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Technical Paper

Improvement of Hydroplaning Performance Based on Water Flow around Tires

The objective of this study is to improve tire hydroplaning performance by examining the arrangement of the tread grooves, based on water flow. It is important to smoothly channel the water through the tread grooves to improve performance. For this purpose, flow around the tire contact area was visualized by particle tracing. The velocity and the direction of flow in front of the contact area became clear as a vector map. This vector map indicated that the direction of the flow depends primarily on the lateral position, i.e., the distance from the tread center. Tread grooves parallel to the flow vector were designed based on this result. The visualization of the improved tire demonstrated that water flowed smoothly along the grooves. In addition, a drum test indicated increased cornering force at high speed.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Finite Element Model for the Human Lower Limb of Pedestrians

An impact test procedure with a legform addressing lower limb injuries in car-pedestrian accidents has been proposed by EEVC/WG17. Although a high frequency of lower limb fractures is observed in recent accident data, this test procedure assesses knee injuries with a focus on trauma to the ligamentous structures. The goal of this study is to establish a methodology to understand injury mechanisms of both ligamentous damages and bone fractures in car-pedestrian accidents. A finite element (FE) model of the human lower limb was developed using PAM-CRASH™. The commercially available H-Dummy™ lower limb model developed by Nihon ESI for a seated position was modified to represent the standing posture of pedestrians. Mechanical properties for both bony structures and knee ligaments were determined from our extensive literature survey, and were carefully implemented in the model considering their strain rate dependency in order to simulate the dynamic response of the lower limb accurately.
Technical Paper

Ignition Process of Intermittent Short-Circuit on Modeled Automobile Wires

Our study was conducted to demonstrate the primary factors involved in fires which result from an automobile's electrical wire harness system with fuses. In our experiments we used modeled automobile wire harnesses to study the processes of ignition and the resultant fires. Current was passed through blade type fuses to a portion of the harness and was intermittently short-circuited by a grounded metal plate. The nominal current ratings of the fuses we used were lower than or equal to 30 amperes [A], and the operating current was 30A at 12 Volts. Current flowed to the harness specimens through a DC power source. We found that electrical tracking with scintillation, caused by a weak electric flow through carbonized wire insulation, rarely generated flames in the wire harnesses without blowing the fuse. Ignition was never observed on the insulation near the areas shorted by the arc and/or overloaded currents going to the wire elements.
Technical Paper

Research on the Evacuation Readiness of Bus Crews and Passengers - Investigation of the Effect of a New Type of Exit

This research was conducted to propose appropriate emergency exits for bus crews and passengers. We developed the improved emergency exit based on the results of current bus exit performance tests, and investigated its effect on evacuation readiness. Tests employing human subjects were conducted to measure the time required to evacuate using the improved emergency exit. The subjects' psychological responses during evacuation were also studied to identify any evacuation problems. We also carried out tests of group evacuation through windows in a current bus to obtain the relationship between the evacuation time, the number of evacuation subjects, and the number of windows. The results show that the improved emergency exit is effective in improving evacuation readiness. It is clear that there is a positive correlation between the evacuation time, the number of subjects, and the number of windows.
Technical Paper

Data Processing Method of Finger Blood Pulse for Estimating Human Internal States

It was found that the finger blood pulse shows various fluctuations in different driving conditions. The nature of the finger blood pulse fluctuations was used for estimating a driver's internal state. Indexes suitable for expressing the fluctuations were moment and density; these indexes were calculated by using a return-map. However these results were measured by an off-line system and were calculated after the experiment. So, an on-line (real-time) system was needed in order to construct a driver's internal state monitoring system. As a first step, an online system for estimating the human internal state was developed. This system is available for estimating the human internal state every 30 seconds.
Technical Paper

Methanol Lean Burn in an Auto-Ignition DI Engine

A new combustion system targeting a drastic decrease in NOx emission and a brake specific energy consumption equivalent to that of a DI diesel engine has been developed. In this new combustion system, a lean burn system using early injection was employed to reduce NOx emission and an auto-ignition DI engine system was employed to achieve the low energy consumption. Methanol was used as the fuel for reducing NOx emission. The objective of this study is to clarify the possibility of the system for the auto-ignition of a premixed lean mixture of methanol fuel. This study shows that the gas temperature at ignition, Tig, is the predominant factor affecting auto-ignition. Auto-ignition occurs when Tig exceeds approximately 1000K. The methanol lean burn system in an auto-ignition DI engine drastically decreased NOx emission with almost the same brake specific energy consumption as a diesel engine in the middle load region.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Impact Responses of the Sid-Iis Small Side Impact Dummy

A series of side impact tests have been conducted to evaluate the biofidelity of the latest prototype of a small side impact dummy, SID-II s β+(plus). The tests were lateral impacts for the thorax, shoulder, and pelvis, as well as lateral drops for the head, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. The test data were compared to the response target corridors that were estimated by scaling the cadaver test data to a smaller occupant. The test results show that the head, should, thorax, abdomen and pelvis of the SID-II s β+ either completely or close to meets the response target corridors, and that its biofidelity has been improved from the previous dummy SID II s B-prototype.
Technical Paper

Reduction in Exhaust Emissions from Methanol Fueled Vehicle by Intermittent Dual-Fluid Exhaust Burner (IDEB)

Intermittent Dual-fluid Exhaust Burner (IDEB) has been developed to reduce emissions from methanol fueled vehicles during the warm-up period after a cold start. The IDEB does not need any special fuel injector or blower, and has been built mainly through software modification of an ECU. An FTP mode test while operating an IDEB confirmed that the catalyst temperature was rapidly increased to significantly reduce the emissions to meet a level of ULEV standards.
Technical Paper

Identification of Vehicle Dynamics Under Lateral Wind Disturbance Using Autoregressive Model

Analysis of vehicle motion under conditions of lateral wind disturbance is important for evaluating handling properties and vehicle stability. In the analysis, identification of vehicle dynamics is often carried out, and data for the identification is usually measured by a test with a lateral wind generator. However, vehicle transient response in the test usually converges for a short duration because of the limitation of the wind width. If the identification carried out from this data by conventional methods such as FFT, fine frequency resolution is not gained. In this research, an identification method based on the autoregressive model (AR-method), which is robust for a phenomenon of short duration, has been applied to the analysis of vehicle dynamics under the conditions in order to solve the above issue.
Technical Paper

Temperature Measurements of Combustion Gas in a Spark Ignition Engine By Infrared Monochromatic Pyrometry

Instantaneous temperature of in-cylinder gas provides a lot of useful and local information for analyzing the combustion process in an internal combustion engine. From the standpoint of applicability to a practical engine, the infrared monochromatic radiation pyrometry required only a single optical window is considered to be more suitable comparing with the conventional infrared absorption-emission pyrometry with two optical windows. Then, the former pyrometer is used to measure the mean gas temperatures averaged on an optical path (or cylinder diameter) of a spark ignition engine connected to a prechamber with a torch nozzle of various area sizes. These measured temperature-crankangle diagrams not only clarify the influences of torch jet flow on the combustion processes, but also correspond well to the heat release rates calculated from the pressure diagrams.
Technical Paper

Effects of Road Structure and Buffer Building on Reduction of Road Traffic Noise

In order to investigate the possibility of noise countermeasures taken on the road and in its surroundings an urban area exposed to high road traffic noise level was taken up as a model, and their effectiveness was estimated by a hybrid simulation method combining a scale model experiment technique and a computer simulation. The case studies of simulation were carried out in the case of improving the road structures, laying the noise barriers, constructing the noise-buffer buildings and so on. As a result, more than 20 dB (A) of road traffic noise reduction were obtained by a modification of the existing surface road to an elevated road.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of White Smoke Generation Derived from Hydrocarbons Accumulations on Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

White smoke emission is observed at the tailpipe of diesel vehicles when unburned hydrocarbons (HCs) are adsorbed on a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) under low exhaust gas temperature. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of white smoke emission derived from HCs, and to reduce emission levels. First, the components of HCs and the particle size distribution of white smoke emission were analyzed. It was clarified that semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) and water are condensed around soluble organic fraction and the order of particle size in white smoke is submicron scale. Additionally, the correlation between the behavior of white smoke emission and the amount/quality of HCs adsorbed on a DOC were investigated by examining the change of zeolite content in the DOC. It was found that the heavy HCs ratio in adsorbed HCs on DOC increases with a decrease in zeolite content when DOC inlet gas temperature is 120 °C.
Technical Paper

A Study of Motorcycle Leg Protection

Researchers concerned with motorcycle occupant protection have attempted to develop ways to protect the motorcycle occupant from injury. In the hope of finding a means to protect the motorcycle occupant's lower extremities, the authors have investigated past research, designed a device that incorporates an energy-absorbing component, tested the device in a series of collisions with automobiles, and performed an analysis of the test results to assess the merits of the new device. Results show that although the device may under certain circumstances reduce lower leg injuries, there may be increased potential for upper leg, chest, and head injuries
Technical Paper

Study on Reliable Automotive Exhaust Acrolein Collection Method

Aldehydes and ketones are known as one of the hazardous air pollutants. Usually, acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution, or DNPH-impregnated cartridges are used for automotive exhaust carbonyls collection. Then, aldehydes and ketones combined with DNPH are analyzed by HPLC/UV (High Performance Liquid Chromatography/ Ultra Violet Detection). DNPH cartridge is used widely for a good point of the handling although handling of DNPH solution is not so convienient. However, the analytical result of acrolein using DNPH cartridge was known as the low reliability. Acrolein-DNPH is changed to acrolein-DNPH-DNPH in the cartridge with acid atmosphere before extraction. And then, acrorein-DNPH-DNPH is changed to acrorein-DNPH-DNPH-DNPH with an acid atmosphere. As a result of such chemical reaction before extraction, the acrolein-DNPH is detected to low concentration. We found that at the low temperature condition, acrolein-DNPH concentration decrease speed is held down.
Technical Paper

Empirical Approach to Risk Factors in Rear End Collisions at Intersections - Effect of Lead Vehicle Behaviour on Premature Decisions of the Following Driver -

Naturalistic driving data has been accumulated by driving data recorders to understand factors that contribute to collisions. Among the rear end conflicts at signalized intersections in the data, conflict data between the following vehicles and suddenly stopping lead vehicles were frequently observed just after their start. To investigate the following drivers' behavior in a realistic driving situation without collision danger, an instrumented vehicle equipped with a liquid-crystal display ahead of the windshield was developed, and an experiment reproducing such conflict on the display was conducted. It was found that a lead vehicle's rapid start (2.8 m/s₂ on average) before quitting its right turn caused the following vehicle's brake reaction time to be longer than a slow start (0.8 m/s₂ on average) did. This result suggests that a following driver's premature decision to start rapidly increases the risk of rear end collisions.
Technical Paper

Whole-Body Response to Pure Lateral Impact

The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the impact of 10% ethanol blended fuels on performances of sold gasoline vehicles in the Japanese market already on the road in Japan

The study of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 gasoline) utilization has been conducted in the Japan Auto-Oil Program (JATOP). In order to clarify the impact of E10 gasoline on vehicle performances, exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions, driveability and material compatibility have been investigated by using domestic gasoline vehicles including mini motor vehicles which are particular to Japan. The test results reveal that E10 gasoline has no impact on exhaust emissions, engine startup time and acceleration period under the hot start condition, but a slight deterioration is observed in some test cases under the cold start condition using E10 gasolines with 50% distillation temperature (T50) level set to the upper limit of Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) K 2202. Regarding evaporative emissions, the tested vehicles shows no remarkable increase in the hot soak loss (HSL), diurnal breathing loss (DBL) and running loss (RL) testing with E10 gasolines.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Exhaust Emissions to Advanced Aftertreatment Systems

In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
Technical Paper

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 10 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards associated with the integration of hydrogen and electrical systems onto the vehicle and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published in 2008 to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards. In addition to SAE J2578 and J1766, the SAE FCV Safety Working Group also developed a Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579).
Technical Paper

Validity of Low Ventilation for Accident Processing with Hydrogen Leakage from Hydrogen-Fuelled Vehicle

Appropriate emergency response information is required for first responder before hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will become widespread. This paper investigates experimentally the hydrogen dispersion in the vicinity of a vehicle which accidentally releases hydrogen horizontally with a single volumetric flow of 2000 NL/min in the under-floor section while varying cross and frontal wind effects. This hydrogen flow rate represents normally a full throttle power condition. Forced wind was about maximum 2 m/s. The results indicated that the windward side of the vehicle was safe but that there were chiefly two areas posing risks of fire by hydrogen ignition. One was the leeward side of the vehicle's underbody where a larger region of flammable hydrogen dispersion existed in light wind than in windless conditions. The other was the area around the hydrogen leakage point where most of the leaked hydrogen remained undiffused in an environment with a wind of no stronger than 2 m/s.