Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Improving Emissions, Noise and Fuel Economy Trade-Off by using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) Mode

2010-10-25
2010-01-2162
Latest emissions standards impose very low NOx and particle emissions that have led to new Diesel combustion operating conditions, such as low temperature combustion (LTC). The principle of LTC is based on enhancing air fuel mixing and reducing combustion temperature, reducing raw nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particle emissions. However, new difficulties have arisen. LTC is typically achieved through high dilution rates and low CR, resulting in increased auto-ignition delay that produces significant noise and deteriorates the combustion phasing. At the same time, lower combustion temperature and reduced oxygen concentration increases hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon oxide (CO) emissions, which can be problematic at low load. Therefore, if LTC is a promising solution to meet future emission regulations, it imposes a new emissions, fuel consumption and noise trade-off. For this, the injection strategy is the most direct mean of controlling the heat release profile and fuel air mixture.
Journal Article

Towards an Innovative Combination of Natural Gas and Liquid Fuel Injection in Spark Ignition Engines

2010-05-05
2010-01-1513
In order to address the CO₂ emissions issue and to diversify the energy for transportation, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels given its high octane number. However, gaseous injection decreases volumetric efficiency, impacting directly the maximal torque through a reduction of the cylinder fill-up. To overcome this drawback, both independent natural gas and gasoline indirect injection systems with dedicated engine control were fitted on a RENAULT 2.0L turbocharged SI (Spark Ignition) engine and were adapted for simultaneous operation. The main objective of this innovative combination of gas and liquid fuel injections is to increase the volumetric efficiency without losing the high knocking resistance of methane.
Journal Article

Increasing Power Density in HSDI Engines as an Approach for Engine Downsizing

2010-05-05
2010-01-1472
In the context of CO₂ emission regulations and increase of energy prices, the downsizing of engine displacement is a widely discussed solution that allows a reduction of fuel consumption. However, high power density is required in order to maintain the power output and a good driveability. This study demonstrates the potential to strongly increase the specific power of High Speed Diesel Injection (HSDI) diesel engines. It includes the technological requirements to achieve high specific power and the optimal combination of engine settings to maximize specific power. The results are based on experimental work performed with a prototype single-cylinder engine (compression ratio of 14). Tests were conducted at full load, 4000 rpm. Part load requirements are also taken into account in the engine definition to be compatible with the targets of new emission standards.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Benefits of Dual Cam Phasers, Lean Mixture and EGR on the Operating Range and Fuel Economy of a PFI NVO CAI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0844
Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark-ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This combustion concept is based on the auto-ignition of an air-fuel-mixture highly diluted with hot burnt gases to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. To minimize the costs of conversion of a standard spark-ignition engine into a CAI engine, the present study is restricted to a Port Fuel Injection engine with a cam-profile switching system and a cam phaser on both intake and exhaust sides. In a 4-stroke engine, a large amount of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder via early closure of the exhaust valves. This so-called Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) strategy has a key parameter to control the amount of trapped burnt gases and consequently the combustion: the exhaust valve-lift profile.
Technical Paper

Development of a Flex Fuel Vehicle: Impact on Powertrain's Design and Calibration

2010-10-25
2010-01-2087
The benefits of running on ethanol-blended fuels are well known, especially global CO₂ reduction and performances increase. But using ethanol as a fuel is not drawbacks free. Cold start ability and vehicle autonomy are appreciably reduced. These two drawbacks have been tackled recently by IFP and its partners VALEO and Cristal Union. This article will focus on the second one, as IFP had the responsibility to design the powertrain of a fully flex-fuel vehicle (from 0 to 100% of ethanol) with two main targets: reduce the fuel consumption of the vehicle and maintain (at least) the vehicle performances. Using a MPI scavenging in-house concept together with turbocharging, as well as choosing the appropriate compression ratio, IFP managed to reach the goals.
Technical Paper

Matching and Evaluating Methods for Euro 6 and Efficient Two-stage Turbocharging Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1229
While fuel efficiency has to be improved, future Diesel engine emission standards will further restrict vehicle emissions, particularly of nitrogen oxides. Increased in-cylinder filling is recognized as a key factor in addressing this issue, which calls for advanced design of air and exhaust gas recirculation circuits and high cooling capabilities. As one possible solution, this paper presents a 2-stage boosting breathing architecture, specially dedicated to improving the trade-off between emissions and fuel consumption instead of seeking to improve specific power on a large family vehicle equipped with a 1.6-liter Diesel engine. In order to do it, turbocharger matching was specifically optimized to minimize engine-out NOx emissions at part-load and consumption under common driving conditions. Engine speed and load were analyzed on the European driving cycle. The key operating points and associated upper boundary for NOx emission were identified.
Technical Paper

Modelling of a Turbocharged SI Engine with Variable Camshaft Timing for Engine Control Purposes

2006-10-16
2006-01-3264
In the whole engine development process, 0D/1D simulation has become a powerful tool, from conception to final calibration. Within the context of control strategy design, a turbocharged spark ignition (SI) engine with variable camshaft timing has been modelled on the AMESim platform. This paper presents the different models and the methodology used to design, calibrate and validate the simulator. The validated engine model is then used for engine control purposes related to downsizing concept. Indeed, the presented control strategy acts on the in-cylinder trapped mass, the in-cylinder burnt gas fraction and the air scavenging from the intake to the exhaust. Consequently, it permits to reduce not only the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions but also to improve the transient response of the turbocharger
Technical Paper

Development of Highly Premixed Combustion Diesel Model: From Simulation to Control Design

2006-04-03
2006-01-1072
In the context of increasingly stringent pollution norms, reduced engine emissions are a great challenge for compressed ignition engines. After-treatment solutions are expensive and very complex to implement, while the NOx/PM trade-off is difficult to optimise for conventional Diesel engines. Therefore, in-cylinder pollutant production limitation by the HPC combustion mode (Highly Premixed Combustion) - including Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) - represents one of the most promising ways for new generation of CI engine. For this combustion technology, control based on torque estimation is crucial: the objectives are to accurately control the cylinder-individual fuel injected mass and to adapt the fuel injection parameters to the in-cylinder conditions (fresh air and burned gas masses and temperature).
Technical Paper

A Simulation Tool for Vehicle Emissions, Consumption and Performance Analysis - Applications to DPF Modeling and DID Turbocharged Engine Control Design

2006-09-14
2006-01-3004
Facing the stringent constraints on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, the automotive manufacturers have to produce vehicles with an increasing number of complex systems working together. Numerical simulation for the system design, set-up and control strategies, helps to reduce the development cycle and the global cost. Existing simulation tools usually do not address, with a high level of details, the various physical domains involved in a vehicle powertrain. To overcome this challenge, IFP and IMAGINE, settled a partnership to develop detailed simulation tools dedicated to performance, consumption and emissions for conventional and hybrid vehicles [1]. These tools are integrated in a multi-domain simulation platform (AMESim®) where several levels of detail can be easily reached for each sub-element.
Technical Paper

Ethanol as a Diesel Base Fuel: Managing the Flash Point Issue - Consequences on Engine Behavior

2009-06-15
2009-01-1807
Facing more and more stringent regulations, new solutions are developed to decrease pollutant emissions. One of them have shown promising and relevant results. It consists of the use of ethanol as a blending component for diesel fuel Nevertheless, the addition of ethanol to Diesel fuel affects some key properties such as the flash point. Consequently, Diesel blends containing ethanol become highly flammable at a temperature around ambient temperature. This study proposes to improve the formulation of ethanol based diesel fuel in order to avoid flash point drawbacks. First, a focus on physical and chemical properties is done for ethanol based diesel fuels with and without flash point improvement. Second, blends are tested on a passenger car diesel engine, under a wide operating range conditions from low load low speed up to maximum power. The main advantage of the ethanol based fuels generate low smoke level, that allows using higher EGR rate, thus leading to an important NOx decrease.
Journal Article

Advanced Injection Strategies for Controlling Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion and Emissions

2009-06-15
2009-01-1962
The simultaneous reduction of engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate emissions via low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for compression-ignition engines is generally achieved via the use of high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR rates not only result in a drastic reduction of combustion temperatures to mitigate thermal NOx formation but also increases the level of pre-mixing thereby limiting particulate (soot) formation. However, highly pre-mixed combustion strategies such as LTC are usually limited at higher loads by excessively high heat release rates leading to unacceptable levels of combustion noise and particulate emissions. Further increasing the level of charge dilution (via EGR) can help to reduce combustion noise but maximum EGR rates are ultimately restricted by turbocharger and EGR path technologies.
Journal Article

Cold Operation with Optical and Numerical Investigations on a Low Compression Ratio Diesel Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2714
With a high thermal efficiency and low CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions, Diesel engines become leader of transport market. However, the exhaust-gas legislation evolution leads to a drastic reduction of NOx (nitrogen oxide) standards with very low particulate, HC (unburned hydrocarbons) and CO (carbon monoxide) emissions, while combustion noise and fuel consumption must be kept under control. The reduction of the volumetric compression ratio (CR) is a key factor to reach this challenge, but it is today limited by the capabilities to provide acceptable performances during very cold operation: start and idle below −10°C. This paper focuses on the understanding of the main parameter’s impacts on cold operation. Effects of parameters like hardware configuration and calibration optimization are investigated on a real 4 cylinder Diesel 14:1 CR engine, with a combination of specific advanced tools.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Urea-SCR Process Applied to Lean-burn SI Engines

2009-11-02
2009-01-2776
Lean-burn combustion in SI engines can significantly reduce fuel consumption but NOx reduction becomes challenging because classic three-way catalyst (TWC) is no more efficient. Urea-SCR is then an interesting alternative solution because of its high NOx conversion efficiency without any additional fuel consumption. The coupling between two SI lean-burn engines (stratified and homogeneous combustion) and a urea-SCR catalyst was simulated on the NEDC cycle. Simulation results showed that the SCR efficiency would comply with the limits required by future Euro 5/6 regulations. Associated urea solution consumptions were estimated thanks to a simplified model. Finally, a comparison with a Diesel application was also made. It showed that the required amount of reducing agent remained significantly higher for SI lean-burn engines than for Diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Study of the Correlation Between Mixing and Auto-Ignition Processes in High Pressure Diesel Jets

2007-04-16
2007-01-0650
A tracer laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for the visualisation of fuel distribution in the presence of oxygen was developed and then used sequentially with high speed chemiluminescence imaging to study the correlation between the mixing and auto-ignition processes of high pressure Diesel jets. A single hole common rail Diesel injector allowing high injection pressures up to 150MPa was used. The reacting fuel spray was observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a Diesel engine during injection. Both free jet and flat wall impinging jet configurations were studied. Several tracers were first considered with the objective of developing a tracer-LIF technique in the presence of oxygen. 5-nonanone was selected for its higher fluorescence efficiency.
Technical Paper

Ethanol as a Diesel Base Fuel - Potential in HCCI Mode

2008-10-06
2008-01-2506
This work studies the potential of ethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel fuel blends in both conventional Diesel and HCCI combustion modes. First, ethanol based fuels were tested on a modern commercial multi-cylinder DI diesel engine. The aim of this phase was to assess how such fuels affect Diesel engine performances and emissions. These results indicate that low levels of PM and NOx emissions, with a contained fuel consumption penalty and with an acceptable noise level, are achievable when the Diesel-ethanol blends are used in combination with an optimized combustion control. Moreover, experiments with ethanol based blends were performed using a single cylinder engine, running under both early injection HCCI and Diesel combustion modes. Compared to a conventional fuel, these blends allow increasing the HCCI operating range and also lead to higher maximum power output in conventional Diesel combustion.
Journal Article

Reduction of the Compression Ratio on a HSDI Diesel Engine: Combustion Design Evolution for Compliance the Future Emission Standards

2008-04-14
2008-01-0839
Environment protection issues regarding CO2 emissions as well as customers requirements for fun-to-drive and fuel economy explain the strong increase of Diesel engine on European market share in all passenger car segments. To comply future purposes of emission regulations, particularly dramatic decrease in NOx emissions, technology need to keep upgrading; the reduction of the volumetric compression ratio (VCR) is one of the most promising research ways to allow a simultaneous increase in power at full load and NOx / PM trade-off improvement at part load. This study describes the combustion effects of the reduction of compression ratio and quantifies improvements obtained at full load and part load running conditions on a HSDI Common Rail engine out performance (power, fuel consumption, emissions and noise). Potential and limitations of a reduced compression ratio from 18:1 to 14:1 are underlined.
Journal Article

System Approach for Compliance with Full Load Targets on a Wall Guided Diesel Combustion System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0840
Low temperature combustion concept as HCCI is one of the most promising research ways to comply future emission regulations of Diesel passenger vehicles. IFP promoted this concept with NADI™ (Narrow Angle Direct Injection) combustion design whose original approach lies on a fuel spray guided by the bowl central tip to the re-entrant. For full load operating range, one of the key issue for success is to use as much as possible available air in the combustion chamber in order to reach low value of air fuel ratio, and therefore high value of specific power and specific torque. In this study, engine tests on a single cylinder engine with NADI™ concept are performed at full load; 3-D calculations as well as air/fuel mixing process visualizations in a constant volume vessel with optical access allowed to establish criteria for helping future combustion system design for full load operation.
Journal Article

Influence of the Local Mixture Characteristics on the Combustion Process in a CAI™ Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1671
Among the existing concepts to help improve the efficiency of spark ignition engines on low load operating points, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions at part load without major modifications of the engine design. The CAI™ concept is founded on the auto-ignition of a highly diluted gasoline-based mixture in order to reach high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through a low temperature combustion. Previous research works have demonstrated that the valve strategy is an efficient way to control the CAI™ combustion mode. Not only the valve strategy has an impact on the amount of trapped burnt gases and their temperature, but also different valve strategies can lead to equivalent mean in-cylinder conditions but clearly differentiated combustion timing or location. This is thought to be the consequence of local mixture variations acting in turn on the chemical kinetics.
Journal Article

Cold Start on Diesel Engine: Is Low Compression Ratio Compatible with Cold Start Requirements?

2008-04-14
2008-01-1310
Future emission standards for Diesel engine will require a drastic reduction of engine-out NOx emissions with very low level of particulate matter (PM), HC and CO, and keeping under control fuel consumption and combustion noise. One of the most promising way to reach this challenge is to reduce compression ratio (CR). A stringent limitation of reducing Diesel CR is currently cold start requirements. Indeed, reduction of ambient temperature leads to penalties in fuel vaporization and auto ignition capabilities, even more at very low temperature (-20°C and below). In this paper, we present the work operated on an HSDI Common rail Diesel 4-cyl engine in three area: engine tests till very low temperature (down to -25°C); in cylinder imaging (videoscope) and CFD code development for cold start operation. First, combustion chamber is adapted in order to reach low compression ratio (CR 13.7:1).
Technical Paper

Potential to Improve Specific Power Using Very High Injection Pressure In HSDI Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1524
Engine downsizing is one of the most promising engine solutions to improve efficiency, but requires higher specific performance because of a lower engine displacement. The study is based on experimental work performed with an IFP prototype single cylinder engine, representative of passenger car applications. This engine enables very high specific power, with a high level of thermal and mechanical constraints. Tests were carried out on both full load and part load operation with a prototype common rail equipment capable of very high fuel pressure (up to 250 MPa). Results show that increasing fuel flow rate using fuel injection pressure instead of increasing nozzle hole diameter is more advantageous at full load, mainly because a lower nozzle hole diameter improves air entrainment. Benefits observed with increased injection pressure are enhanced when associated with upgraded engine thermo-mechanical limits, and advanced turbo charging system.
X