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Technical Paper

Energetic Costs of ICE Starts in (P)HEV - Experimental Evaluation and Its Influence on Optimization Based Energy Management Strategies

2019-09-09
2019-24-0203
The overall efficiency of hybrid electric vehicles largely depends on the design and application of its energy management system (EMS). Despite the load coordination when operating the system in a hybrid mode, the EMS accounts for state changes between the different driving modes. Whether a transition between pure electric driving and internal combustion engine (ICE) powered driving is beneficial depends, among others, on the respective operation point, the route ahead as well as on the energetic expense for the engine start itself. The latter results from a complex interaction of the powertrain components and has a tremendous impact on the efficiency and quality of EMSs. Optimization based methods such as dynamic programming serve as benchmark for the design process of rule based control strategies. In case no energetic expenses are assigned to a state change, the resulting EMS suffers from being sub-optimal regarding the fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Possibilities of Wall Heat Transfer Measurements at a Supercharged Euro VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with High EGR-Rates, an In-Cylinder Peak Pressure of 250 Bar and an Injection Pressure up to 2500 Bar

2019-09-09
2019-24-0171
A raise of efficiency is the strongest selling point concerning the total cost of ownership (TCO), especially for commercial vehicles (CV). Accompanied by legislations, with contradictive development demands, satisfying solutions have to be found. The analysis of energy losses in modern engines shows three influencing parameters. Wall heat transfer (WHT) losses are awarded with the highest optimization potential. Critical for the occurrence of these losses is the WHT, which can be described by representing coefficients. To reduce WHT accompanying losses a decrease of energy transfer between combustion gas and combustion chamber wall is necessary. A measurement of heat fluxes is necessary to determine the WHT relations of the combustion chamber in an engine. As this has not been done for a Heavy-Duty (HD) engine, with peak pressures up to 250 bar, an increased in-cylinder turbulence and high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)-rates before, it is presented in the following.
Technical Paper

Implementation of an Open-Loop Controller to Design the Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics in Passenger Cars

2017-03-28
2017-01-1107
In order to offer a wide range of driving experiences to their customers, original equipment manufacturers implement different driving programs. The driver is capable of manually switching between these programs which alter drivability parameters in the engine control unit. As a result, acceleration forces and gradients are modified, changing the perceived driving experience. Nowadays, drivability is calibrated iteratively through road testing. Hence, the resulting set of parameters incorporated within the engine control unit is strongly dependent on the individual sentiments and decisions of the test engineers. It is shown, that implementing a set of objective criteria offers a way to reduce the influences of personal preferences and sentiments in the drivability calibration process. In combination with the expertise of the test engineers, the desired vehicle behavior can be formalized into a transient set point sequence to give final shape to the acceleration behavior.
Journal Article

Use of an Eulerian/Lagrangian Framework to Improve the Air Intake System of an Automobile with Respect to Snow Ingress

2017-03-28
2017-01-1319
A simulation approach to predict the amount of snow which is penetrating into the air filter of the vehicle’s engine is important for the automotive industry. The objective of our work was to predict the snow ingress based on an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software and to compare the simulation results to measurements in order to confirm our simulation approach. An additional objective was to use the simulation approach to improve the air intake system of an automobile. The measurements were performed on two test sites. On the one hand we made measurements on a natural test area in Sweden to reproduce real driving scenarios and thereby confirm our simulation approach. On the other hand the simulation results of the improved air intake system were compared to measurements, which were carried out in a climatic wind tunnel in Stuttgart.
Journal Article

Optimal Control based Calibration of Rule-Based Energy Management for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1220
In this paper a rule-based energy management for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is presented, which is based on the principles describing the optimal control behavior. Therefore we first show the general relations that can be used to describe the optimal limit of electric driving as well as the optimal torque split among the two propulsion systems. Subsequently these relations are employed to derive maps, which represent the optimal behavior depending on several input parameters. These maps are then used as inputs for the rules in the proposed energy management. This not only makes it possible to automatically calibrate the rule-based controller but also gives the optimal control in every driving situation. Given it is not fuel-efficient to turn the internal combustion engine (ICE) on or off for short intervals, it is further shown how this approach allows to adjust the established limit for electric driving by additional rules.
Journal Article

Methods for Measuring, Analyzing and Predicting the Dynamic Torque of an Electric Drive Used in an Automotive Drivetrain

2015-06-15
2015-01-2363
The driving comfort is an important factor for buying decisions. For the interior noise of battery electric vehicles (BEV) high frequency tonal orders are characteristic. They can for example be caused by the gearbox or the electric drive and strongly influence the perception and rating of the interior noise by the customer. In this contribution methods for measuring, analyzing and predicting the excitation by the dynamic torque of the electric drive are presented. The dynamic torque of the electric drive up to 3.5 kHz is measured on a component test bench with the help of high frequency, high precision torque transducer. The analysis of the results for the order of interest shows a good correlation with the acoustic measurements inside the corresponding vehicle. In addition an experimental and numerical modal analysis of the rotor of the electric drive are performed.
Technical Paper

Wall Heat Transfer in a Multi-Link Extended Expansion SI-Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0016
The real cycle simulation is an important tool to predict the engine efficiency. To evaluate Extended Expansion SI-engines with a multi-link cranktrain, the challenge is to consider all concept specific effects as best as possible by using appropriate submodels. Due to the multi-link cranktrain, the choice of a suitable heat transfer model is of great importance since the cranktrain kinematics is changed. Therefore, the usage of the mean piston speed to calculate a heat-transfer-related velocity for heat transfer equations is not sufficient. The heat transfer equation according to Bargende combines for its calculation the actual piston speed with a simplified k-ε model. In this paper it is assessed, whether the Bargende model is valid for Extended Expansion engines. Therefore a single-cylinder engine is equipped with fast-response surface-thermocouples in the cylinder head. The surface heat flux is calculated by solving the unsteady heat conduction equation.
Technical Paper

Development of a LIF-Imaging System for Simultaneous High-Speed Visualization of Liquid Fuel and Oil Films in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0634
Downsizing and direct injection in modern DISI engines can lead to fuel impinging on the cylinder walls. The interaction of liquid fuel and engine oil due to fuel impinging on the cylinder wall causes problems in both lubrication and combustion. To analyze this issue with temporal and spatial resolution, we developed a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system for simultaneous kHz-rate imaging of fuel and oil films on the cylinder wall. Engine oil was doped with traces of the laser dye pyrromethene 567, which fluoresces red after excitation by 532 nm laser radiation. Simultaneously, the liquid fuel was visualized by UV fluorescence of an aromatic “tracer” in a non-fluorescent surrogate fuel excited at 266 nm. Two combinations of fuel and tracer were investigated, iso-octane and toluene as well as a multi-component surrogate and anisole. The fluorescence from oil and fuel was spectrally separated and detected by two cameras.
Technical Paper

Approach for Parameter Determination for Objective Comfort Evaluation of the Vehicle Vibration Induced by Powertrain

2014-06-30
2014-01-2065
The driving comfort influences the customer purchase decision; hence it is an important aspect for the vehicle development. To better quantify the comfort level and reduce the experiment costs in the development process, the subjective comfort assessment by test drivers is nowadays more and more replaced by the objective comfort evaluation. Hereby the vibration comfort is described by scalar objective characteristic parameters that correlate with the subjective assessments. The correlation analysis requires the assessments and measurements at different vehicle vibration. To determine the objective parameters regarding the powertrain excitations, most experiments in the previous studies were carried out in several test vehicles with different powertrain units.
Video

Challenges in Automotive Electrification and Powertrain Component Development

2011-11-07
An overview of Daimler?s progression to advance powertrain technology in a growth industry shows many different solutions to improvement in transportation. Daimler continues to make breakthroughs in technology development and application building on 125 years of automotive development. Optimization of current powertrains will enable a significant gain in CO2/mi reductions, that dependent on product mix can be augmented with additional technologies. There is however no bypass to some form of electrification, enabling efficiency gains and alternative forms of power supply. Development of hybrid powertrains continues in an established manner and enhanced development of further electrified powertrains are in development. Organizationally and technically, significant skills and adjustments need to continue to be undertaken enabling OEMs and in particular the supply base to develop optimized solutions efficiently. The outlook is bright for novel component development and innovation.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Pressure Based Real-Time Estimation of Engine-Out Particulate Matter Emissions of a Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1440
The objective of this work was the development of a real-time capable in-cylinder pressure based diesel engine-out PM estimator. Two types of experimental passenger car DI diesel engines, equipped with in-cylinder pressure sensors have been used for the PM estimator development. Measurements have been taken during steady state and transient operation on an engine test bench. Using the Engine ECU signals and in-cylinder pressure data new parameters have been derived and used as inputs for an exponential zero dimensional modeling approach. Good correlation between the estimated and measured PM has been achieved for various experiments, not only for steady state operation points but also for transient measurements. Particularly, the model delivers good qualitative results, as well as good quantitative results in some regions. PM gradients, that is, the tendency of PM to increase or decrease from one engine operating point to another are represented successfully.
Technical Paper

Challenges for the Next Generation of BlueTEC Emission Technology

2011-04-12
2011-01-0294
Mercedes-Benz BlueTEC passenger cars have been on the cutting edge of clean diesel technology since 2006. These BlueTEC vehicles furthermore passed millions of kilometers in the hands of customers. SCR-equipped passenger cars already meet the most stringent exhaust emissions standards in international markets such as the USA, Europe and Japan. Diesel engines with BlueTEC technology also reduce CO₂ emissions and provide the high torque and performance associated with the diesel engine in addition to keeping exhaust emissions at the lowest possible level. Nowadays the requirements for SCR emission concepts are increasing continuously. In fact the emission legislation is getting stricter with the LEVIII emission standards in 2015. Additionally the requirements and effort for on-board diagnosis are increasing year after year. In combination with ambitious CO₂ targets all these issues constitute the further challenges of BlueTEC SCR emission concepts for worldwide markets.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Sensors for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-0497
Since the last decade, alternative powertrains are playing an important role in the strategy of car manufacturers. One important goal is the introduction of zero emission powertrains. These powertrain systems raise increasing political and public interest with the hydrogen fuel cell engine being the most competitive powertrain technology. During the development of this new technology, all the functional aspects including the automotive vehicle safety need to be considered. Hydrogen sensors are installed in the system to optimize the performance of a hydrogen fuel cell system and to enhance the safety concept. New results of sensor optimization and innovative test and development methods based on real vehicle data are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Transient Heat-Up of a Passenger Vehicle during a Trailer Towing Uphill Drive

2013-04-08
2013-01-0873
In the digital prototype development process of a new Mercedes-Benz, thermal protection is an important task that has to be fulfilled. In the early stages of development, numerical methods are used to detect thermal hotspots in order to protect temperature sensitive parts. These methods involve transient full Vehicle Thermal Management (VTM) simulations to predict dynamic vehicle heat-up during critical load cases. In order to simulate thermal control mechanisms, a coupled 1D to 3D thermal vehicle model is built in which the coolant and oil circuit of the engine, as well as the exhaust flow are captured in detail. When performing a transient 3D VTM analysis, the conduction and radiation phenomena are simulated using a transient structure model while the convective phenomena are co-simulated in a steady state fluid model. Both models are brought to interaction at predetermined points by an automatized coupling method.
Technical Paper

Stoichiometric Natural Gas Combustion in a Single Cylinder SI Engine and Impact of Charge Dilution by Means of EGR

2013-09-08
2013-24-0113
In this paper experimental results of a medium duty single cylinder research engine with spark ignition are presented. The engine was operated with stoichiometric natural gas combustion and additional charge dilution by means of external and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The first part of this work considers the benefits of cooled EGR on thermo-mechanical stress of the engine including exhaust gas temperature, cylinder head temperature, and knock behaviour. This is followed by the analysis of the influence of cooled EGR on the heat release rate. In this context the impact of fuel gas composition is also under investigation. The influence of increasing EGR on fuel efficiency, which is caused by a changed combustion process due to higher fractions of inert gases, is shown in this section. By application of different pistons a relationship between the piston bowl geometry and the flame propagation has been demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Automotive HVAC System with the Use of Liquid Cooled Condenser

2014-04-01
2014-01-0681
Air-cooled fin and tube heat exchangers are used as a condenser in the conventional automotive Heating Ventilation & Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems. In this study, the use of liquid cooled plate heat exchanger as a condenser in the automotive HVAC systems has been investigated. In the proposed configuration, the cabin heat absorbed by the refrigerant in HVAC system is rejected to the coolant through a liquid cooled condenser and then to the ambient air through a low temperature radiator. Hence, the proposed configuration combines heat rejection from HVAC system with a low temperature radiator circuit of power train cooling. Mixture of Ethylene glycol & Water (coolant), which is used in power train cooling system, is used as secondary fluid in the condenser.
Journal Article

Modelling of NOx Storage + SCR Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment System with Internal Generation of Ammonia

2010-04-12
2010-01-0887
Combination of an NOx storage and reduction catalyst (NSRC, called also lean NOx trap, LNT) and a catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH₃ (NH₃-SCR) offers a potential to significantly increase the efficiency of NSRC-based exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. Under most situations the SCR catalyst is able to adsorb the NH₃ peaks generated in the NSRC during the regeneration and utilize it for additional NOx reduction in the course of the consequent lean phase. This synergy becomes more important with the aged NSRC, where generally lower NOx conversions and higher NH₃ yields in wider range of operating temperatures are observed (in comparison with the fresh or de-greened NSRC). In this paper we present global kinetic models for the NSRC (Pt/Ba/Ce/gγ-Al₂O₃ catalyst type) and NH₃-SCR (Fe-ZSM5 catalyst type).
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Performance of a Mechanistic Electric Turbocharger Model for a Vehicular Fuel Cell System

2011-08-30
2011-01-1742
The electric turbocharger is a promising type of air supply unit for future automotive fuel cell drive systems. It comprises of a centrifugal compressor, a variable geometry turbine and a permanent magnet synchronous motor assembled on a single shaft. Compared to other types of vehicular fuel cell air supplies, like for example a screw or roots compressor, it needs less installation space and has lower weight while also causing less noise and vibration. This paper presents a validated mechanistic model of the electric turbocharger. The stationary compressor model is based on a set of aerodynamic loss models with surge and stone wall line prediction capability. Similarly, the stationary variable axial turbine is a detailed station based model derived from aerodynamic losses at the turbine wheel and the stator blades. The aerodynamic losses incorporated in the compressor and the turbine models are implemented under MATLAB/Simulink and show a good correlation with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Chemical Ageing of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts and Coated Diesel Particulate Filters

2010-04-12
2010-01-1212
For medium- and heavy-duty diesel engines, the development of new catalyst technologies and particulate filters is necessary to fulfill increasingly stringent emission regulations. An important aspect is the durability of the after-treatment system and therefore its efficiency over lifetime. Lubrication oil additives contain components such as phosphorous or zinc to ensure engine durability. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and coated diesel particulate filter (cDPF) catalytic coatings are negatively influenced by contamination on the surface with these components (chemical ageing). The components have a negative impact on the exhaust after-treatment systems performance. Additionally the cDPF is filled with oil ash. Engine tests are conducted to analyze the effect of lubrication oil additives on after-treatment system performance. In one study, lubrication oil with increased sulfur ash content is used.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Injected Diesel Fuel Conversion and Heat Release in Oxidation Catalyst: 3D-CFD & 1D Channels Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-1293
A system for controlled heat generation in exhaust pipeline is studied, consisting of fuel injector and oxidation catalyst (plus connecting pipes). A 3D-CFD software (StarCD) coupled with a tailored 1D model of catalytic monolith channel (XMR) are employed for simulations of realistic, fully 3D system geometry. Exhaust gas flow, fuel injection, and distribution at the catalyst inlet is solved by 3D-CFD, while the processes inside individual representative channels are simulated by the effective 1D model. The 3D-CFD software calls iteratively the 1D channel model with proper boundary conditions and solves 3D temperature profile over the monolith, utilizing local enthalpy fluxes (including gas-solid heat transfer and reaction enthalpy) calculated by the 1D channel model. Seven representative hydrocarbons are used for characterisation of Diesel fuel composition with respect to catalytic oxidation kinetics.
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