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Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities of Variant Calibration of Hybrid Vehicles

2013-03-25
2013-01-0128
The automotive industry is racing to introduce some degree of hybridization into their product ranges. Since the term "hybrid vehicle" can cover a wide range of differing technologies and drivetrain topologies, this has led to a plethora of vehicles that call them "hybrid." This poses an interesting challenge for marketers to differentiate these vehicles from the incumbents. However, it is not just the marketers who are faced with challenges, the developers of such hybrid drivetrains are faced with a rise in technical complexity due to the wide range of operating modes hybridization introduces. As propulsive torque is being generated in more than one place in a hybrid vehicle, the transitions from conventional drive to electrically supported drive bring with them complex aspects of multi-dimensional system control. The challenge is to be able to implement hybrid technology in an existing drivetrain, while adapting the existing components as required.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics Simulation Model for Noise and Vibration Effects in Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain

2014-06-30
2014-01-2093
Over the past 30 years, simulation of the N&V (Noise and Vibration) behaviour of automotive drivelines became an integral part of the powertrain development process. With current and future HEVs (Hybrid-Electrical Vehicles), additional phenomena and effects have entered the scene and need to be taken into account during layout/design as well as optimization phase. Beside effects directly associated with the e-components (namely electric whistle and whine), torque changes caused by activation/deactivation of the e-machine give rise to vibration issues (e.g. driveline shuffle or clonk) as well. This is in particular true for transient operation conditions like boosting and recuperation. Moreover, aspects of starting the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) using the built-in e-machine in conjunction with the dynamic behaviour of torsional decoupling devices become increasingly important. In order to cope with above-mentioned effects a multi-physics simulation approach is required.
Technical Paper

Active Noise Cancellation System to Tackle Charge Sustain Idle Noise in a PHEV Vehicle

2018-06-13
2018-01-1562
With the advent of PHEV vehicles OEMs face additional NVH issues. A particularly new issue is a low frequency booming noise caused during charging of batteries using the internal combustion engine. During charging the engine is operated at low rotational speeds and high loads, leading to pronounced low frequency noise. While in the past reducing low frequency noise either required large absorbers and/or heavy dampers, today the issue can be tackled by use of an Active Noise Cancellation system. Jaguar Land Rover decided to introduce an Active Noise Cancellation system in the PHEV variants of some of their vehicles. The system builds upon software by Müller-BBM Active Sound Technology GmbH and makes use of the existing audio amplifiers. The only extra hardware component required are microphones in the vehicle headliner.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Real-Time Capable Engine and Vehicle Simulation - Fuel Consumption and Driving Performance

2010-04-12
2010-01-0784
The present work introduces a fully integrated real-time (RT) capable engine and vehicle model. The gas path and drive line are described in the time domain of seconds whereas the reciprocating characteristics of an IC engine are reflected by a crank angle resolved cylinder model. The RT engine model is derived from a high fidelity 1D cycle simulation and gas exchange model to support an efficient and consistent transfer of model data like geometries, heat transfer or combustion. The workflow of model calibration and application is outlined and base ECU functionalities for boost pressure, EGR, smoke and idle speed control are applied for transient engine operation. Steady state results of the RT engine model are compared to experimental data and 1D high fidelity simulations for 19 different engine load points. In addition an NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) is simulated and results are evaluated with data from chassis dynamometer measurements.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Use of Argon to Improve FMEP Determination through Motoring Method

2019-09-09
2019-24-0141
In the ever increasing challenge of developing more efficient and less polluting engines, friction reduction is of significant importance and its investigation needs an accurate and reliable measurement technique. The Pressurized Motoring method is one of the techniques used for both friction and heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. This method is able to simulate mechanical loading on the engine components similar to the fired conditions. It also allows measurement of friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) with a much smaller uncertainty as opposed to that achieved from a typical firing setup. Despite its advantages, the FMEP measurements obtained by this method are usually criticized over the fact that the thermal conditions imposed in pressurized motoring are far detached from those seen in fired conditions. In light of these considerations, the authors have put forward a modification to the method, employing Argon in place of Air as pressurization medium.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Calibration Techniques

2019-09-09
2019-24-0196
Meeting the particle number (PN) emissions limits in vehicle test sequences needs specific attention on each power variation event occurring in the internal combustion engine (ICE). ICE power variations arise from engine start onwards along the entire test drive. In hybrid systems, there is one further source for transient ICE response: each power shift between E-motor and ICE introduces gas flow variations with subsequent temperature response in the ICE and in the engine aftertreatment system (EAS). This bears consequences for engine out emissions as well as for the EAS efficiency and even for the durability of a catalytic converter. As system calibration engineers must decide on numerous actuator parameters, their decisions, finally, are crucial for meeting legislative limits under the boundary conditions given by the hybrid vehicle’s drive environment.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Hybrid Power Trains-Physical Based Modeling for Concept Design

2012-04-16
2012-01-0359
This paper presents a comparison of a hybrid and a conventional powertrain using physical based simulation models on the system engineering level. The system engineering model comprises mechanistic sub-models of the internal combustion engine including exhaust aftertreatment devices, electric components, mechanical drivetrain, thermoregulation system and the corresponding controllers. Essential sub-models are discussed in detail and their interaction on the system level is pointed out. Special attention is paid to compile a real-time capable model by combining mean value air path and drivetrain models with a crank-angle resolved cylinder description and quasi-steady state considerations applied in electrical and cooling networks. A turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine is modeled and calibrated based on steady-state measurements. The conversion performance of a three way catalyst is compared to light-off measurements.
Technical Paper

Concepts for Mechanical Abuse Testing of High-Voltage Batteries

2012-04-16
2012-01-0124
Currently lithium-batteries are the most promising electrical-energy storage technology in fully-electric and hybrid vehicles. A crashworthy battery-design is among the numerous challenges development of electric-vehicles has to face. Besides of safe normal operation, the battery-design shall provide marginal threat to human health and environment in case of mechanical damage. Numerous mechanical abuse-tests were performed to identify load limits and the battery's response to damage. Cost-efficient testing is provided by taking into account that the battery-system's response to abuse might already be observed at a lower integration-level, not requiring testing of the entire pack. The most feasible tests and configurations were compiled and discussed. Adaptions of and additions to existing requirements and test-procedures as defined in standards are pointed out. Critical conditions that can occur during and after testing set new requirements to labs and test-rigs.
Technical Paper

Drive Cycle Simulation of A Tiered Cooling Pack Using Non-Uniform Boundary Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-0654
In a tiered cooling pack, the airflow through the individual heat exchangers is determined by the package and aperture lay out. Each heat exchanger rejects heat as a function of the internal coolant flows, the cooling airflow and the air temperature. In a typical automotive cooling pack, the cooling airflow will be non-uniform in velocity and temperature due to fans, aperture geometry, exterior flows, heat exchangers and recirculation. In a drive cycle, these boundary conditions will change with vehicle operating conditions like vehicle speed, engine speed, ambient temperature, and altitude. These non-uniform conditions on the cooling pack can lead to significant errors when uniform boundary conditions are assumed in a transient simulation. This error is commonly corrected using vehicle test data. A predictive approach, which eliminates the need for correlation vehicle testing, is presented.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Thermal Management Simulation Method Integrated in the Development Process from Scratch to Prototype

2014-04-01
2014-01-0668
In order to meet current and future emission and CO2 targets, an efficient vehicle thermal management system is one of the key factors in conventional as well as in electrified powertrains. Furthermore the increasing number of vehicle configurations leads to a high variability and degrees of freedom in possible system designs and the control thereof, which can only be handled by a comprehensive tool chain of vehicle system simulation and a generic control system architecture. The required model must comprise all relevant systems of the vehicle (control functionality, cooling system, lubrication system, engine, drive train, HV components etc.). For proper prediction with respect to energy consumption all interactions and interdependencies of those systems have to be taken into consideration, i.e. all energy fluxes (mechanical, hydraulically, electrical, thermal) have to be exchanged among the system boundaries accordingly.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities in Variant Calibration of Hybrid Vehicles

2014-10-13
2014-01-2889
The automotive industry is racing to introduce some degree of hybridization into their product ranges. Since the term “hybrid vehicle” can cover a wide range of differing technologies and drivetrain topologies, this has led to a large amount of vehicles that call themselves “hybrid”. This poses an interesting challenge for marketers to differentiate these vehicles from the incumbents. However, it is not just the marketers who are faced with challenges, the developers of such hybrid drivetrains are faced with a rise in technical complexity due to the wide range of operating modes hybridization introduces. As propulsive torque is being generated in more than one place in a hybrid vehicle, the transitions from conventional drive to electrically supported drive bring with them complex aspects of multi-dimensional system control. The challenge is to be able to implement hybrid technology in an existing drivetrain, while adapting the existing components as required.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Approach for Vehicle Life-Time Thermal Analysis Applied to a HEV Battery System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0201
In order to meet current and future emission and CO2 targets, an efficient vehicle thermal management system is one of the key factors in conventional as well as in electrified powertrains. Global vehicle simulation is already a well-established tool to support the vehicle development process. In contrast to conventional vehicles, electrified powertrains offer an additional challenge to the thermal conditioning: the durability of E-components is not only influenced by temperature peaks but also by the duration and amplitude of temperature swings as well as temperature gradients within the components during their lifetime. Keeping all components always at the preferred lowest temperature level to avoid ageing under any conditions (driving, parking, etc.) will result in very high energy consumption which is in contradiction to the efficiency targets.
Technical Paper

Automotive Cabin Infotainment System Thermal Management

2015-04-14
2015-01-0328
The level of infotainment in today's vehicles and the customer expectation of the functionality imply a significant effort is required on thermal management of the systems, to guarantee their full operation under all operating conditions. The worst case thermal conditions the system will get exposed to are caused by solar loading on the cabin or heat up as a result of cabin heating. Simulation of a solar load driven case will be discussed in this paper. The long soak conditions during these tests result in the modelling requirement for long natural convection periods. This is creating a challenge for the conventional CFD simulations in turnaround time. New simulation methodology has resulted in significant speed up enabling these fully transient simulations in a reasonable turnaround time to enable programme support. A two phase approach to simulating this problem is proposed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Vehicle’s NVH Challenges and Influences on the NVH Development

2016-06-15
2016-01-1837
Due to more stringent emission regulation, especially plug-in hybrid vehicles have an increased attractiveness for OEMs to reduce OEM’s CO2 fleet emission. Generally, hybrid vehicles have a much higher complexity than conventional vehicles. This gives an additional degree of freedom for the development but also increases the number of potential NVH topics dramatically. Therefore, the role of frontloading and early prototype testing is getting even higher importance than in standard developments. Current hybrid vehicles on the market are mainly ICE vehicles with electric boosting or starting functionality only. This however will not be sufficient to fulfill the OEM’s CO2 fleet emission requirements. Future hybrid vehicles will have much higher electrical capabilities and drive much more in pure electric modes. Therefore, the more frequent change between the different driving modes and the related mode transitions will lead to a more complex interior NVH situation.
Journal Article

Options for Coupled Thermal-Electric Modeling of Battery Cells and Packs

2014-04-01
2014-01-1834
Integration of advanced battery systems into the next generation of hybrid and electric vehicles will require significant design, analysis, and test efforts. One major design issue is the thermal management of the battery pack. Analysis tools are being developed that can assist in the development of battery pack thermal design and system integration. However, the breadth of thermal design issues that must be addressed requires that there are a variety of analysis tools to address them efficiently and effectively. A set of battery modeling tools has been implemented in the thermal modeling software code PowerTHERM. These tools are coupled thermal-electric models of battery behavior during current charge and discharge. In this paper we describe the three models in terms of the physics they capture, and their input data requirements. We discuss where the capabilities and limitations of each model best align with the different issues needed to be addressed by analysis.
Journal Article

Improved Modeling of Near-Wall Heat Transport for Cooling of Electric and Hybrid Powertrain Components by High Prandtl Number Flow

2017-03-28
2017-01-0621
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations of heat transfer involving wall bounded flows at elevated Prandtl numbers typically suffer from a lack of accuracy and/or increased mesh dependency. This can be often attributed to an improper near-wall turbulence modeling and the deficiency of the wall heat transfer models (based on the so called P-functions) that do not properly account for the variation of the turbulent Prandtl number in the wall proximity (y+< 5). As the conductive sub-layer gets significantly thinner than the viscous velocity sub-layer (for Pr >1), treatment of the thermal buffer layer gains importance as well. Various hybrid strategies utilize blending functions dependent on the molecular Prandtl number, which do not necessarily provide a smooth transition from the viscous/conductive sub-layer to the logarithmic region.
Technical Paper

Development of New I3 1.0L Turbocharged DI Gasoline Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2424
In recent years, more attentions have been paid to stringent legislations on fuel consumption and emissions. Turbocharged downsized gasoline direct injection (DI) engines are playing an increasing important role in OEM’s powertrain strategies and engine product portfolio. Dongfeng Motor (DFM) has developed a new 1.0 liter 3-cylinder Turbocharged gasoline DI (TGDI) engine (hereinafter referred to as C10TD) to meet the requirements of China 4th stage fuel consumption regulations and the China 6 emission standards. In this paper, the concept of the C10TD engine is explained to meet the powerful performance (torque 190Nm/1500-4500rpm and power 95kW/5500rpm), excellent part-load BSFC and NVH targets to ensure the drivers could enjoy the powerful output in quiet and comfortable environment without concerns about the fuel cost and pollution.
Technical Paper

Generic software architecture for cost efficient powertrain electrification

2015-04-14
2015-01-1630
Hybrid-electric vehicles provide additional functionality compared to conventional vehicles. So-called ‘hybrid’ software functions are required to coordinate the conventional powertrain control and these additional control functions. A key factor to reduce the fuel consumption lies in optimal control of the entire interconnected powertrain. This paper aims to provide a framework for efficient interface definition, connection and coordination of control units for hybrid electric vehicles. Such a framework supports an efficient development of control unit architectures and the distribution of software functions. The generic approach necessitates modular software functions. It defines the distribution of these functions in control units optimized with respect to reuse, interfaces and compatibility with different powertrain topologies and electrification variants, especially also considering compatibility with a conventional powertrain and its electric hybridization.
Journal Article

Immersion Quenching Simulation of Realistic Cylinder Head Geometry

2014-04-01
2014-01-0641
In this paper, a recently improved Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology for virtual prototyping of the heat treatment of cast aluminum parts, above most of cylinder heads of internal combustion engines (ICE), is presented. The comparison between measurement data and numerical results has been carried out to simulate the real time immersion quenching cooling process of realistic cylinder head structure using the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE®. The Eulerian multi-fluid modeling approach is used to handle the boiling flow and the heat transfer between the heated structure and the sub-cooled liquid. While for the fluid region governing equations are solved for each phase separately, only the energy equation is solved in the solid region. Heat transfer coefficients depend on the boiling regimes which are separated by the Leidenfrost temperature.
Technical Paper

Engine Air Intake Thermal Modelling in Full Vehicle Underhood Environment

2013-04-08
2013-01-0861
The current trend of highly boosted petrol engines is demanding significant engineering effort on the air intake system development. The package of the air intake system is done early in the programme phase and the main engineering effort have historically been around achieving the system pressure drop targets. The thermal impact of the package is assessed during the vehicle testing phase. This can lead to significant design changes in order to maintain engine performance under all operating conditions late on in the development, driving up cost and programme delays. The highly boosted engine performance is very sensitive to heat pick up of the intake air and therefore requires an optimised system. To be able to support the engine intake design at the early program phases with thermal input, an analytical method has been developed.
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