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Technical Paper

A Method for the Characterization of Off-Road Terrain Severity

2006-10-31
2006-01-3498
Highway and roadway surface measurement is a practice that has been ongoing for decades now. This sort of measurement is intended to ensure a safe level of road perturbances. The measurement may be conducted by a slow moving apparatus directly measuring the elevation of the road, at varying distance intervals, to obtain a road profile, with varying degrees of resolution. An alternate means is to measure the surface roughness at highway speeds using accelerometers coupled with high speed distance measurements, such as laser sensors. Vehicles out rigged with such a system are termed inertial profilers. This type of inertial measurement provides a sort of filtered roadway profile. Much research has been conducted on the analysis of highway roughness, and the associated metrics involved. In many instances, it is desirable to maintain an off-road course such that the course will provide sufficient challenges to a vehicle during durability testing.
Technical Paper

Use of Renewable Oxygenated Fuels in Order to Reduce Particle Emissions from a GDI High Performance Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0628
The use of oxygenated and renewable fuels is nowadays a widespread means to reduce regulated pollutant emissions produced by internal combustion engines, as well as to reduce the greenhouse impact of transportation. Besides PM, NOx and HC emissions, also the size distribution of particles emitted at the engine exhaust represent meaningful information, considering its adverse effects on the environment and human health. In this work, the results of a comprehensive investigation on the combustion characteristics and the exhaust emissions of a GDI high performance engine, fuelled with pure bio-ethanol and European gasoline, are shown. The engine is a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, 1750 cm₃ displacement, and turbocharged. The engine was operated at different speed/load conditions and two fuel injection strategies were investigated: homogeneous charge mode and stratified charge mode.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a Methane-Gasoline Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Small Displacement Optical Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0046
In this paper the methane-gasoline dual fuel combustion was investigated. Gasoline was injected in the intake manifold (PFI fuel), while methane was injected in the combustion chamber (DI fuel), in order to reproduce a stratified combustion. The combustion process and the related engine performance and pollutant emissions were analyzed. The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe. Optical measurements were performed to analyze the combustion process with high spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the flame front propagation and the soot and temperature concentration in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Development of Fully-Automatic Parallel Algorithms for Mesh Handling in the OpenFOAM®-2.2.x Technology

2013-09-08
2013-24-0027
The current development to set up an automatic procedure for automatic mesh generation and automatic mesh motion for internal combustion engine simulation in OpenFOAM®-2.2.x is here described. In order to automatically generate high-quality meshes of cylinder geometries, some technical issues need to be addressed: 1) automatic mesh generation should be able to control anisotropy and directionality of the grid; 2) during piston and valve motion, cells and faces must be introduced and removed without varying the overall area and volume of the cells, to avoid conservation errors. In particular, interpolation between discrete fields is frequent in computational physics: the use of adaptive and non-conformal meshes necessitates the interpolation of fields between different mesh regions. Interpolation problems also arise in areas such as model coupling, model initialization and visualisation.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Geometry of a Diesel Single-Hole Injector on Liquid and Vapor Phase Distributions at Engine-Like Conditions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0038
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends with Additives and Their Effects on the Spray Behavior

2013-09-08
2013-24-0035
A set of additives was selected to improve the durability of the physical-chemical and biological characteristics of mineral diesel and its blend with biodiesel. Two biodiesels were used: soybean (SME) and rapeseed (RME). Both physical-chemical properties and fuel dispersion of fuel blends and their mixtures with additives were measured that could have effects on the combustion process in diesel engines. The dispersion of the fuel is affected by the injection nozzle integrity, influencing the capacity of the fuel to vaporize, while the modification of the fuel molecular structure can cause changes in combustion reaction. A 7 hole Common Rail (CR) 2nd generation injector, 136 μm in diameter, was used at 80 MPa and 1.0 ms injection pressure and duration, respectively. The injection rate was determined using the Bosch's Method, while the fuel dispersion was measured by analyzing the images of spray evolving in an optical accessible quiescent vessel.
Technical Paper

Tomography of a GDI Spray by PolyCO Based X-Ray Technique

2013-09-08
2013-24-0040
In this paper the investigation with X-ray Tomography on the structure of a gasoline spray from a GDI injector for automotive applications based on polycapillary optics is reported. Table-top experiment using a microfocus Cu Kα X-ray source for radiography and tomography has been used in combination with a polycapillary halflens and a CCD detector. The GDI injector is inserted in a high-pressure rotating device actuated with angular steps Δθ = 1° at the injection pressure of 8.0 MPa. The sinogram reconstruction of the jets by slices permits a 360° spray access to the fuel downstream the nozzle tip. A spatial distribution of the fuel is reported along the direction of six jets giving a measure of the droplet concentration in a circle of 16 mm2 below the nozzle tip at atmospheric backpressure and ambient temperature.
Technical Paper

Imaging and Vibro-Acoustic Diagnostic Techniques Comparison for a GDI Fuel Injector

2019-09-09
2019-24-0058
This work presents the results of an experimental investigation on a GDI injector, in order to analyze fuel injection process and atomization phenomenon, correlating imaging and vibro-acoustic diagnostic techniques. A single-hole, axially-disposed, 0.200 mm diameter GDI injector was used to spray commercial gasoline in a test chamber at room temperature and atmospheric backpressure. The explored injection pressures were ranged from 5.0 to 20.0 MPa. Cycle-resolved acquisitions of the spray evolution were acquired by a high-speed camera. Simultaneously, the vibro-acoustic response of the injector was evaluated. More in detail, noise data acquired by a microphone sensor were analyzed for characterizing the acoustic emission of the injection, while a spherical loudspeaker was used to excite the spray injection at a proper distance detecting possible fuel spray resonance phenomena.
Technical Paper

Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0904
In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated.
Technical Paper

Gas Exchange and Injection Modeling of an Advanced Natural Gas Engine for Heavy Duty Applications

2017-09-04
2017-24-0026
The scope of the work presented in this paper was to apply the latest open source CFD achievements to design a state of the art, direct-injection (DI), heavy-duty, natural gas-fueled engine. Within this context, an initial steady-state analysis of the in-cylinder flow was performed by simulating three different intake ducts geometries, each one with seven different valve lift values, chosen according to an estabilished methodology proposed by AVL. The discharge coefficient (Cd) and the Tumble Ratio (TR) were calculated in each case, and an optimal intake ports geometry configuration was assessed in terms of a compromise between the desired intensity of tumble in the chamber and the satisfaction of an adequate value of Cd. Subsequently, full-cycle, cold-flow simulations were performed for three different engine operating points, in order to evaluate the in-cylinder development of TR and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) under transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Characterization of Diesel Injection in Single-Cylinder Research Engine with Rate Shaping Strategy

2017-09-04
2017-24-0113
The management of multiple injections in compression ignition (CI) engines is one of the most common ways to increase engine performance by avoiding hardware modifications and after-treatment systems. Great attention is given to the profile of the injection rate since it controls the fuel delivery in the cylinder. The Injection Rate Shaping (IRS) is a technique that aims to manage the quantity of injected fuel during the injection process via a proper definition of the injection timing (injection duration and dwell time). In particular, it consists in closer and centered injection events and in a split main injection with a very small dwell time. From the experimental point of view, the performance of an IRS strategy has been studied in an optical CI engine. In particular, liquid and vapor phases of the injected fuel have been acquired via visible and infrared imaging, respectively. Injection parameters, like penetration and cone angle have been determined and analyzed.
Technical Paper

Effects of the Ambient Conditions on the Spray Structure and Evaporation of the ECN Spray G

2019-04-02
2019-01-0283
The use of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) continuously increases due to the growing demand of efficiency and power output for i.c. engines. The optimization of the fuel injection process is essential to prepare an air-fuel mixture capable to promote efficient combustion, reduced fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Good spray atomization facilitates fuel evaporation in i.c. engines thus contributing to the fuel economy and lowering the emissions. One of the key features of a multi-hole injector is to provide an optimal spray pattern in the combustion chamber and a good mixture homogenization considering the engine-specific characteristics such fuel mass-flow rate, cylinder geometry, injector position, and charge motion. This work aims to investigate the injection processes of an eight-hole direct-injection gasoline injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) effort on gasoline sprays (Spray G, serial #19).
Technical Paper

ECN Spray G Injector: Assessment of Numerical Modeling Accuracy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0306
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is a leading technology for Spark Ignition (SI) engines: control of the injection process is a key to design the engine properly. The aim of this paper is a numerical investigation of the gasoline injection and the resulting development of plumes from an 8-hole Spray G injector into a quiescent chamber. A LES approach has been used to represent with high accuracy the mixing process between the injected fuel and the surrounding mixture. A Lagrangian approach is employed to model the liquid spray. The fuel, considered as a surrogate of gasoline, is the iso-octane which is injected into the high-pressure vessel filled with nitrogen. The numerical results have been compared against experimental data realized in the optical chamber. To reveal the geometry of plumes two different imaging techniques have been used in a quasi-simultaneous mode: Mie-scattering for the liquid phase and schlieren for the gaseous one.
Journal Article

Geometric and Fluid-Dynamic Characterization of Actual Open Cell Foam Samples by a Novel Imaging Analysis Based Algorithm

2017-10-05
2017-01-9288
Metallic open-cell foams have proven to be valuable for many engineering applications. Their success is mainly related to mechanical strength, low density, high specific surface, good thermal exchange, low flow resistance and sound absorption properties. The present work aims to investigate three principal aspects of real foams: the geometrical characterization, the flow regime characterization, the effects of the pore size and the porosity on the pressure drop. The first aspect is very important, since the geometrical properties depend on other parameters, such as porosity, cell/pore size and specific surface. A statistical evaluation of the cell size of a foam sample is necessary to define both its geometrical characteristics and the flow pattern at a given input velocity. To this purpose, a procedure which statistically computes the number of cells and pores with a given size has been implemented in order to obtain the diameter distribution.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Temperature and Ambient Pressure on a GDI Swirled Injector Spray

2000-06-19
2000-01-1901
The effects of fuel temperature on both the geometry and the droplet size and velocity of a GDI swirled injector spray were investigated by means of visualizations and PDA measurements. Isooctane was used as model fuel and was injected in a quiescent bomb at injection pressure of 7 MPa. Bomb pressure ranged from 40 kPa to 800 kPa with injector nozzle temperature ranging from 293 K to 393 K. A drastic change in spray geometry was observed when conditions above the vaporization curve were reached. The temperature increase has two macroscopic effects on the spray geometry: at the nozzle exit the liquid flash boiling strongly enlarges the spray angle, at a certain distance from the nozzle the air entrainment collapses the spray. Raising the fuel temperature up to flash boiling conditions causes a significant decrease of the average droplet size.
Journal Article

Characterization of Knock Tendency and Onset in a GDI Engine by Means of Conventional Measurements and a Non-Conventional Flame Dynamics Optical Analysis

2017-09-04
2017-24-0099
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) allows knock tendency reduction in spark-ignition engines mainly due to the cooling effect of the in-cylinder fuel evaporation. However, the charge formation and thus the injection timing and strategies deeply affect the flame propagation and consequently the knock occurrence probability and intensity. In particular, split injection allows a reduction of knock intensity by inducing different AFR gradient and turbulent energy distribution. Present work investigates the tendency to knock of a GDI engine at 1500 rpm full load under different injection strategies, single and double injections, obtained delivering the same amount of gasoline in two equal parts, the first during intake, the second during compression stroke. In these conditions, conventional and non-conventional measurements are performed on a 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, turbocharged GDI engine endowed of optical accesses to the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Temperature Measurements of the Piston Optical Window in a Research Compression Ignition Engine via Thermography and Templugs

2018-04-03
2018-01-0083
Internal combustion engines are characterized by high pressure and thermal loads on pistons and in cylinders. The heat generated by the combustion process is dissipated by means of water and oil cooling systems. For the best design and optimization of the engine components it is necessary to know the components temperature in order to estimate the thermal flows. The purpose of this work is to measure the piston sapphire window temperature in a research optically accessible engine by combining two different techniques: measurements with templugs and with thermography. The method is very simple and can provide a reliable value of temperature within a small interval. It fits well for applications inside the engine because of its low technical level requirements. It consists of application of temperature sensitive stickers on the target component that makes it a very robust method, not affected by piston movement.
Technical Paper

Chaos Theory Approach as Advanced Technique for GDI Spray Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0839
The paper reports an innovative method of analysis based on an advanced statistical techniques applied to images captured by a high-speed camera that allows highlighting phenomena and anomalies hardly detectable by conventional optical diagnostic techniques. The images, previously elaborated by neural network tools in order for clearly identifying the contours, have been analyzed in their time evolution as pseudo-chaotic variables that may have internal periodic components. In addition to the Fourier analysis, tools as Lyapunov and Hurst exponents and average Kω permitted to detect the chaos level of the signals. The use of this technique has permitted to distinguish periodic oscillations from chaotic variations and to detect those parameters that actually determine the spray behavior.
Journal Article

Improved Analytical Model of an Outer Rotor Surface Permanent Magnet Machine for Efficiency Calculation with Thermal Effect

2017-03-28
2017-01-0185
In this paper, an improved analytical model accounting for thermal effects in the electromagnetic field solution as well as efficiency map calculation of an outer rotor surface permanent magnet (SPM) machine is described. The study refers in particular to an in-wheel motor designed for automotive electric powertrain. This high torque and low speed application pushes the electric machine close to its thermal boundary, which necessitates estimates of winding and magnet temperatures to update the winding resistance and magnet remanence in the efficiency calculation. An electromagnetic model based on conformal mapping is used to compute the field solution in the air gap. The slotted air-gap geometry is mapped to a simpler slotless shape, where the field solution can be obtained by solving Laplace's equation for scalar potential. The canonical slottless domain solution is mapped back to the original domain and verified with finite element model (FEM) results.
Journal Article

Alternative Diesel Fuels Characterization in Non-Evaporating and Evaporating Conditions for Diesel Engines

2010-05-05
2010-01-1516
This paper reports the study of the effects of alternative diesel fuel and the impact for the air-fuel mixture preparation. The injection process characterization has been carried out in a non-evaporative high-density environment in order to measure the fuel injection rate and the spatial and temporal distribution of the fuel. The injection and vaporization processes have been characterized in an optically accessible single cylinder Common Rail diesel engine representing evaporative conditions similar to the real engine. The tests have been performed by means of a Bosch second generation common rail solenoid-driven fuel injection system with a 7-holes nozzle, flow number 440 cc/30s @100bar, 148deg cone opening angle (minisac type). Double injection strategy (pilot+main) has been implemented on the ECUs corresponding to operative running conditions of the commercial EURO 5 diesel engine.
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