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Technical Paper

Effect Of Swirl and Tumble on the Stratified Combustion of a DISI Engine - A CFD Study

2011-04-12
2011-01-1214
Of late direct injection engines are replacing carburetted and port injected engines due to their high thermal efficiency and fuel economy. One of the reasons for the increased fuel economy is the ultra lean mixture with which the engine operates under low loads. Under the low load conditions, the air fuel ratio of the mixture near the spark plug is close to stoichiometric values while the overall mixture is lean, which is called stratified mixture. In order to achieve this, proper air motion during the late stages of compression is a must. Quality of the mixture depends on the time of injection as well as the type of fuel injector and mixture preparation strategy used. Engines employing air guided mixture preparation are considered as the second generation engines. For understanding the efficient mixture preparation method, three types of flow structures like base (low tumble), high tumble and inclined swirl are created inside the engine cylinder using shrouds on the intake valves.
Technical Paper

Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Austempered and as-cast Ausferritic Gray Cast Irons

2011-01-19
2011-26-0051
The mechanical and wear behaviour of an alloyed gray cast iron with ausferrite microstructure directly obtained on solidification has been compared with austempered alloyed gray iron. As-cast ausferritic gray iron shows finer ausferrite and graphite flake morphology compared to austempered alloy. The volume of retained austenite is about 30% higher in as-cast ausferritic iron due to higher amount of alloying additions. The mechanical and wear properties of as-cast ausferritic iron are almost similar to austempered alloy.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Flow through a Gerotor Oil Pump

2010-04-12
2010-01-1111
Increasing the efficiency of engine auxiliary systems have become a challenge. Oil pump, identified for this study, is one such engine system which is used for lubrication of engine parts. To achieve higher efficiencies, there is a need for math-based analysis and design. This can be achieved by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The main aim of this paper is to simulate the flow through Gerotor Oil pump using Computational Fluid Dynamics. A 3D model of the entire flow domain is created and meshed in preprocessor GAMBIT. The mesh for various pressure outlet conditions is exported to FLUENT solver for analysis. The predicted results are validated with the experimental results. The comparison shows that the CFD predictions are in good agreement with experimental results. In particular, such a simulation offers a scope for visualizing the flow through the Gerotor oil pump.
Technical Paper

Steer Assistance Control for Improved Vehicle Response

2014-04-01
2014-01-0109
Advanced research in ABS (Anti-lock Braking System), traction control, electronic LSD's (Limited Slip Differential) and electrical powertrains have led to an architecture development which can be used to provide a controlled yaw moment to stabilize a vehicle. A steer assistance mechanism that uses the same architecture and aims at improving the vehicle response to the driver steering inputs is proposed. In this paper a feed-forward approach where the steering wheel angle is used as the main input is developed. An optimal control system is designed to improve vehicle response to steering input while minimizing the H2 performance of the body slip angle. The control strategy developed was simulated on a 14 DOF full vehicle model to analyze the response and handling performance.
Technical Paper

Active Yaw Control of a Vehicle using a Fuzzy Logic Algorithm

2012-04-16
2012-01-0229
Yaw rate of a vehicle is highly influenced by the lateral forces generated at the tire contact patch to attain the desired lateral acceleration, and/or by external disturbances resulting from factors such as crosswinds, flat tire or, split-μ braking. The presence of the latter and the insufficiency of the former may lead to undesired yaw motion of a vehicle. This paper proposes a steer-by-wire system based on fuzzy logic as yaw-stability controller for a four-wheeled road vehicle with active front steering. The dynamics governing the yaw behavior of the vehicle has been modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. The fuzzy controller receives the yaw rate error of the vehicle and the steering signal given by the driver as inputs and generates an additional steering angle as output which provides the corrective yaw moment.
Technical Paper

Effect of Crystallographic Texture on Formability of Some FCC Metals and Alloys

2014-04-28
2014-28-0033
Formability of metals and alloys in general and aluminium alloys and steels in particular is of paramount importance in sheet metal forming in automobile industry. It is well understood that the evolution of preferred crystallographic orientation of crystallites or texture during prior thermo-mechanical processing of sheets plays an important role in determining formability. The formability of sheet is measured in terms of the Lankford parameter or the plastic strain ratio which is defined as the ratio of strain in width direction to that in the thickness direction (R = εw/εt). The variation of Lankford parameter with the rolling direction and standard and ΔR value is widely used in industry as a standard for estimating the formability of the rolled sheets.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Strength and Ductility of Al-6061 Alloy by Various Post-Rolling Ageing Treatments

2014-04-28
2014-28-0022
The effect of different cold- rolling and cryo-rolling routes on the strength and ductility of Al-6061 alloy was thoroughly investigated. Rolling decreased the grain size and increased the strength according to the Hall-Petch relationship. However subjecting the samples to ageing at different temperatures and for different time period increased the strength and improved the ductility. The ductility was improved due to the rearrangement and even decrease in dislocation density due to recovery and recrystallization during ageing while the strength was maintained due to ageing. Evolution of microstructure was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary hardness measurements coupled with tensile tests indicate the improvement of both yield strength and ductility. The disparity in ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and the elongation to failure with different ageing temperatures and for different time period is determined and discussed.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Characteristics of Air Assisted Fuel Injection

2015-04-14
2015-01-0920
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology is already in use in four wheeler applications owing to the additional benefits in terms of better combustion and fuel economy. The air-assisted in-cylinder injection is the emerging technology for gasoline engines which works with low pressure injection systems unlike gasoline direct injection (GDI) system. GDI systems use high pressure fuel injection, which provides better combustion and reduced fuel consumption. It envisages small droplet size and low penetration rate which will reduce wall wetting and hydrocarbon emissions. This study is concerned with a CFD analysis of an air-assisted injection system to evaluate mixture spray characteristics. For the analysis, the air injector fitted onto a constant volume chamber (CVC) maintained at uniform pressure is considered. The analysis is carried out for various CVC pressures, mixture injection durations and fuel quantities so as to understand the effect on mixture spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Unregulated and Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Fuelled CRDI SUV Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0889
Use of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oil as an alternative fuel to mineral diesel is attractive economically and environmentally. Diesel engines emit several harmful gaseous emissions and some of them are regulated worldwide, while countless others are not regulated. These unregulated species are associated with severe health hazards. Karanja biodiesel is a popular alternate fuel in South Asia and various governments are considering its large-scale implementation. Therefore it is important to study the possible adverse impact of this new alternate fuel. In this study, unregulated and regulated emissions were measured at varying engine speeds (1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm) for various engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% rated load) using 20% Karanja biodiesel blend (KB20) and diesel in a 4-cylinder 2.2L common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) engine.
Journal Article

Development of a Cam Phaser System to Improve the Performance of a Small Engine

2014-11-11
2014-32-0110
In this work, a new mechanical cam phaser (MCP) system is developed. This MCP system is simple, reliable, and cost-effective, and also offers good control. Phasing of either intake, exhaust or both intake and exhaust cam can be achieved with this system. A prototype of the mechanical cam phaser has been tested on a motored rig to validate its dynamic characteristics. The system was tested onto a small two wheeler engine and this paper describes the newly developed MCP mechanism and its effects on the performance of a small two wheeler engine.
Technical Paper

Study on Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Flame Characteristics

2015-04-14
2015-01-0749
In gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, air-fuel mixture homogeneity plays a major role on engine performance, especially in combustion and emission characteristics. The performance of the engine largely depends on various engine operating parameters viz., start of injection, duration of injection and spark timing. In order to achieve faster results CFD is becoming a handy tool to optimize and understand the effect of these parameters. Therefore, this study aims on evaluating the two injection parameters viz., single and split injection to evaluate different flame characteristics. Novelty in this study is to define five different parameters which are called α, β, γ, δ and η the details of which are explained in the paper. In order to understand the flame characteristics, these five parameters are found to be very useful. In the present study, a single-cylinder, two-valve, four- stroke engine which is used in two-wheelers in India is considered for carrying out the CFD analysis.
Journal Article

Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry for Flow Analysis in a Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0599
Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influence the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake and compression stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
Technical Paper

Model Updating Studies on a Two Wheeler Chassis

2007-05-15
2007-01-2353
Accurate finite element model of a structure is required in order to carry out its dynamic design at the computer level. It has been observed that due to various approximations made in the Finite Element model the predicted values of the dynamic characteristics quite often differs from that of the actual structure. In view of this, the FE model is updated in the light of the test data from Experimental modal analysis (EMA) so as to improve its correlation with the test data. In this paper updating of a FE model of a two wheeler chassis structure is presented. Chassis is considered in the assembled condition with engine, suspension and tires. First an approximate FE model is constructed followed by modal analysis on the structure. FE Model updating is then carried out using Inverse Eigen sensitivity Method. Updated model predictions are found to resemble closely with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Influence of Particle Size of Graphite on Performance Properties of Friction Composites

2007-10-07
2007-01-3967
Non-Asbestos Organic (NAO) brake- material research has been significant in the last decade in an attempt to replace the conventional semi-metallic and asbestos based materials. Influence of ingredients in this multi-ingredient (generally 10-25 in different proportions) system on performance properties, however, is still not thoroughly researched area because of complexity involved and needs intensive efforts to understand this aspect. Graphite is one of the most important and almost inevitable ingredients in friction materials. A wide variety of graphite varying in origin, particle size, crystallinity, thermal conductivity etc. is used by the industry. An in-depth and systematic study on the influence of size of graphite on tribo-performance, however, is not available.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of New Binders for Friction Materials as Alternative to Traditional Phenolics

2007-10-07
2007-01-3945
Phenolics or their modified versions are invariably used as binder materials for friction composites which consist of multiple ingredients. However, phenolics are known for their inherent serious problems such as; poor shelf life, which poses constraints for storage and transportation; evolution of harmful volatiles leading to voids, cracks and environmental pollution etc. In order to overcome these, three new thermoset able resins having oxazine ring were synthesized in the laboratory. These resins proved to be free from the above mentioned drawbacks. These were tribo-evaluated to explore the possibility of replacing currently used phenolics in friction materials. In order to evaluate their tribo-potential as friction materials, friction formulations (non-asbestos organic NAO) based on these resins were developed in the laboratory in the form of brake-pads and tensile specimens.
Journal Article

Acoustic Analysis of Exhaust Muffler of a 4-Stroke Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1980
A one-dimensional analysis was performed to analyze a three-pass muffler with perforated tubes for Transmission Loss, using numerical decoupling approach. Effect of mean flow on transmission loss inside the muffler was studied. To account for the three-dimensional nature of acoustic waves at higher frequencies, a three dimensional finite element analysis was done using SYSNOISE. The Transmission loss results of the three-dimensional analysis were compared with those of one-dimensional analysis for no flow case and shown to agree reasonably for lower frequency range.
Technical Paper

Non-Reacting and Reacting Flow Analysis in an Aero-Engine Gas Turbine Combustor Using CFD

2007-04-16
2007-01-0916
A gas turbine combustion system is an embodiment of all complexities that engineering equipment can have. The flow is three dimensional, swirling, turbulent, two phase and reacting. The design and development of combustors, until recent past, was an art than science. If one takes the route of development through experiments, it is quite time consuming and costly. Compared to the other two components viz., compressor and turbine, the combustion system is not yet completely amenable to mathematical analysis. A gas turbine combustor is both geometrically and fluid dynamically quite complex. The major challenge a combustion engineer faces is the space constraint. As the combustion chamber is sandwiched between compressor and turbine there is a limitation on the available space. The critical design aspect is in facing the aerodynamic challenges with minimum pressure drop. Accurate mathematical analysis of such a system is next to impossible.
Technical Paper

Studies on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a CI Engine Operating on Diesel and Diesel Biodiesel Blends at Different Injection Pressures and Injection Timings

2007-04-16
2007-01-0613
The effect of variation in injection pressure and Injection timing on the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a direct injection, naturally aspirated Diesel engine operating on Diesel and Diesel-Biodiesel Blends were studied. A three-way factorial design consisting of four levels of injection pressure (150,210, 265,320 bar), four levels of injection timing (19° btdc, 21.5° btdc, 26° btdc, and 30.5° btdc) and five different fuel types (D100, B10, B20, B40, and B60) were employed in this test. The experimental analysis shows that when operating with Linseed Oil Methyl Ester-Diesel blends, we could increase the injection pressure by about 25% over the normal value of 20MPa. The engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of the engine operating on the ester fuels at advanced injection timing were better than when operating at increased injection pressure.
Journal Article

Repositioning the Human Body Lower Extremity FE Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-0922
This study aims to develop a methodology to generate anatomically correct postures of existing human body finite element models while maintaining their mesh quality. This repositioning is often done by running dynamic simulations. Such simulations, while taking a lot of time have the disadvantage of giving distorted elements as well as require a lot of expertise and have subjective interventions. Also, the anatomical correctness of the final position, and the kinematics followed during repositioning by dynamic simulations are uncertain. The developed method is based on computer graphics techniques and repositions a joint in just a few seconds. Repositioning of the lower extremity was also carried out using Finite Element (FE) simulations and analysed. The repositioning results from the two techniques were compared and it was found that the technique based on computer graphics gave satisfactory results.
Technical Paper

A 6 Sigma Framework for the Design of Flatfish Type Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)

2009-04-20
2009-01-1190
Hydrodynamic parameters play a major role in the dynamics and control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). The performance of an AUV is dependent on the parameter variations and a proper understanding of these parametric influences is essential for the design, modelling and control of high performance AUVs. In this paper, a six sigma framework for the sensitivity analysis of a flatfish type AUV is presented. Robust design techniques such as Taguchi’s design method and statistical analysis tools such as Pareto-ANOVA, and ANOVA are used to identify the hydrodynamic parameters influencing the dynamic performance of an AUV. In the initial study, it is found that when the vehicle commanded in forward direction, it is in bow down configuration which is unacceptable for AUV motion. This is because of the vehicle buoyancy and shape of the vehicle. So the sensitivity analysis of pitch angle variation is studied by using robust design techniques.
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