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Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Mean-Value Model of a Fuel-Flexible Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0937
Among the last years, environmental concerns have raised the interest for biofuels. Ethanol, blended with gasoline seems particularly suited for the operation of internal combustion engines, and has been in use for severals years in some countries. However, it has a strong impact on engine performance, which is emphasized on recent engine architectures, with downsizing through turbocharging and variable valve actuation. Taking all the benefits of ethanol-blended fuel thus requires an adaptation of the engine management system. This paper intends to assess the effect of gasoline-ethanol blending from this point of view, then to describe a mean-value model of a fuel-flexible turbocharged PFI-SI engine, which will serve as a basis for the development of control algorithms. The focus will be in this paper on ethanol content estimation in the blend, supported by both simulation and experimental results.
Journal Article

Towards an Innovative Combination of Natural Gas and Liquid Fuel Injection in Spark Ignition Engines

2010-05-05
2010-01-1513
In order to address the CO₂ emissions issue and to diversify the energy for transportation, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels given its high octane number. However, gaseous injection decreases volumetric efficiency, impacting directly the maximal torque through a reduction of the cylinder fill-up. To overcome this drawback, both independent natural gas and gasoline indirect injection systems with dedicated engine control were fitted on a RENAULT 2.0L turbocharged SI (Spark Ignition) engine and were adapted for simultaneous operation. The main objective of this innovative combination of gas and liquid fuel injections is to increase the volumetric efficiency without losing the high knocking resistance of methane.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Benefits of Dual Cam Phasers, Lean Mixture and EGR on the Operating Range and Fuel Economy of a PFI NVO CAI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0844
Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark-ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This combustion concept is based on the auto-ignition of an air-fuel-mixture highly diluted with hot burnt gases to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. To minimize the costs of conversion of a standard spark-ignition engine into a CAI engine, the present study is restricted to a Port Fuel Injection engine with a cam-profile switching system and a cam phaser on both intake and exhaust sides. In a 4-stroke engine, a large amount of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder via early closure of the exhaust valves. This so-called Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) strategy has a key parameter to control the amount of trapped burnt gases and consequently the combustion: the exhaust valve-lift profile.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Laminar Flame Speed of Natural Gas and Gasoline Surrogates

2010-04-12
2010-01-0546
An unified model with a single set of kinetic parameters has been proposed for modeling laminar flame velocities of several alkanes using detailed kinetic mechanisms automatically generated by the EXGAS software. The validations were based on recent data of the literature. The studied compounds are methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, iso-octane, and two mixtures for natural gas and surrogate gasoline fuel. Investigated conditions are the following: unburned gases temperature was varied from 300 to 600 K, pressures from 0.5 to 25 bar, and equivalence ratios range from 0.4 to 2. For the overall studied compounds, the agreement between measured and predicted laminar burning velocities is quite good.
Technical Paper

Sulfated and Desulfated Lean NOx-trap Characterization for Optimized Management Strategy in Gasoline Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-1068
Within the framework of the French research program PREDIT, a study was undertaken by ADEME, IFP, LGRE, PSA Peugeot Citroën and Umicore, whose main objective was a better understanding of the NOx storage and reduction phenomena on an aged, sulfated and desulfated NOx-trap. The target of this work was to use the information on catalyst working conditions to optimize catalyst management for a gasoline direct injection engine. The catalysts were characterized on both engine and synthetic gas benches. Aging and poisoning phenomena were studied and a variety of different chemical analytical tools were used. The behavior of two different thermally aged cores was investigated under rich conditions on a synthetic gas test bench. The dependence of the NOx regeneration efficiency of the traps is reported for several operating parameters, including reductant concentrations, durations of the rich pulse and trap loadings.
Technical Paper

Development of Highly Premixed Combustion Diesel Model: From Simulation to Control Design

2006-04-03
2006-01-1072
In the context of increasingly stringent pollution norms, reduced engine emissions are a great challenge for compressed ignition engines. After-treatment solutions are expensive and very complex to implement, while the NOx/PM trade-off is difficult to optimise for conventional Diesel engines. Therefore, in-cylinder pollutant production limitation by the HPC combustion mode (Highly Premixed Combustion) - including Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) - represents one of the most promising ways for new generation of CI engine. For this combustion technology, control based on torque estimation is crucial: the objectives are to accurately control the cylinder-individual fuel injected mass and to adapt the fuel injection parameters to the in-cylinder conditions (fresh air and burned gas masses and temperature).
Journal Article

Advanced Injection Strategies for Controlling Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion and Emissions

2009-06-15
2009-01-1962
The simultaneous reduction of engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate emissions via low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for compression-ignition engines is generally achieved via the use of high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR rates not only result in a drastic reduction of combustion temperatures to mitigate thermal NOx formation but also increases the level of pre-mixing thereby limiting particulate (soot) formation. However, highly pre-mixed combustion strategies such as LTC are usually limited at higher loads by excessively high heat release rates leading to unacceptable levels of combustion noise and particulate emissions. Further increasing the level of charge dilution (via EGR) can help to reduce combustion noise but maximum EGR rates are ultimately restricted by turbocharger and EGR path technologies.
Technical Paper

Study of the Correlation Between Mixing and Auto-Ignition Processes in High Pressure Diesel Jets

2007-04-16
2007-01-0650
A tracer laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for the visualisation of fuel distribution in the presence of oxygen was developed and then used sequentially with high speed chemiluminescence imaging to study the correlation between the mixing and auto-ignition processes of high pressure Diesel jets. A single hole common rail Diesel injector allowing high injection pressures up to 150MPa was used. The reacting fuel spray was observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a Diesel engine during injection. Both free jet and flat wall impinging jet configurations were studied. Several tracers were first considered with the objective of developing a tracer-LIF technique in the presence of oxygen. 5-nonanone was selected for its higher fluorescence efficiency.
Journal Article

System Approach for Compliance with Full Load Targets on a Wall Guided Diesel Combustion System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0840
Low temperature combustion concept as HCCI is one of the most promising research ways to comply future emission regulations of Diesel passenger vehicles. IFP promoted this concept with NADI™ (Narrow Angle Direct Injection) combustion design whose original approach lies on a fuel spray guided by the bowl central tip to the re-entrant. For full load operating range, one of the key issue for success is to use as much as possible available air in the combustion chamber in order to reach low value of air fuel ratio, and therefore high value of specific power and specific torque. In this study, engine tests on a single cylinder engine with NADI™ concept are performed at full load; 3-D calculations as well as air/fuel mixing process visualizations in a constant volume vessel with optical access allowed to establish criteria for helping future combustion system design for full load operation.
Technical Paper

Potential to Improve Specific Power Using Very High Injection Pressure In HSDI Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1524
Engine downsizing is one of the most promising engine solutions to improve efficiency, but requires higher specific performance because of a lower engine displacement. The study is based on experimental work performed with an IFP prototype single cylinder engine, representative of passenger car applications. This engine enables very high specific power, with a high level of thermal and mechanical constraints. Tests were carried out on both full load and part load operation with a prototype common rail equipment capable of very high fuel pressure (up to 250 MPa). Results show that increasing fuel flow rate using fuel injection pressure instead of increasing nozzle hole diameter is more advantageous at full load, mainly because a lower nozzle hole diameter improves air entrainment. Benefits observed with increased injection pressure are enhanced when associated with upgraded engine thermo-mechanical limits, and advanced turbo charging system.
Journal Article

Impact of Fuel Properties on the Performances and Knock Behaviour of a Downsized Turbocharged DI SI Engine - Focus on Octane Numbers and Latent Heat of Vaporization

2009-04-20
2009-01-0324
Facing the CO2 emission reduction challenge, the combination of downsizing and turbocharging appears as one of the most promising solution for the development of high efficiency gasoline engines. In this context, as knock resistance is a major issue, limiting the performances of turbocharged downsized gasoline engines, fuel properties are more than ever key parameters to achieve high performances and low fuel consumption's levels. This paper presents a combustion study carried out into the GSM consortium of fuel quality effects on the performances of a downsized turbocharged Direct Injection SI engine. The formulation of two adapted fuel matrix has allowed to separate and evaluate the impacts of three major fuel properties: Research Octane Number (RON), Motor Octane Number (MON) and Latent Heat of Vaporization (LHV). Engine tests were performed on a single cylinder engine at steady state operating condition.
Technical Paper

Generating Thermal Conditions to Regenerate a DPF: Impact of the Reductant on the Performances of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2009-04-20
2009-01-1085
The influence of the type of fuel and the feeding means to a DOC, in order to regenerate a DPF, was investigated. Diesel fuel in cylinder late post-injection was compared to the injection in the exhaust line, through an exhaust port injector, of diesel fuel, B10 (diesel fuel containing 10% of esters) and gasoline. Diesel fuel exhaust injection resulted in a deteriorated conversion efficiency, while the incorporation of esters to the diesel fuel was demonstrated to have no influence. Gasoline exhaust injection led to less HC slip than diesel fuels. Temperature dynamics resulting from injection steps showed taught that the shorter the hydrocarbons (within the tested fuels), the slower the response. These differences can be caught by simple models, leading to interesting opportunities for the model-based control of the DPF inlet temperature during active regenerations.
Technical Paper

Which Fuel Properties for Improved CAI Combustion? Study of Fuel Impacts on the Operating Range of a CAI PFI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1100
This paper presents the major results of an International Consortium study carried out by IFP and focused on the evaluation of fuel impacts on Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) combustion. The formulation and tests of two adapted fuel matrix have allowed identifying and evaluating the main fuel properties that can improve CAI combustion for a maximum enlargement of the CAI operating range. CAI combustion mode appears as one promising solution for the development of low CO2 gasoline engines. Fuel properties can then be key parameters to improve the performances of CAI engines. During a first step of the study, steady state tests have been performed on a single cylinder Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition (PFI SI) engine, with real fuels.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation and Combustion via LIEF and LIF of Combustion Radicals in a Direct-Injection, HCCI Diesel Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2945
The influence of piston geometry on the in-cylinder mixture distribution and combustion process in an optically-accessible, direct injection HCCI Diesel engine has been investigated. A new, purpose-designed piston which allows optical access directly into the combustion chamber bowl permitted the application of a number of optical diagnostic techniques. Firstly, laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) has been applied in order to characterize the fuel spray and vapor development within the piston bowl. Subsequently a detailed study of the auto-ignition and two-stage Diesel HCCI combustion process has been conducted by a combination of direct chemiluminescence imaging, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of the intermediate species formaldehyde (CH2O) which is present during the cool flame and LIF of the OH radical later present in the reaction and burned gas zones at higher temperature.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Injection and Spray Combustion in a Cell with Conditions Typical of Direct Injection Engines

2003-10-27
2003-01-3108
Penetration and combustion of fuel sprays is studied in conditions similar to gasoline direct injection engines. A closed pressurized and heated injection cell is used. It is equipped with quartz windows providing large optical accesses. A homogeneous flammable mixture is introduced in the cell and ignited to raise the internal pressure and temperature. Liquid fuel is injected at the time when the desired thermodynamic conditions are reached. Conditions representative of late injection in a direct-injection engine are selected. Gasoline spray ignition and combustion is provided by a spark plug with long electrodes, locating the electrode gap right in the middle of the spray. The combustion does not reach the wall, which makes this experiment interesting for the validation of combustion in CFD codes. Two pressure swirl injectors with spray angles of 60 and 90 degree are used. The fuel is iso-octane with 5% 3-pentanone as tracer.
Technical Paper

Formulation of a One-Component Fuel Lumping Model to Assess the Effects of Fuel Thermodynamic Properties on Internal Combustion Engine Mixture Preparation and Combustion

2004-06-08
2004-01-1996
A lumping model has been formulated to calculate the thermodynamic properties required for internal combustion engine multidimensional computations, including saturation pressure, latent heat of vaporization, liquid density, surface tension, viscosity, etc. This model consists firstly in reducing the analytical data to a single (i.e. pure) pseudo-component characterized by its molecular weight, critical pressure and temperature, and acentric factor. For a gasoline fuel, the required analytical data are those provided by gas chromatography. For a Diesel fuel, the required data are a true boiling point (TBP) distillation curve and the fuel density at a single temperature. This model provides a valuable tool for studying the effects of fuel physical properties upon the behavior of a vaporizing spray in a chamber, as well as upon direct injection gasoline and Diesel engines using the multidimensional (3D) KMB code.
Technical Paper

Port Fuel Injection and Combustion Simulation of a Racing Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1845
The short time available for injection and mixing in high-speed engines requires an accurate modeling of the fuel related processes to obtain a valuable in-cylinder charge description, and then a good combustion performance prediction. An advanced version of the KMB code of IFP has been used to compute a racing engine. It includes a fitted on experiments spray model, a comprehensive wall-film model, the AKTIM ignition and ECFM combustion models. A major difficulty was the necessity to compute numerous cycles before reaching a cycle-independent solution. A procedure has been defined to minimize calculation time. Another difficulty was the high concentration of liquid in some zones, which requested a careful meshing. Effects such as the influence of the strong acoustic waves on the spray dynamic, the wall wetting effects on the engine time response, injector position on fuel distribution in the cylinder, charge homogeneity on the combustion process have been investigated.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Knock Model in Spark Ignition Engines Using a CFD code

2002-10-21
2002-01-2701
Currently, the development of higher specific output and higher efficiency S.I. engines requires better control and knowledge of knock mechanisms. As it is not easily possible to instrument an engine to determine the beginning of fuel auto-ignition, knock modeling by means of 3D CFD simulation, can be a powerful tool to understand and try to avoid this phenomenon [1, 2, 3]. The objectives of the work described in this paper are to develop and validate a simple model of auto-ignition. This model, developed at IFP, is implemented in the 3D CFD code KMB [4, 5]. It is based on an AnB model [6, 7] which creates a ‘precursor’ species transported with the flow in the combustion chamber. When its concentration reaches a limiting value, the auto-ignition phenomenon occurs.
Technical Paper

The Air Assisted Direct Injection ELEVATE Automotive Engine Combustion System

2000-06-19
2000-01-1899
The purpose of the ELEVATE (European Low Emission V4 Automotive Two-stroke Engine) industrial research project is to develop a small, compact, light weight, high torque and highly efficient clean gasoline 2-stroke engine of 120 kW which could industrially replace the relatively big existing automotive spark ignition or diesel 4-stroke engine used in the top of the mid size or in the large size vehicles, including the minivan vehicles used for multi people and family transportation. This new gasoline direct injection engine concept is based on the combined implementation on a 4-stroke bottom end of several 2-stroke engine innovative technologies such as the IAPAC compressed air assisted direct fuel injection, the CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) combustion process, the D2SC (Dual Delivery Screw SuperCharger) for both low pressure engine scavenging and higher pressure IAPAC air assisted DI and the ETV (Exhaust charge Trapping Valve).
Technical Paper

New Knock Localization Methodology for SI Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-1118
A methodology has been developed to determine, for every cycle on which significant knock is detected, the area in which self-ignition occurs. This methodology is based on the exploitation by a dedicated algorithm of a minimum of 4 simultaneous combustion chamber pressure measurements. The algorithm has been first tested on the results of engine knocking simulation, then applied with success on a single-cylinder engine equipped with classical pressure transducers and with an instrumented cylinder head gasket developed for this application. The results obtained with these two kinds of transducers on several engine configurations and tunings are similar. If the timing and intensity of knock events depend on all engine parameters, its location is especially sensitive to such design parameters as fluid motion into the combustion chamber and spark plug position.
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