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Technical Paper

Study on the Gear Meshing and Order Tracking of a Transfer Case

2017-03-28
2017-01-1119
Gear transmission is widely used in mechanical transmission system and acts an important role in automotive industry. Manufacturing errors, assembly looseness, gear wear issues may result in gear backlash, noise and fatigue damage seriously affecting efficiency and service life of gear transmission. For gear transmission assembled, it is important to monitor the conditions of gear meshing and prevent the occurrence of dangerous situations. How to define the issues of gear tooth wear, misaligned bearing, gear eccentricity, backlash, and how to find faulty planetary gear sets and specific issues existing in gear transmission are meaningful and significant to ensure the quality of product. This paper starts from the analysis on gearing mechanism. Based on the behaviors represented by the issues, gear tooth wear, misaligned bearing, gear eccentricity and backlash are demonstrated and explained in detail.
Technical Paper

Studies on Steering Feeling Feedback System Based on Nonlinear Vehicle Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-1494
The steer-by-wire system has been widely studied due to many advantages such as good controllability. In the system, the steering column is cancelled and the driver can't feel the feedback torque (also called steering feeling) coming from the ground. Therefore a steering feeling feedback system is needed. In this paper, we propose a simple method to calculate desired feedback torque based on a nonlinear 2DOF vehicle model. The vehicle model contains the nonlinearity of tire. So that the proposed method is also appropriate for big acceleration conditions. Besides that, the properties of steering system such as friction and stiffness are also taken into consideration. As for conventional steering system, driver can only feel part of the feedback torque due to the power assist system. In order to provide steering feeling similar to conventional steering system, a weighting function is proposed to compensate the influence of power assist system.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Stability Control Strategy Based on Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1565
A vehicle dynamics stability control system based on integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (I-EHB) system with hierarchical control architecture and nonlinear control method is designed to improve the vehicle dynamics stability under extreme conditions in this paper. The I-EHB system is a novel brake-by-wire system, and is suitable to the development demands of intelligent vehicle technology and new energy vehicle technology. Four inlet valves and four outlet valves are added to the layout of a conventional four-channel hydraulic control unit. A permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) provides a stabilized high-pressure source in the master cylinder, and the four-channel hydraulic control unit ensures that the pressures in each wheel cylinder can be modulated separately at a high precision. Besides, the functions of Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System and Regenerative Braking System, Autonomous Emergency Braking can be integrated in this brake-by-wire system.
Technical Paper

Automatic Drive Train Management System for 4WD Vehicle Based on Road Situation Identification

2018-04-03
2018-01-0987
The slip ratio of vehicle driving wheels is easily beyond a reasonable range in the complex and changeable driving conditions. In order to achieve the adaptive acceleration slip regulation of four-wheel driving (4WD) vehicle, a fuzzy control strategy of Automatic Drive Train Management (ADM) system based on road situation identification was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the influence on the control strategy of ADM system was analyzed from two aspects, which included the different road adhesion coefficients and the vehicle’s ramp driving state. In the meantime several quantitative expressions of relevant control parameters were derived. Secondly, the fuzzy logic control algorithm was adopted to design a road situation identification subsystem and a ramp driving state identification subsystem respectively. The former was based on the μ-S curve model, and the latter was based on the vehicle driving equilibrium equation.
Technical Paper

Research on the Dynamic Integration Control for Distributed-Traction Electric Vehicle with Four-Wheel-Distributed Steering System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0814
With rapid development of the automobile industry and the growing maturity of the automotive electronic technologies, the distributed-traction electric vehicle with four-wheel-distributed steering/braking/traction systems is regarded as an important development direction. With its unique chassis structure, it is the ideal benchmark platform used to evaluate active safety systems. The distributed-traction electric vehicle with four-wheel-distributed steering system is essentially full drive-by-wire vehicle. With its flexible chassis layout and high control degrees-of-freedom, the full drive-by-wire electric vehicle acted as a kind of redundant system is an ideal platform for the research of integrated control. In this treatise, the longitudinal dynamics of the electric vehicle as well as its lateral and yaw motions are controlled simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Research on a Novel Electro-Hydraulic Brake System and Pressure Control Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0764
Based on the research and analysis of the current brake systems, this paper presents a novel electro-hydraulic brake system, which can better meet the functional requirements. The system mainly contains a master cylinder, two brake hydraulic cylinders and drive motors, two transmission mechanisms, thirteen solenoid valves, pedal force simulator, etc. Since the proposed brake system uses a dual motor along with two brake hydraulic cylinders, it has advantages in providing fast pressure response, flexible working modes, high precision and strong fault tolerance. In order to facilitate the study of pressure control algorithm for the proposed brake system, a mathematical model of the brake system is firstly established, then a multiplexed time-division pressure control algorithm is proposed to realize the simultaneous or partially simultaneous pressure control, which ensures the high precision and short response time.
Technical Paper

Parallel Thermal Management System of the Water Medium Retarder

2018-04-03
2018-01-0777
The thermal management system of the water medium retarder using engine coolant (water and ethylene glycol) as transmission medium, omits oil-water heat exchanger in the structure. When the hydraulic retarder is operated, the valve is connected with the retarder and water pump, and then the engine coolant enters the working chamber. The kinetic energy of the vehicle is converted into internal energy of the coolant, and the heat is discharged to the external environment through the engine thermal management system. The braking torque of the water medium hydraulic retarder is determined by the water medium flow rate in the working chamber. The smaller the valve opening degree, the greater the braking torque and the faster the heating transmission fluid. Small valve opening is not conducive to the loss of heat. It will affect the normal working of the engine and hydraulic retarder.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Flow Control and Wind Noise Reduction of Side-View Mirror

2018-04-03
2018-01-0744
It aims to study the unsteady flow characteristic of the side-view mirror wake field, and reduce the wind noise by means of unsteady flow control. In this paper, the PIV test in a wind tunnel is used to capture the unsteady flow in the wake field of the side-view mirror, which is used to verify the accuracy of the steady simulation method with RANS after being averaged. Then LES turbulence model is used to obtain the wind noise, and the unsteady flow characteristic like vortex shedding of the side-view mirror is studied. The results show that, in the wake of the side-view mirror, there is a vortex pair similar to Karman Vortex Street. In both horizontal and vertical sections, these two vortexes are respectively separated from the upper and lower edges of the side-view mirror. Accompanied by a significantly uncertain periodic shedding, they continue to extend back until dissipating.
Technical Paper

A Lane-Changing Decision-Making Method for Intelligent Vehicle Based on Acceleration Field

2018-04-03
2018-01-0599
Taking full advantage of available traffic environment information, making control decisions, and then planning trajectory systematically under structured roads conditions is a critical part of intelligent vehicle. In this paper, a lane-changing decision-making method for intelligent vehicle is proposed based on acceleration field. Firstly, an acceleration field related to relative velocity and relative distance was built based on the analysis of braking process, and acceleration was taken as an indicator of safety evaluation. Then, a lane-changing decision method was set up with acceleration field while considering driver’s habits, traffic efficiency and safety. Furthermore, velocity regulation was also introduced in the lane-changing decision method to make it more flexible.
Technical Paper

Design of Automatic Parallel Parking System Based on Multi-Point Preview Theory

2018-04-03
2018-01-0604
As one of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), automatic parking system has great market prospect and application value. In this paper, based on an intelligent vehicle platform, an automatic parking system is designed by using multi-point preview theory. The vehicle kinematics model was established, based on Ackermann steering principle. By analyzing working conditions of parallel parking, complex constraint condition of parking trajectory is established and reference trajectory based on sine wave is proposed. In addition, combined with multi-point preview theory, the design of trajectory following controller for automatic parking is completed. The cost function is designed, which consider the trajectory following effect and the degree of easy handling. The optimization of trajectory following control is completed by using the cost function.
Technical Paper

Personalized Adaptive Cruise Control Considering Drivers’ Characteristics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0591
In order to improve drivers’ acceptance to advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) with better adaptation, drivers’ driving behavior should play key role in the design of control strategy. Adaptive cruise control systems (ACC) have many factors that can be influenced by different driving behavior. It is important to recognize drivers’ driving behavior and take human-like parameters to the adaptive cruise control systems to assist different drivers effectively via their driving characteristics. The paper proposed a method to recognize drivers’ behavior and intention based on Gaussian Mixture Model. By means of a fuzzy PID control method, a personalized ACC control strategy was designed for different kinds of drivers to improve the adaptabilities of the systems. Several typical testing scenarios of longitudinal case were created with a host vehicle and a traffic vehicle.
Technical Paper

Travelling Resistance Estimation and Sandy Road Identification for SUVs

2018-04-03
2018-01-0578
The mechanical properties of sandy road are quite different from those of hard surface road. For vehicle control systems such as EMS (engine management system), TCU (transmission control unit) and ABS (antilock brake system), the strategies and parameters set for solid surface road are not optimal for driving on sandy road. It is an effective way to improve the mobility of all-terrain vehicles by identifying sandy road online and shifting the control strategies and parameters of control systems to sandy sets. In this paper, a sandy road identification algorithm for SUVs is proposed. Firstly, the vehicle signals, such as engine torque and speed, gear position, wheel and vehicle speed, are acquired from EMS, TCU and ESP (electronic stability program) through CAN (controller area network) bus respectively. Based on the information and longitudinal force equilibrium equation, the travelling resistance of vehicle is estimated.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Pneumatic Braking Force Control for the Emergency Braking System of Tractor-Semitrailer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0824
As bottom layer actuator for the AEB system, the active brake system and the brake force control of tractor-semitrailer have been the hot topics recently. In this paper, a set of active pneumatic brake system was designed based on the traditional brake system of tractor-semitrailer, which can realize the active brake of the vehicle under necessary conditions. Then, a precise mathematical model of the active pneumatic brake system was built by referring the flow characteristics of the solenoid valve, and some tests were implemented to verify the accuracy and validity of the active brake system model. Based on the model, an active pneumatic brake pressure control strategy combining the feedforward and feedback controlling modes was designed. By generating the PWM control signal, it can precisely control the desired wheel cylinder brake pressure of the active brake system. Finally, the brake pressure control strategy was validated both by simulation tests and bench tests.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Validation for an Electro-Hydraulic Braking System Equipped with the Electro-Mechanical Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0828
The intelligent and electric vehicles are the future of vehicle technique. The development of intelligent and electric vehicles also promotes new requirements to many traditional chassis subsystems, including traditional braking system equipped with vacuum boosters. The Electro-Mechanical Booster is an applicable substitute of traditional vacuum booster for future intelligent and electric vehicles. It is independent of engine vacuum source, and can be combined with electric regenerative braking. A complete system model is necessary for system analysis and algorithm developing. For this purpose, the modeling of electro-hydraulic braking system is necessary. In this paper, a detailed electro-hydraulic braking system model is studied. The system consists of an electro-mechanical booster and hydraulic braking system. The electro-mechanical booster which mainly contains a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and a set of transmission mechanism is the critical component.
Technical Paper

A Braking Force Distribution Strategy in Integrated Braking System Based on Wear Control and Hitch Force Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0827
A braking force distribution strategy in integrated braking system composed of the main braking system and the auxiliary braking system based on braking pad wear control and hitch force control under non-emergency braking condition is proposed based on the Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) to reduce the difference in braking pad wear between different axles and to decrease hitch force between tractors and trailers. The proposed strategy distributes the braking force based on the desired braking intensity, the degree of the braking pad wear and the limits of certain braking regulations to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed.
Technical Paper

ABS Control Algorithm Based on Direct Slip Rate for Hybrid Brake System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0830
The brake-by-wire system (BBW) is better match the new energy vehicle in the future direction of development. The electro-mechanical brake (EMB) is lack of the brake failure backup and need a high 42 V voltage for the power supply. This paper presents a new brake-by-wire hybrid brake system (HBS) with the electro-hydraulic brake (EHB) equipped on the front wheels and the EMB equipped on the rear wheels. The combination of these two brake-by-wire systems has advantages of both the EHB and EMB system. The EMB on the rear wheels totally removing the rear pipes and can be simply mounted. In addition, since the need of brake torque on the rear axle is relatively small, the power supply of EMB can be reduced to 12 V. Meanwhile, the EHB on the front wheels has the failure backup function through the hydraulic line. The HBS can quickly and accurately regulate four wheels brake force of vehicles which can well meet the requirement of antilock brake system (ABS).
Technical Paper

Pressure Control for Hydraulic Brake System Equipped with an Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0829
The Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster (Ebooster) is a critical component of the novel brake system for electric intelligent vehicles. It is independent of engine vacuum source, provides powerful active brake performance and can be combined with electric regenerative braking. In this paper, a brake control algorithm for hydraulic brake system equipped with an Ebooster is proposed. First, the configuration of the Ebooster is introduced and the system model including the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and hydraulic brake system is established by Matlab/Simulink. Second, a Four-closed-loop algorithm is introduced for accurate active brake pressure control. Finally, according to the requirement of different brake force, series of simulations are carried out under active braking condition. The results show that the control algorithm introduced in this paper can ensure the brake hydraulic pressure tracking a target value precisely and show a good control performance.
Technical Paper

A Nonlinear Slip Ratio Observer Based on ISS Method for Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0557
Knowledge of the tire slip ratio can greatly improve vehicle longitudinal stability and its dynamic performance. Most conventional slip ratio observers were mainly designed based on input of non-driven wheel speed and estimated vehicle speed. However, they are not applicable for electric vehicles (EVs) with four in-wheel motors. Also conventional methods on speed estimation via integration of accelerometer signals can often lead to large offset by long-time integral calculation. Further, model uncertainties, including steady state error and unmodeled dynamics, are considered as additive disturbances, and may affect the stability of the system with estimated state error. This paper proposes a novel slip ratio observer based on input-to-state stability (ISS) method for electric vehicles with four-wheel independent driving motors.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamics of Open Wheel Racing Car in Pitching Position

2018-04-03
2018-01-0729
Formula One (F1) racing cars are often running at high-speed with the pitching angle changing frequently due to road conditions. These pitching angle changes result in changes to the car’s aerodynamic characteristics that will directly affect handling stability and other performance factors including safety. This paper takes a F1 racing car as the model; the influence of the change of pitching angle on aerodynamic drag force and lift force are investigated. CFD code-PowerFLOW based LBM is used to simulate the aerodynamic characteristics with different pitching angles. The distribution of aerodynamic coefficients, velocity and pressure in the flow field are obtained; and the differences between different pitching angles were analyzed. The results show that as the pitching angle increases, the drag force increases and the lift force decreases. The down-force of the car is mainly supplied by the front wing and the rear wing.
Technical Paper

Objective Evaluation Model of Automatic Transmission Shift Quality Based on Multi-Hierarchical Grey Relational Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0405
Improvement of shift quality evaluation has become more prevalent over the past few years in the development of automatic transmission electronic control system. For the problems of the subjective shift quality evaluation that subjectivity is too strong, the standard cannot be unified and the definition of the objective evaluation index is not clear at present, this paper studies on the methods of objective evaluation of shift quality based on the multi-hierarchical grey relational analysis. Firstly, objective evaluation index system is constructed based on physical quantities, such as the engine speed, the longitudinal acceleration of the vehicle and so on, which broadens the scope of the traditional objective evaluation index further.
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