Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Video

High Temperature Power Device and Packaging - The Technology Leap to Achieve Cost, Power Density and Reliability Target

2011-11-07
The three major challenges in the power electronics in hybrid and electric vehicles are: System cost, power density and reliability. High temperature power device and packaging technologies increases the power density and reliability while reducing system cost. Advanced Silicon devices with synthesized high-temperature packaging technologies can achieve junction temperature as high as 200C (compared to the present limitation of 150C) eliminating the need for a low-temperature radiator and therefore these devices reduces the system cost. The silicon area needed for a power inverter with high junction temperature capability can be reduced by more than 50 - 75% thereby significantly reducing the packaging space and power device and package cost. Smaller packaging space is highly desired since multiple vehicle platforms can share the same design and therefore reducing the cost further due to economies of scale.
Video

Supplier Discussions - 2012

2012-03-29
Seven different suppliers will discuss their latest technologies. Panelist Jon Bereisa, Auto Lectrification LLC John Burgers, Dana Canada Corporation Derek De Bono, Valeo Dusan Graovac, Infineon Technologies AG Ronald P. Krupitzer, American Iron and Steel Institute Timothy J. Lawler, Bosch Corp. Ian M. Sharp, Flybrid Systems LLP
Technical Paper

Timing Correctness in Safety-Related Automotive Software

2011-04-12
2011-01-0449
Automotive applications classed as safety-related or safety-critical are now important differentiating technologies in the automotive industry. The emergence of safety standard ISO 26262 underlines the increasing importance of safety in automotive software. As well as functional requirements, hard real-time requirements are of crucial importance to safety-related software as there is a need to prove that the system functionality is fulfilled, even in worst-case scenarios. Measurement-based WCET (Worst-Case Execution Time) analysis combines on-target timing measurements with static analysis of program structure to calculate predicted worst-case paths and times. This is in contrast to traditional end-to-end timing measurements, which give no confidence that the worst-case path is actually tested and no insight into the location of any timing problems that do emerge.
Technical Paper

Motor Control in Auxiliary Drive Systems How to Choose the Best Fitting Electronic Solution

2014-04-01
2014-01-0323
In modern vehicles, the number of small electrical drive systems is still increasing continuously for blowers, fans and pumps as well as for window lifts, sunroofs and doors. Requirements and operating conditions for such systems varies, hence there are many different solutions available for controlling such motors. In most applications, simple, low-cost DC motors are used. For higher requirements regarding operating time and in stop-start capable systems, the focus turns to highly efficient and durable brushless DC motors with electronic commutation. This paper compares various electronic control concepts from a semiconductor vendor point of view. These concepts include discrete control using relays or MOSFETs. Furthermore integrated motor drivers are discussed, including system-on-chip solutions for specific applications, e.g. specific ICs for window lift motors with LIN interface.
Journal Article

On-Chip Delta-Sigma ADC for Rotor Positioning Sensor Application (Resolver-to-Digital Converter)

2014-04-01
2014-01-0333
This paper discusses the RDC method utilizing delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter hardware module (DSADC) integrated in the Infineon's microcontroller family. With its higher resolution capability when compared to the regularly used ADC with successive-approximation (SAR), DSADC seems to have more potential. On the other hand, DSADC's inherent properties, such as asynchronous sampling rate and group delay, which when not handled properly, would have negative effects to the rotor positioning system. The solution to overcome those side-effects involves utilization of other internal microcontroller's resources such as timers and capture units, as well as additional software processing run inside CPU. The rotor positioning system is first modeled and simulated in high-level simulation language environment (Matlab and Simulink) in order to predict the transient- and steady state behaviors. The group delay itself is obtained by simulating the model of DSADC module implementation.
Technical Paper

LED Modules for Matrix and Pixel Light Solutions - On the Way to New Features in Headlight Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0432
Glare-free high beams are a consistent enhancement of adaptive headlight systems for vehicles with advanced driver assist systems. A prerequisite for these are camera-based systems with the ability to recognize and classify objects such as vehicles in front or oncoming vehicles when driving at night. These objects can then be dynamically masked out of the high beam of the specially designed headlights. Since we are talking about moving objects, it is essential for the high beam to be continuously and dynamically adapted. This paper describes a modular LED matrix system for dynamically adjusting a glare-free and continuously active high beam. The main focus was on the modularity of the system and the optimization of the thermal properties of an LED matrix in order to ensure that operation was reliable under the harsh environmental conditions inside a headlight. Specific control electronics and different interconnection methods were examined.
Technical Paper

Non-standard CAN Network Topologies Verification at High Speed Transmission Rate using VHDL-AMS

2010-04-12
2010-01-0688
This paper considers the verification of non-standard CAN network topologies of the physical layer at high speed transmission rate (500.0Kbps and 1.0Mbps). These network topologies including single star, multiple stars, and hybrid topologies (multiple stars in combination with linear bus or with ring topology) are simulated by using behavior modeling language (VHDL-AMS) in comparison to measurement. Throughout the verification process, CAN transceiver behavioral model together with other CAN physical layer simulation components have been proved to be very accurate. The modeling of measurement environment of the CAN network is discussed, showing how to get the measurement and simulation results well matched. This demonstrates that the simulation solution is reliable, which is highly desired and very important for the verification requirement in CAN physical layer design.
Technical Paper

Spontaneous Transistor Failures in Automotive Power Electronics

2014-04-01
2014-01-0228
The amount of electronics in vehicles is increasing, so is the amount of power electronics circuits, like inverters for electric motor drives or dc/dc converters. The muscles of these circuits are power transistors like MOSFETs and IGBTs - in each circuit are several of them. While MOSFETs and IGBTs have advanced over the years in terms of their performance, their wide product spectrum and feature spectrum as well as cost, they are still not unbreakable, but semiconductors which are more sensitive to electrical or thermal overstress than, a relay for instance. Especially electrical overstress, like overvoltage or over current, may damage a power transistor within a short time frame. Hence, electrical overstress must be avoided when designing the power electronics circuit. However, even a power transistor in a carefully designed power electronics circuit, may still be exposed to over current, short circuit, over voltage, over temperature and so forth.
Technical Paper

Efficient Virtualization for Functional Integration on Modern Microcontrollers in Safety-Relevant Domains

2014-04-01
2014-01-0206
The infrastructure in modern cars is a heterogeneous and historically grown network of different field buses coupling different electronic control units (ECUs) from different sources. In the past years, the amount of ECUs in the network has rapidly grown due to the mushrooming of new functions which historically were mostly implemented on a one-ECU-per-function basis resulting in up to a hundred ECUs in fully equipped luxury cars. Additionally, new functions like parking assist systems or advanced chassis control functions are getting increasingly complex and require more computing power. These two facts add up to a complex challenge in development. The current trend to host several functions in single ECUs as integration platforms is one attempt to address this challenge. This trend is supported by the increased computing power of current and upcoming multi-core microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

Timing Analysis and Tracing Concepts for ECU Development

2014-04-01
2014-01-0190
Integration scenarios for ECU software become more complicated, as more constraints with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more hardware potential for integration scenarios. To tackle the complexity, more and more model based approaches are used. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for high integration scenarios. In particular for multi-core systems, an amazing amount of timing data can be generated. Usually a multi-core system handles more software functionality than a single-core system. Furthermore, there may be timing interference on the multicore systems, due to the shared usage of buses, memory banks or other hardware resources.
Technical Paper

Efficient Multi-Core Software Design Space Exploration for Hybrid Control Unit Integration

2014-04-01
2014-01-0260
Multi-core systems are adopted quickly in the automotive domain, Proof of concepts have been implemented for power train, body and chassis, involving hard real-time constraints. However, depending on the degree of integration, it can be costly, especially in those cases where existing single-core software has to be migrated over. Furthermore, there seems to be a high level of uncertainty, whether a found solution, with regards to partitioning, mapping and orchestration of software is close to an optimum solution. Some integrated solutions demonstrate considerably less performance, for instance due to communication overhead compared to execution on single-core systems. This paper discusses a methodology, as to how to effectively and efficiently investigate the software architecture design space for multi-core software development.
Journal Article

Mode-Dynamic Task Allocation and Scheduling for an Engine Management Real-Time System Using a Multicore Microcontroller

2014-04-01
2014-01-0257
A variety of methodologies to use embedded multicore controllers efficiently has been discussed in the last years. Several assumptions are usually made in the automotive domain, such as static assignment of tasks to the cores. This paper shows an approach for efficient task allocation depending on different system modes. An engine management system (EMS) is used as application example, and the performance improvement compared to static allocation is assessed. The paper is structured as follows: First the control algorithms for the EMS will be classified according to operating modes. The classified algorithms will be allocated to the cores, depending on the operating mode. We identify mode transition points, allowing a reliable switch without neglecting timing requirements. As a next step, it will be shown that a load distribution by mode-dependent task allocation would be better balanced than a static task allocation.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Cars Setting New Challenges for Optimized Power Semiconductors

2014-04-01
2014-01-0242
The electrification of the powertrain is still one of the main challenges and innovation drivers for modern cars. With the introduction of the Toyota Prius, launched in Japan in 1997 the first commercially available hybrid car in mass production, the development continued towards the BMW i3 launched in July 2013. One main component for all kind of hybrid cars is still the power semiconductor, which is used for DC/DC converters and for the inverter to drive the electric motor for the traction control. What makes the selection of the right power semiconductor complex, is the variety of different voltage levels within the car (from standard 12V board net, the new 48V board net all the way up to 400V and above) plus different requirements in terms of switching and conduction performance, or accordingly power losses. The selection of device by application and voltage will be discussed in this paper.
Journal Article

DSI3 Sensor to Master Decoder using Symbol Pattern Recognition

2014-04-01
2014-01-0252
The newly released Distributed System Interface 3 (DSI3) Bus Standard specification defines three modulation levels form which 16 valid symbols are coded. This complex structure is best decoded with symbol pattern recognition. This paper proposes a simplification of the correlation score calculation that sharply reduces the required number of operations. Additionally, the paper describes how the pattern recognition is achieved using correlation scores and a decoding algorithm. The performance of this method is demonstrated by mean of simulations with different load models between the master and the sensors and varying noise injection on the channel. We prove than the pattern recognition can decode symbols without any error for up to 24dBm.
Technical Paper

Safety Element out of Context - A Practical Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0033
ISO 26262 is the actual standard for Functional Safety of automotive E/E (Electric/Electronic) systems. One of the challenges in the application of the standard is the distribution of safety related activities among the participants in the supply chain. In this paper, the concept of a Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) development will be analyzed showing its current problematic aspects and difficulties in implementing such an approach in a concrete typical automotive development flow with different participants (e.g. from OEM, tier 1 to semiconductor supplier) in the supply chain. The discussed aspects focus on the functional safety requirements of generic hardware and software development across the supply chain where the final integration of the developed element is not known at design time and therefore an assumption based mechanism shall be used.
Technical Paper

Automotive ADAS Camera System Configuration Using Multi-Core Microcontroller

2015-03-10
2015-01-0023
It has become an important trend to implement safety-related requirements in the road vehicles. Recent studies have shown that accidents, which occurred when drivers are not focused due to fatigue or distractions, can be predicted in advance when using safety features. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are used to prevent this kind of situation. Currently, many major tiers are using a DSP chip for ADAS applications. This paper suggests the migration from a DSP configuration to a Microcontroller configuration for ADAS application, for example, using a 32bit Multi-core Microcontroller. In this paper, the following topics will be discussed. Firstly, this paper proposes and describes the system block diagram for ADAS configuration followed by the requirements of the ADAS system. Secondly, the paper discusses the current solutions using a DSP. Thirdly, the paper presents a system that is migrated to a Multi-core microcontroller.
Journal Article

GBit Ethernet - The Solution for Future In-Vehicle Network Requirements?

2015-04-14
2015-01-0200
In-vehicle communication faces increasing bandwidth demands, which can no longer be met by today's MOST150, FlexRay or CAN networks. In recent years, Fast Ethernet has gained a lot of momentum in the automotive world, because it promises to bridge the bandwidth gap. A first step in this direction is the introduction of Ethernet as an On Board Diagnostic (OBD) interface for production vehicles. The next potential use cases include the use of Ethernet in Driver Assistance Systems and in the infotainment domain. However, for many of these use cases, the Fast Ethernet solution is too slow to move the huge amount of data between the Domain Controllers, ADAS Systems, Safety Computer and Chassis Controller in an adequate way. The result is the urgent need for a network technology beyond the Fast Ethernet solution. The question is: which innovation will provide enough bandwidth for domain controllers, fast flashing routines, video data, MOST-replacement and internal ECU buses?
Technical Paper

Improvement Potential at Electronic Control Units by Integration Across Clusters and Applications

2014-11-11
2014-32-0071
The market potential for products such as scooters and small motorcycles is already self-sustaining. However, other applications for small engines can be more fragmented with a wide variety of requirements for the engine control unit. Consequently, the engine control unit can be designed to accommodate more features than are necessary for a given application to cover a broader market. The flip side of this approach is to design the engine control unit for a limited application reducing the market size. Neither approach creates a cost efficient product for the producer. It either supplies the market with an electronic control unit that has features not being utilized (wasted costs) or a unit that has limited capabilities reducing the economies of scale (higher costs). When these designs are developed using discrete components these inefficiencies are exacerbated.
Technical Paper

Implementing Mixed Criticality Software Integration on Multicore - A Cost Model and the Lessons Learned

2015-04-14
2015-01-0266
The German funded project ARAMiS included work on several demonstrators one of which was a multicore approach on large scale software integration (LSSI) for the automotive domain. Here BMW and Audi intentionally implemented two different integration platforms to gain both experience and real life data on a Hypervisor based concept on one side as well as using only native AUTOSAR-based methods on the other side for later comparison. The idea was to obtain figures on the added overhead both for multicore as well as safety, based on practical work and close-to-production implementations. During implementation and evaluation on one hand there were a lot of valuable lessons learned about multicore in conjunction with safety. On the other hand valuable information was gathered to make it finally possible to set up a cost model for estimation of potential overhead generated by different integration approaches for safety related software functions.
X