
2013-01-0891
Filtration of diesel and gasoline fuel in automotive applications is affected by many external and internal parameters, e.g. vibration, temperature, pressure, flow pulsation, and engine start-stop. Current test procedures for automotive fuel filters, proposed by most of the researchers and organizations including Society for Automotive Engineers (SAE) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), do not apply the previously mentioned real-world-conditions. These operating conditions, which are typical for an automotive fueling system, have a significant effect on fuel filtration and need to be considered for the accurate assessment of the filter. This requires the development of improved testing procedures that will simulate the operating conditions in a fuel system as encountered in the real world.
Technical Paper

Limitations of an Integral Safety Concept in Longitudinal Traffic to Meet Vision Zero

2013-04-08
2013-01-0728
In order to meet the growing requirements on vehicle safety, additional safety systems are usually integrated that then fulfill a certain function. The function only becomes active in the defined use cases, since it could have a negative effect on the vehicle safety in other situations, or the necessity of intervention is not at all recognized. For the implementation of a traffic system without traffic fatalities, it is very difficult to implement this method, since an infinitely large number of situations have to be taken into consideration. In an integral safety concept, the individual safety systems are closely networked and act interdependently with each other. This paper will examine in simple scenarios whether it is possible to ensure accident-free driving such that the so-called Vision Zero can be realized in any case.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Parameters Influencing the Spray-Wall Interaction in a GDI Engine - Prerequisite for the Prediction of Particulate Emissions by Numerical Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1089
Due to the EU6 emission standard that will be mandatory starting in September 2014 the particulate emissions of GDI engines come into the focus of development. For this reason, soot and the mechanisms responsible for the soot formation are of particular importance. A very significant source of particulate emissions from engines with gasoline direct injection is the wall film formation. Therefore, the analysis of soot emission sources in the CFD calculation requires a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain, with special emphasis on the spray-wall interaction and the wall film dynamics. The validation of the mentioned spray-wall interaction and wall film models is performed using basic experimental investigations, like the infrared-thermography and fluorescence based measurements conducted at the University of Magdeburg.
Technical Paper

Challenge Determining a Combustion System Concept for Downsized SI-engines - Comparison and Evaluation of Several Options for a Boosted 2-cylinder SI-engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1730
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance in the SI engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so new challenges arise concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor GmbH and Robert Bosch GmbH. The design process was described in detail in last year's paper SAE 2012-01-0832. Since the engine design is very modular it allows for several different engine layouts which can be examined and evaluated.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Fuel Impingement and Spray-Cooling on the Piston of a GDI Engine via Instantaneous Surface Temperature Measurements

2014-04-01
2014-01-1447
In order to comply with more and more stringent emission standards, like EU6 which will be mandatory starting in September 2014, GDI engines have to be further optimized particularly in regard of PN emissions. It is generally accepted that the deposition of liquid fuel wall films in the combustion chamber is a significant source of particulate formation in GDI engines. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction [1]. In order to quantify this temperature drop at combustion chamber surfaces, surface temperature measurements on the piston of a single-cylinder engine were conducted. Therefore, eight fast-response thermocouples were embedded 0.3 μm beneath the piston surface and the signals were transmitted from the moving piston to the data acquisition system via telemetry.
Journal Article

Gasoline Wall Films and Spray/Wall Interaction Analyzed by Infrared Thermography

2014-04-01
2014-01-1446
Due to the principle of direct injection, which is applied in modern homogeneously operated gasoline engines, there are various operation points with significant particulate emissions. The spray droplets contact the piston surface during the warm-up and early injections, in particular. The fuel wall films and the resulting delayed evaporation of the liquid fuel is one of the main sources of soot particles. It is therefore necessary to carry out investigations into the formation of wall film. The influence of the spray impact angle is of special interest, as this is a major difference between engines with side-mounted injectors and centrally positioned injectors. This paper describes an infrared thermography-based method, which we used to carry out a systematic study of fuel deposits on the walls of the combustion chamber. The boundary conditions of the test section were close to those of real GDI engines operated with homogeneous charge.
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