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Technical Paper

Glow-plug Ignition of Ethanol Fuels under Diesel Engine Relevant Thermodynamic Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1391
The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior. In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel.
Journal Article

Two-Dimensional In-Cylinder Soot Volume Fractions in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion Mode

2011-04-12
2011-01-1390
Soot Volume Fraction (SVF) measurements were performed in an IFP Energies nouvelles optical single cylinder Diesel engine operated in Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) conditions. The engine was equipped with a sapphire liner, a dedicated flat bowl piston and a six-hole common-rail high pressure injector. The piston design included four quartz windows allowing optical access into the bowl. The aim of this work was to study soot formation and oxidation during the LTC Diesel combustion process and to build a database providing soot formation and oxidation data under a set of engine conditions to help developing and testing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. Two complementary optical diagnostic techniques were combined: Planar Laser Induced Incandescence (PLII) and Laser Extinction Method (LEM).
Journal Article

Performance Assessment of a Multi-Functional Reactor Under Conventional and Advanced Combustion Diesel Engine Exhaust Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-0606
Current progress in the development of diesel engines substantially contributes to the reduction of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions but will not succeed to eliminate the application of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) in the future. In the past we have introduced a Multi-Functional Reactor (MFR) prototype, suitable for the abatement of the gaseous and PM emissions of the Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine operation. In this work the performance of MFR prototypes under both conventional and advanced combustion engine operating conditions is presented. The effect of the MFR on the fuel penalty associated to the filter regeneration is assessed via simulation. Special focus is placed on presenting the performance assessment in combination with the existing differences in the morphology and reactivity of the soot particles between the different modes of diesel engine operation (conventional and advanced). The effect of aging on the MFR performance is also presented.
Technical Paper

Interpretation Tools and Concepts for the Heat Management in the Drive Train of the Future

2011-04-12
2011-01-0650
Thermal management describes measures that result in the improved engine or vehicle operation in terms of energetics and thermo mechanics. In this context the involvement of the entire power train becomes more important as the interaction between engine, transmission and temperature sensitive battery package (of hybrid vehicles or electric vehicles with range extender) or the utilization of exhaust gas thermal energy play a major role for future power train concepts. The aim of thermal management strategies is to reduce fuel consumption while simultaneously increasing the comfort under consideration of all temperature limits. In this case it is essential to actively control the heat flow, in order to attain the optimal temperature distribution in the power train components.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Fuel Film Thickness Measurement for Direct Injection SI Engines Using Refractive Index Matching

2011-04-12
2011-01-1215
The fuel film thickness resulting from fuel spray impingement on a flat transparent window was characterized in a high pressure high temperature cell for various thermodynamic conditions, injection pressures, injection durations, fuel types and injector technologies by Refractive Index Matching technique. The ambient conditions at injection timing were similar to that of a direct injection spark ignition engine at Top Dead Center, with the distance between the injector tip and the impinging surface set to 10 mm. The spray axis was set normal to the rough transparent window surface at ambient temperatures of 453 K, 573 K and 673 K, and ambient densities of 5.0 kg/m₃, 6.0 kg/m₃ and 6.5 kg/m₃. Injection pressures of 100 and 200 bar were investigated. Three injector technologies were studied: piezo-electric, multi-holes and swirl types. Two fuels, iso-octane and model gasoline, were tested.
Technical Paper

A 0D Phenomenological Model Using Detailed Tabulated Chemistry Methods to Predict Diesel Combustion Heat Release and Pollutant Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-0847
In the last two decades, piston engine specifications have deeply evolved. Indeed, new challenges nowadays concern the reduction of pollutant emissions (EURO regulations) and CO2 emissions. To satisfy these new requirements, powertrains have become very complex systems including a large number of high technology components (high pressure injectors, turbocharger, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) loop, after-treatment devices...). In this context, the engine control plays a major role in the development and the optimization of powertrains. Few years ago, engine control strategies were mainly defined by experiments on engine test benches. This approach is not adapted to the complexity of future engines: on the one hand, tests are too expensive and on the other hand, they do not give much information to understand interactions between components. Today, a promising alternative to tests may be the use of 0D/1D simulation tools.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Port Design on the Flow Field Stability of a Gasoline DI Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1284
The application of technologies such as direct injection, turbo charging and variable valve timing has caused a significant evolution of the gasoline engine with positive effects on fuel consumption and emissions. The current developments are primarily focused on the realization of improved full load characteristics and fuel consumption reduction with stoichiometric operation, following the downsizing approach in combination with turbo charging and high specific power. The requirements of high specific power in a relatively small cylinder displacement and a wide range of DI injection specifications lead to competing development targets and to a high number of degrees of freedom during engine layout and optimization. One of the major targets is to assess the stability of the combustion system in the early development phase.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Database Dedicated to the Study and Modelling of Cyclic Variability in Spark-Ignition Engines with LES

2011-04-12
2011-01-1282
In spark-ignition engines, cyclic variability limits the optimisation of operating conditions (choice of spark advance and/or injection timing) since it induces load variations and the occurrence of misfire and/or knock. This, in turn, restricts the operation range of new concepts such as downsizing or stratified combustion. To understand the basic physical phenomena behind cyclic variations, careful experimental studies are necessary to simultaneously characterise the combustion and the unsteady flow in the complete engine set-up. With a well-characterised experimental engine set-up, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) modelling can be easily combined with experiment in order to tackle intricate physical phenomena couplings. This paper describes an experimental database acquired on an optical research engine. The single-cylinder spark-ignition engine is equipped with four valves, a pentroof combustion chamber and a flat piston. The database is dedicated to the validation of LES models.
Technical Paper

Shape Optimization of a Single Cylinder Engine Crankshaft

2011-04-12
2011-01-1077
Due to increasing demand for environment friendly vehicles with better fuel economy and strict legislations on greenhouse gas emissions, lightweight design has become one of the most important issues concerning the automobile industry. Within the scope of this work lightweight design potentials that a conventional single cylinder engine crankshaft offers are researched through utilization of structural optimization techniques. The objective of the study is to reduce mass and moment of inertia of the crankshaft with the least possible effect on the stiffness and strength. For precise definition of boundary conditions and loading scenarios multi body simulations are integrated into the optimization process. The loading conditions are updated at the beginning of each optimization loop, in which a multi body simulation of the output structure from the previous optimization loop is carried out.
Technical Paper

On the Use of System Simulation to Explore the Potential of Innovative Combustion Systems: Methodology and Application to Highly Downsized SI Engines Running with Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

2011-04-12
2011-01-0408
In order to meet the CO₂ challenge, today a wide variety of solutions are developed in the automotive industry such as advanced technologies (downsizing, VVA, VCR), new combustion modes (HCCI, stratified and lean combustion), hybridization, electrification or alternative fuels. Furthermore, couplings between these solutions can be envisaged, increasing considerably the number of degrees of freedom which have to be accounted for in the development of future powertrains. Consequently, for time and cost reasons, it is not obvious to evaluate and optimize the full potential of new concepts only by the mean of experimental investigation. In this context, system simulation appears as a powerful and relevant complement to engine tests for its flexibility and its high CPU efficiency. This paper focuses on the development of a methodology combining both simulation and experimental tools to quantify the interest of innovative solutions in the very first steps of their development.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Fuel Properties and Sensitivity Analysis of Non-Aromatic and Aromatic Fuels Used in a Single Cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0333
Fuel properties are always considered as one of the main factors to diesel engines concerning performance and emission discussions. There are still challenges for researchers to identify the most correlating and non-correlating fuel properties and their effects on engine behavior. Statistical analyses have been applied in this study to derive the most un-correlating properties. In parallel, sensitivity analysis was performed for the fuel properties as well as to the emission and performance of the engine. On one hand, two different analyses were implemented; one with consideration of both, non-aromatic and aromatic fuels, and the other were performed separately for each individual fuel group. The results offer a different influence on each type of analysis. Finally, by considering both methods, most common correlating and non-correlating properties have been derived.
Journal Article

Analytical Approach to Model a Saturated Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0347
This paper presents an analytical approach to model an interior permanent magnet motor for a hybrid electric vehicle. Therefore, an analytical model for the calculation of parameters of an interior permanent magnet motor is presented. Furthermore, these parameter values are compared with good agreement to those from finite-element analysis and experimental data. An analytical model to simulate the behaviour of the motor and its control are developed and validated by comparison with experimental data. The thermal analysis of the motor prototype is also done. At the end, the presented model is embedded in the hybrid vehicle simulator and improvements are proposed, such as an analytical approach based on the finite element results to include the core saturation effect.
Technical Paper

LES Calculations of a Four Cylinder Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0832
A full 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of a four-stroke, four-cylinder engine, performed with the AVBP-LES code, is presented in this paper. The drive for substantial CO₂ reductions in gasoline engines in the light of the global energy crisis and environmental awareness has increased research into gasoline engines and increased fuel efficiencies. Precise prediction of aerodynamics, mixing, combustion and pollutant formation are required so that CFD may actively contribute to the improvement/optimization of combustion chamber, intake/exhaust ducts and manifold shapes and volumes which all contribute to the global performance and efficiency of an engine. One way to improve engine efficiency is to reduce the cycle-to-cycle variability, through an improved understanding of their sources and effects. The conventional RANS approach does not allow addressing non-cyclic phenomena as it aims to compute the average cycle.
Journal Article

Large Eddy Simulation of a Motored Single-Cylinder Engine Using System Simulation to Define Boundary Conditions: Methodology and Validation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0834
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) appears today as a prospective tool for engine study. Even if recent works have demonstrated the feasibility of multi-cycle LES, they have also pointed out a lack of detailed experimental data for validation as well as for boundary condition definition. The acquisition of such experimental data would require dedicated experimental set-ups. Nevertheless, in future industrial applications, unconditional dedicated experimental set-ups will not be the main stream. To overcome this difficulty, a methodology is proposed using system simulation to define fluid boundary conditions (crank-resolved intake/exhaust pressures and temperatures) and wall temperatures. The methodology combines system simulation for the whole experimental set-up and LES for the flow in the combustion chamber as well as a part of the intake and exhaust ducts. System simulation provides the crank-resolved temperature and pressure traces at the LES mesh inlet and outlet.
Journal Article

Study of Soot Formation and Oxidation in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), Spray A: Effects of Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

2013-04-08
2013-01-0901
Within the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) spray combustion research frame, simultaneous line-of-sight laser extinction measurements and laser-induced incandescence (LII) imaging were performed to derive the soot volume fraction (fv). Experiments are conducted at engine-relevant high-temperature and high-pressure conditions in a constant-volume pre-combustion type vessel. The target condition, called "Spray A," uses well-defined ambient (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m₃, 15% oxygen) and injector conditions (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K). Extinction measurements are used to calibrate LII images for quantitative soot distribution measurements at cross sections intersecting the spray axis. LII images are taken after the start of injection where quasi-stationary combustion is already established.
Technical Paper

About Cross-Sensitivities of NOx Sensors in SCR Operation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1512
Meeting the upcoming NOx emissions standards is a major challenge for the lean-burn engines, thus requiring a highly efficient exhaust gas aftertreatment. Currently, the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) appears to be the most promising technology, especially when operated with two kinds of reductants: ammonia (generally derived from urea) and ethanol. In order to reach high conversion levels while avoiding the overinjection of the reductant, a very accurate model-based control assisted with at least one NOx sensor is required. This study focuses on the sensitivity of NOx sensors to the main nitrogenous species encountered: ammonia, isocyanic acid (HNCO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The cross-sensitivity to ammonia is the only one to be already described in literature and already used in the urea-SCR control systems to limit the risks of ammonia-slip. However, HNCO can also be found downstream of a catalyst during urea-SCR if the urea delivery or the catalyst are deficient.
Journal Article

Comparison of PFI and DI Operation in a Downsized Gasoline Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1103
A 300 cc gasoline engine has been experimentally and numerically studied to compare PFI and DI operation on naturally-aspirated and turbocharged full load operating points. Experiment outlines the benefits from DI operation in terms of volumetric efficiency, fuel economy and knock propensity but also clearly indicates worse raw engine-out CO emissions. The latter is an indication of the survival of a large scale mixture heterogeneity in this downsized GDI engine even when early injection and intense induced fluid motion are combined. For such a full load operation, the application of optical diagnostics to study mixture heterogeneity cannot be considered because pressure and temperature exceed sustainable levels for transparent materials. Therefore, 3D CFD RANS computations of the intake, injection, combustion and pollutant formation processes including detailed chemistry information are performed to complement the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different Tabulation Techniques Dedicated to the Prediction of the Combustion and Pollutants Emissions on a Diesel Engine with 3D CFD

2013-04-08
2013-01-1093
In this paper three turbulent combustion models with different underlying hypothesis are compared with measurements from an extensive experimental database. The reference model is ECFM3Z, with the Tabulated Kinetics of Ignition (TKI) model for auto-ignition modeling, together with the CO reduced kinetics (CORK) model and the extended Zeldovich model for the nitrogen oxides. The VVTHC (Variable Volume Tabulated Homogeneous Chemistry) model predicts both the heat release and species evolutions (including CO). The most evolved model proposed is the ADF-PCM (Approximated Diffusion Flame-Presumed Conditional Moment) approach, based on the laminar flamelet equation of the progress variable. ADF-PCM and VVTHC are tabulated models based on a progress variable approach and are then coupled to the tabulated NO model NORA based on relaxation (NO Relaxation Approach). All the present combustion models are coupled to a phenomenological soot kinetics PSK approach.
Journal Article

Preliminary Design of a Two-Stroke Uniflow Diesel Engine for Passenger Car

2013-04-08
2013-01-1719
The target of substantial CO₂ reductions in the spirit of the Kyoto Protocol as well as higher engine efficiency requirements has increased research efforts into hybridization of passenger cars. In the frame of this hybridization, there is a real need to develop small Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) with high power density. The two-stroke cycle can be a solution to reach these goals, allowing reductions of engine displacement, size and weight while maintaining good NVH, power and consumption levels. Reducing the number of cylinders, could also help reduce engine cost. Taking advantage of a strong interaction between the design office, 0D system simulations and 3D CFD computations, a specific methodology was set up in order to define a first optimized version of a two-stroke uniflow diesel engine. The main geometrical specifications (displacement, architecture) were chosen at the beginning of the study based on a bibliographic pre-study and the power target in terms.
Technical Paper

Modular Methodology to Optimize Innovative Drivetrains

2013-09-08
2013-24-0080
In this paper, an integrated simulation-based methodology demonstrating feasibility and performance of several electric-hybrid concepts is developed. Several advanced tools are coupled to define the specifications of each component of the hybrid powertrain, to select the most promising hybrid architecture and finally to assess the proposed powertrain with regard to CO2 and pollutants emissions. Concurrent minimization of NOx and CO2 emissions enables to find the best compromise to fulfil Euro 6 standards while lowering fuel consumption. This stage consists in an iterative co-optimization of the power split strategies between the electric drive and the Diesel engine and of the engine settings (injection pressure, EGR rate, etc.). The methodology combines optimal control laws and optimization methodology based on global statistical models using single-cylinder design of experiments. After several iterations, this method allows to find the optimal NOx/CO2 trade-off curve.
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