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Technical Paper

Transient Spray Characteristics of Air Assisted Fuel Injection

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology is already in use in four wheeler applications owing to the additional benefits in terms of better combustion and fuel economy. The air-assisted in-cylinder injection is the emerging technology for gasoline engines which works with low pressure injection systems unlike gasoline direct injection (GDI) system. GDI systems use high pressure fuel injection, which provides better combustion and reduced fuel consumption. It envisages small droplet size and low penetration rate which will reduce wall wetting and hydrocarbon emissions. This study is concerned with a CFD analysis of an air-assisted injection system to evaluate mixture spray characteristics. For the analysis, the air injector fitted onto a constant volume chamber (CVC) maintained at uniform pressure is considered. The analysis is carried out for various CVC pressures, mixture injection durations and fuel quantities so as to understand the effect on mixture spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Study on Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Flame Characteristics

In gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, air-fuel mixture homogeneity plays a major role on engine performance, especially in combustion and emission characteristics. The performance of the engine largely depends on various engine operating parameters viz., start of injection, duration of injection and spark timing. In order to achieve faster results CFD is becoming a handy tool to optimize and understand the effect of these parameters. Therefore, this study aims on evaluating the two injection parameters viz., single and split injection to evaluate different flame characteristics. Novelty in this study is to define five different parameters which are called α, β, γ, δ and η the details of which are explained in the paper. In order to understand the flame characteristics, these five parameters are found to be very useful. In the present study, a single-cylinder, two-valve, four- stroke engine which is used in two-wheelers in India is considered for carrying out the CFD analysis.
Technical Paper

Non-Reacting and Reacting Flow Analysis in an Aero-Engine Gas Turbine Combustor Using CFD

A gas turbine combustion system is an embodiment of all complexities that engineering equipment can have. The flow is three dimensional, swirling, turbulent, two phase and reacting. The design and development of combustors, until recent past, was an art than science. If one takes the route of development through experiments, it is quite time consuming and costly. Compared to the other two components viz., compressor and turbine, the combustion system is not yet completely amenable to mathematical analysis. A gas turbine combustor is both geometrically and fluid dynamically quite complex. The major challenge a combustion engineer faces is the space constraint. As the combustion chamber is sandwiched between compressor and turbine there is a limitation on the available space. The critical design aspect is in facing the aerodynamic challenges with minimum pressure drop. Accurate mathematical analysis of such a system is next to impossible.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Mahua based Biodiesel as Supplementary Diesel Fuel

Biodiesel developed from non- edible seeds grown in the wasteland in India can be very effectively utilized in the existing diesel engines used for various applications. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. These properties were found to be comparable to diesel and confirming to both the American and Indian standards. The performance of mahua biodiesel (MOME) and its blend with diesel in a Kirloskar DAF8 engine has been observed. The addition of MOME to diesel fuel has significantly reduced CO, UBHC and smoke emissions but increases the NOx emission slightly. The reductions in exhaust emissions could help in controlling air pollution. The results show that no significant power reduction in the engine operation when operated with blends of MOME and diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Microscopic Spray Characteristics of a GDI Injector Using Phase Doppler Interferometry

Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine is known for its higher power and higher thermal efficiency. Researchers are steadily determining and resolving the problems of fuel injection in a GDI engine. In order to meet the stringent emission norms such as PM and NOx emitted by a GDI engine, it is necessary to investigate the microscopic spray characteristics and fuel-air mixing process. This paper aims to share the fundamental knowledge of the interacting mixture preparation mechanisms at the wide range of fuel injection pressures. The investigations were carried out at five different fuel injection pressures viz: 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 bar, for 24 mg fuel per injection. A high speed CCD camera was used to determine the macroscopic spray characteristics of the GDI injector. It was found that spray penetration length increased with increasing fuel injection pressure. Phase Doppler Interferometry (PDI) was used to determine the droplet size and droplet velocity for different test fuels.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies on the Idling Performance of a Three Cylinder Passenger Car Engine Fitted with a Carburettor and a Single Point Electronic Gasoline Fuel Injection System

Experimental investigations relating to the performance and emission characteristics under idling conditions of a three cylinder passenger car spark ignition engine operating on a conventional carburettor and a developed single point gasoline fuel injection system are described in this paper. The idling performance at different engine speeds was studied by carrying out comprehensive engine testing on a test bed in two phases. In the first phase, experiments were conducted on an engine fitted with a conventional carburettor whilst they were extended to the engine provided with a developed electronic single point fuel injection (SPI) system, whose fuel spray was directed against the direction of air flow. The injection timing of the SPI system was varied from 82 deg. before inlet valve opening (or 98 deg. before top dead center) to 42 deg. after inlet valve opening (or 26 deg. after top dead center).
Technical Paper

Performance of Thin-Ceramic-Coated Combustion Chamber with Gasoline and Methanol as Fuels in a Two-Stroke SI Engine

The performance of a conventional, carbureted, two-stroke spark-ignition (SI) engine can be improved by providing moderate thermal insulation in the combustion chamber. This will help to improve the vaporization characteristics in particular at part load and medium loads with gasoline fuel and high-latent-heat fuels such as methanol. In the present investigation, the combustion chamber surface was coated with a 0.5-mm thickness of partially stabilized zirconia, and experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder, two-stroke SI engine with gasoline and methanol as fuels. Test results indicate that with gasoline as a fuel, the thin ceramic-coated combustion chamber improves the part load to medium load operation considerably, but it affects the performance at higher speeds and at higher loads to the extent of knock and loss of brake power by about 18%. However, with methanol as a fuel, the performance is better under most of the operating range and free from knock.
Technical Paper

The Influence of High-Octane Fuel Blends on the Performance of a Two-Stroke SI Engine with Knock-Limited-Compression Ratio

The use of alcohol-gasoline blends enables the favorable features of alcohols to be utilized in spark ignition (SI) engines while avoiding the shortcomings of their application as straight fuels. Eucalyptus and orange oils possess high octane values and are also good potential alternative fuels for SI engines. The high octane value of these fuels can enhance the octane value of the fuel when it is blended with low-octane gasoline. In the present work, 20 percent by volume of orange oil, eucalyptus oil, methanol and ethanol were blended separately with gasoline, and the performance, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics were evaluated at two different compression ratios. The phase separation problems arising from the alcohol-gasoline blends were minimized by adding eucalyptus oil as a co-solvent. Test results indicate that the compression ratio can be raised from 7.4 to 9 without any detrimental effect, due to the higher octane rating of the fuel blends.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of a Small Agricultural Engine Operated on Dual Fuel (Diesel + Natural Gas) System

Diesel has been used extensively as fuel for small agricultural engines in India. As natural gas is available in abundance, lot of interest is shown to substitute gas for diesel in these engines either partially or fully. Natural gas has a high Octane rating and hence to replace diesel fully, major irreversible changes in the diesel engine is required. However, in the dual fuel (diesel + gas) system a large percentage of diesel substitution is possible by the addition of the components of the conversion system. A simple dual fuel system has been developed indigenously for this study. Engine tests with dual fuel gas system have been conducted on a single cylinder diesel engine. These results show that the performance of the engine with dual fuel system can almost match that of standard diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Noise, Vibrations and Combustion Investigations of Preheated Jatropha Oil in a Single Cylinder Genset Engine

High viscosity of vegetable oil causes ignition problems when used in compression ignition engines. There is a need to reduce the viscosity before using it as engine fuel. Preheating and pre-treating of vegetable oils using waste heat of exhaust gases is one of the techniques, which reduces the viscosity and makes it possible to use it as alternate fuel for some niche applications, without requiring major modifications in the engine hardware. Several applications such as decentralized power generation, agricultural engines, and water pumping engines, can use vegetable oils as an alternative fuel. In present investigation, performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of an engine using preheated 20% blend of Jatropha oil with mineral diesel (J20) has been evaluated at a constant speed (1500 rpm) in a single cylinder four stroke direct injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injection Parameters on Performance and Emission Characteristics in HCCI Engine - A CFD Study

Today, homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are becoming very popular because of their potential to reduce soot and nitric oxides (NOx) emissions simultaneously. But, their performance and emission characteristics are very much dependent upon fuel injection strategy and parameters. However, they also have many challenges viz., improper combustion phasing, high rate of pressure rise and narrow operating range. Therefore, addressing them is very essential before making them a commercial success. This study focuses on evaluating the effect of fuel injection strategy and parameters on the performance and emission characteristics of a HCCI engine by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. In this study, a four-stroke engine operating in the HCCI mode is considered and the CFD analysis is carried out by using the CONVERGE.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injector Location and Nozzle-Hole Orientation on Mixture Formation in a GDI Engine: A CFD Analysis

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have gained popularity in the recent times because of lower fuel consumption and exhaust emissions compared to that of the conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engine. But, in these engines, the mixture formation plays an important role which affects combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine. The mixture formation, in turn, depends on many factors of which fuel injector location and orientation are most important parameters. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of fuel injector location and nozzle-hole orientation on the mixture formation, performance and emission characteristics of a GDI engine. The mixture stratification inside the combustion chamber is characterized by a parameter called “stratification index” which is based on average equivalence ratio at different zones in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Deactivation for Improved System Performance over Transient Real-World Drive Cycles

Effective control of exhaust emissions from modern diesel engines requires the use of aftertreatment systems. Elevated aftertreatment component temperatures are required for engine-out emissions reductions to acceptable tailpipe limits. Maintaining elevated aftertreatment components temperatures is particularly problematic during prolonged low speed, low load operation of the engine (i.e. idle, creep, stop and go traffic), on account of low engine-outlet temperatures during these operating conditions. Conventional techniques to achieve elevated aftertreatment component temperatures include delayed fuel injections and over-squeezing the turbocharger, both of which result in a significant fuel consumption penalty. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been studied as a candidate strategy to maintain favorable aftertreatment temperatures, in a fuel efficient manner, via reduced airflow through the engine.
Technical Paper

A Composition Based Approach for Predicting Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuelled Engine

Biodiesel is a renewable, carbon neutral alternative fuel to diesel for compression ignition engine applications. Biodiesel could be produced from a large variety of feedstocks including vegetable oils, animal fats, algae, etc. and thus, vary significantly in their composition, fuel properties and thereby, engine characteristics. In the present work, the effects of biodiesel compositional variations on engine characteristics are captured using a multi-linear regression model incorporated with two new biodiesel composition based parameters, viz. straight chain saturation factor (SCSF) and modified degree of unsaturation (DUm). For this purpose, biodiesel produced from seven vegetable oils having significantly different compositions are tested in a single cylinder diesel engine at varying loads and injection timings. The regression model is formulated using 35 measured data points and is validated with 15 other data points which are not used for formulation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Combustion Noise in a Small Common-Rail Direct-Injection Diesel Engine at Different Engine Operating Conditions

Stringent emission regulations on one hand and increasing demand for better fuel economy along with lower noise levels on the other hand require adoption of advanced common-rail direct-injection technologies in diesel engines. In the present work, a small 0.9-l, naturally aspirated, two-cylinder, common-rail direct-injection diesel engine is used for the analysis of combustion noise at different engine operating conditions. Experiments are conducted at different loads and engine speeds, incorporating both single and multiple (i.e. pilot and main) injections along with different injection timings. In the case of multiple injections, the influence of pilot injection quantity is also evaluated on the combustion noise while maintaining the same load. In-cylinder pressure was recorded with the resolution of 0.1 crank angle degree, and it was used for the quantitative analysis of noise assessed from the resulting cylinder pressure spectra, and sound pressure level.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation Studies of an Alcohol Fueled Low Heat Rejection Direct Injection Diesel Engine

This paper describes the development of a computer simulation model for a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine for neat diesel operation, ethanol-diesel dual fuel operation in fumigation and dual injection mode, operating on conventional or low heat rejection version. The model which illustrates the simulation of the overall cycle consisting of compression, combustion, expansion, exhaust and intake processes also predicts the nitric oxide and soot emissions. In addition it also predicts the brake power, brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, maximum gas pressure and maximum gas temperature. The above model was validated using available experimental results. Subsequently the computer program was run for different operating conditions encompassing broad changes in several engine operating parameters.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion Stability and Particle Emission from CNG/Diesel RCCI Engine

This paper presents the experimental investigation of combustion stability and nano-particle emissions from the CNG-diesel RCCI engine. A modified automotive diesel engine is used to operate in RCCI combustion mode. An open ECU is used to control the low and high reactivity fuel injection events. The engine is tested for fixed engine speed and two different engine load conditions. The tests performed for various port-injected CNG masses and diesel injection timings, including single and double diesel injection strategy. Several consecutive engine cycles are recorded using in-cylinder combustion pressure measurement system. Statistical and return map techniques are used to investigate the combustion stability in the CNG-diesel RCCI engine. Differential mobility spectrometer is used for the measurement of particle number concentration and particle-size and number distribution. It is found that advanced diesel injection timing leading to higher cyclic combustion variations.
Technical Paper

New Concept PFI-Atomizer Fueling System in a Small Single Cylinder SI Engine

This paper presents results from tests using a fuel injection system which uses an ultrasonic atomizer paired with a port fuel injector (PFI). This concept was tested on a four stroke 200 cc spark-ignited two-wheeler engine. A throttle body with a PFI mounted on it was added to the air intake path of the engine, replacing the conventional carburetor. The ultrasonic disc was mounted in such a way, that the injected fuel from the PFI, falls directly on the face of the disc. The atomizer and the PFI were timed and synchronized appropriately using an Arduino® microcontroller, to promote atomization and vaporization of the fuel injected. The atomizer disc was excited using a high frequency oscillator circuit. The engine could be tested at various speeds and loads, corresponding to points which lie on the local drive duty cycle. The engine test results showed improvement in the engine exhaust emissions.