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Technical Paper

Investigation of Transient Temperature Oscillations of a Propylene Loop Heat Pipe

2001-07-09
2001-01-2235
A technology demonstration propylene Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) has been tested extensively in support of the implementation of this two-phase thermal control technology on NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument. This cryogenic instrument is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA. This paper reports on the transient characterization testing results showing low frequency temperature oscillations. Steady state performance and model correlation results can be found elsewhere. Results for transient startup and shutdown are also reported elsewhere. In space applications, when LHPs are used for thermal control, the power dissipation components are typically of large mass and may operate over a wide range of power dissipations; there is a concern that the LHP evaporator may see temperature oscillations at low powers and over some temperature range.
Technical Paper

Monitoring Space Shuttle Air for Selected Contaminants Using an Electronic Nose

1998-07-13
981564
A miniaturized electronic nose has been constructed at JPL in collaboration with Caltech. This array of conductometric sensors has been trained to detect and quantify the presence of vapors in the air; the compounds detected have been found as contaminants in shuttle air. This device has potential application as a miniature, distributed device for monitoring and controlling the constituents in air.
Technical Paper

Measuring Aqueous Humor Glucose Across Physiological Levels: NIR Raman Spectroscopy, Multivariate Analysis, Artificial Neural Networks, and Bayesian Probabilities

1998-07-13
981598
We have elicited a reliable Raman spectral signature for glucose in rabbit aqueous humor across mammalian physiological ranges in a rabbit model stressed by recent myocardial infarction. The technique employs near infrared Raman laser excitation at 785 nm, multivariate analysis, non-linear artificial neural networks and an offset spectra subtraction strategy. Aqueous humor glucose levels ranged from 37 to 323 mg/dL. Data were obtained in 80 uL samples to anticipate the volume constraints imposed by the human and rabbit anterior chamber of the eye. Total sample collection time was 10 seconds with total power delivered to sample of 30 Mw. Spectra generated from the aqueous humor were compared qualitatively to artificial aqueous samples and an excitation offset technique was devised to counteract broadband background noise partially obscuring the glucose signature.
Technical Paper

Sojourner Mars Rover Thermal Performance

1998-07-13
981685
The Sojourner Rover landed on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997 as part of the Mars Pathfinder Mission. The mission lasted almost three months during which the thermal design of the Rover was tested. This paper summarizes the Rover's design and performance as well as post-mission model correlation.
Technical Paper

Mars Pathfinder Active Heat Rejection System: Successful Flight Demonstration of a Mechanically Pumped Cooling Loop

1998-07-13
981684
One of the new technologies successfully demonstrated on the recent Mars Pathfinder mission was the active Heat Rejection System (HRS). This system consisted of a mechanically pumped cooling loop, which actively controlled the temperatures of the various parts of the spacecraft. A single phase Refrigerant 11 liquid was mechanically circulated through the lander and cruise electronics box heat exchangers. This liquid transferred the excess heat to an external radiator on the cruise stage. This is the first time in unmanned spacecraft history that an active heat rejection system of this type has been used on a long duration spacecraft mission. Pathfinder was launched in December 1996 and landed on the Martian surface on July 4, 1997. The system functioned flawlessly during the entire seven months of flight from Earth to Mars. A life test set up of the cooling loop was used to verify the life of the system.
Technical Paper

Chemical Sensor Testing for Space Life Support Chemical Processing: Part I. Moisture Sensors

1994-06-01
941263
In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA), a laboratory has been established at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to evaluate the characteristics of chemical sensors which are candidates for use in a controlled chemical processing life support system. Such a facility is required for characterizing those sensors under development as well as those commercially available but whose functional properties are typically based upon operating in industrial environments that will not be completely synonomous with space operations. Space environments, such as an orbiting station or lunar base, will generally have different sensor requirements than terrestrial applications with respect to size, multifunctionality, sensitivity, reliability, temperature, ruggedness, mass, consumables, life, and power requirements. Both commercially available and developmental moisture sensors have been evaluated.
Technical Paper

Noise Environment Reduction Foam Spheres in Space

1989-09-01
892373
The advent of lightweight fairings for new spacecraft and the increased thrust of new launch vehicles have intensified the need for better techniques for predicting and for reducing the low frequency noise environment of spacecraft at lift-off. This paper presents a VAPEPS (VibroAcoustic Payload Environment Prediction System) parametrical analysis of the noise reduction of spacecraft fairings and explores a novel technique for increasing the low frequency noise reduction of lightweight fairings by approximately 10 dB.
Technical Paper

Mariner V - The Venus Machine

1968-02-01
680377
The Mariner V mission to and past the planet Venus in 1967 is described and some scientific results are summarized. The engineering challenge and process of physically converting a machine designed to conduct a Mars flyby into one suitable for the Venus mission are discussed, and particular technical problems and solutions arising from this conversion or other aspects of the 1967 flight mission are examined. Finally, some results of a study of test effectiveness in this project are considered.
Technical Paper

Physical and Environmental Effects on the Energy Dissipating Characteristics of Balsa Wood

1966-02-01
660657
This paper presents the results of a developmental program designed to determine physical and environmental effects on the response of balsa wood as an energy dissipator. Specifically, the effects of moisture content, density, temperature, and pressure on the energy dissipating characteristics of balsa wood are presented. It is shown that the response of balsa wood is critically dependent on physical and environmental conditions, and that the energy dissipating capacity of the material increases significantly under certain combinations of these conditions.
Technical Paper

Propellant Expulsion in Unmanned Spacecraft

1964-01-01
640792
Bladders, diaphragms, and pistons used for the positive expulsion of earth-storable liquid rocket propellants are discussed in general terms. The history of PL's work on these devices is reviewed as a background to the current programs. A detailed account of the development and use of bladders in Ranger and Mariner spacecraft is presented. The final section describes an advanced development program aimed at providing technology for future spacecraft.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen: Primary or Supplementary Fuel for Automotive Engines

1976-02-01
760609
Hydrogen, gasoline, and mixtures thereof were compared as fuels for lean-burn engines. Hydrogen for the mixed fuels tests was generated by partial oxidation of gasoline. Hydrogen combustion yielded the highest thermal efficiency at any NOx level. Gasoline yielded the second highest thermal efficiency for NOx levels greater than or approximately equal to two gm/mi. For lower NOx levels and high vehicle inertia weights, progressively more hydrogen supplementation was the second most efficient system. For vehicle inertia weights below 5000 lbm (2300 kg), the statutory NOx standard (0.4 gm/mi) could be met with one lb/hr (0.13 g/s) hydrogen supplementation.
Technical Paper

Advanced Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Subsystem Assessment

1983-02-01
830349
Various candidates for nonpetroleum electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) subsystems have been evaluated as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The subsystems include battery and power-peaking energy storage, heat engine and fuel cell energy conversion devices, motor/controller subsystems, transmissions, and vehicle subsystem (structure and body) technologies. The primary objective of this effort, was to project the mature capabilities of the various components in the 1990’s for application in the systems evaluations in the next phase of this activity. This paper presents the basic characteristics of the subsystems and compares their capabilities with projected AV subsystem requirements.
Technical Paper

Thermal Strategy for the Phoenix Robotic Arm Deployment

2009-07-12
2009-01-2438
The Mars Scout Phoenix Lander successfully landed in the Martian northern latitude on May 25, 2008. The Robotic Arm, which was designed to dig and to transfer soil samples to other Lander instruments, contained a number of actuators that had specific operational windows on the Martian surface due to the bearing lubricant. The deployment of the Robotic Arm was planned for Sol 2 (Mars days are referred to “Sols”). A few weeks before Mars landing, the Robotic Arm operations team learned that a strict flight rule had been imposed. It specified that the deployment shall be accomplished when the actuators were at or above −25°C since the deployment activity was qualified with the actuators at −40°C. Furthermore, the deployment plan identified a window of opportunity between 13:00 Local Solar Time (LST, equivalent to dividing the Sol into 24 equal Martian hours) and 15:30 LST.
Technical Paper

Monitoring Pre-Combustion Event Markers by Heating Electrical Wires

2009-07-12
2009-01-2543
Simultaneous measurements were made for particle releases and off-gassing products produced by heating electrical wires. The wire samples in these experiments were heated to selected temperatures in a heating chamber and responses to vapor releases were recorded by the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) and an Industrial Scientific ITX gas-monitor; particles released were detected by a TSI P-Trak particle counter. The temperature range considered for the experiment is room temperature (24−26°C) to 500 °C. The results were analyzed by overlapping responses from the ENose, ITX gas sensors and P-Trak, to understand the events (particle release/off-gassing) and sequence of events as a function of temperature and to determine qualitatively whether ENose may be used to detect pre-combustion event markers.
Technical Paper

Operation of Third Generation JPL Electronic Nose on the International Space Station

2009-07-12
2009-01-2522
The Third Generation ENose is an air quality monitor designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 – 30 °C, relative humidity from 25 – 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. This device was installed and activated on ISS on Dec. 9, 2008 and has been operating continuously since activation. Data are downlinked and analyzed weekly. Results of analysis of ENose monitoring data show the short term presence of low concentration of alcohols, octafluoropropane and formaldehyde as well as frequent short term unknown events.
Technical Paper

Thermal Design of the Mars Science Laboratory Powered Descent Vehicle

2008-06-29
2008-01-2001
NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission will use a Powered Descent Vehicle to accurately and safely land a roving, robotic laboratory on the surface of Mars. The precision landing systems employed on this vehicle are exposed to a wide range of mission environments from deep space cruise to atmospheric descent and require a robust and adaptable thermal design. This paper discusses the overall thermal design philosophy of the MSL Powered Descent Vehicle and presents analysis of the active and passive elements comprising the Cruise, Entry, Descent, and Landing thermal control systems.
Technical Paper

On-Orbit Performance of the TES Loop Heat Pipe Heat Rejection System

2008-06-29
2008-01-2000
Launched on NASA's Aura spacecraft on July 15, 2004, JPL's Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) has been operating successfully for over three years in space. TES is an infrared high resolution, imaging fourier transform spectrometer with spectral coverage of 3.3 to 15.4 μm to measure and profile essentially all infrared-active molecules present in the Earth's lower atmosphere. It measures the three-dimensional distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere on a global scale. The Aura spacecraft was successfully placed in a sun-synchronous near-circular polar orbit with a mean altitude of 705 km and 98.9 minute orbit period. The observatory is designed for a nominal 5 year mission lifetime. The instrument thermal design features include four temperature zones needed for efficient cryogenic staging to provide cooling at 65 K, 180 K, 230 K and 300 K.
Technical Paper

Thermal Vacuum Testing of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper Instrument

2008-06-29
2008-01-2037
The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument is scheduled for launch in 2008 onboard the Indian Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. The mission is managed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in Bangalore, India and is India's first flight to the Moon. M3 is being developed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the Discovery Program Office managed by Marshall Space Flight Center. M3 is a state-of-the-art instrument designed to fulfill science and exploratory objectives. Its primary science objective is to characterize and map the lunar surface composition to better understand its geologic evolution. M3's primary exploration goal is to assess and map the Moon mineral resources at high spatial resolution to support future targeted missions. M3 is a cryogenic near infrared imaging spectrometer with spectral coverage of 0.4 to 3.0 μm at 10 nm resolution with high signal to noise ratio, spatial and spectral uniformity.
Technical Paper

Thermal Vacuum Testing of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory Instrument

2008-06-29
2008-01-2036
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) instrument is scheduled for launch onboard an Orbital Sciences Corporation LEOStar-2 architecture spacecraft in December 2008. The instrument will collect data to identify CO2 sources and sinks and quantify their seasonal variability. OCO observations will permit the collection of spatially resolved, high resolution spectroscopic observations of CO2 and O2 absorption in reflected sunlight over both continents and oceans. OCO has three bore-sighted, high resolution, grating spectrometers which share a common telescope with similar optics and electronics. A 0.765 μm channel will be used for O2 observations, while the weak and strong CO2 bands will be observed with 1.61 μm and 2.06 μm channels, respectively. The OCO spacecraft circular polar orbit will be sun-synchronous with an inclination of 98.2 degrees, mean altitude of 705 km and 98.9 minute orbit period.
Technical Paper

Results from the Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor: A Miniature Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer for Trace Contamination Monitoring on the ISS and Orion

2008-06-29
2008-01-2045
Progress on the delivery of the Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) is reported. VCAM is an autonomous trace-species detector to be used aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for atmospheric analysis. The instrument is based on a low-mass, low-power miniature preconcentrator, gas chromatograph, and Paul ion trap mass spectrometer (PCGC/MS) capable of measuring volatile constituents in a space vehicle or planetary outpost at sub-ppm levels. VCAM detects and quantifies 40 target compounds at their 180-day Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) levels. It is designed to operate autonomously, maintenance-free, with a self-contained carrier and calibration gas supplies sufficient for a one-year lifetime. Two flight units will be delivered for operation in the ISS EXPRESS rack.
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