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Technical Paper

Finite Element Analysis of Light Vehicle Cab's Hydraulic Mount Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction Method

2011-05-17
2011-01-1604
Hyperelastic model constants of rubber material are predicted based on test date. The fluid-structure interaction model of light vehicle cab's hydraulic mount is established. Static characteristics of the hydraulic mount are analyzed by quasi-static method. In dynamic characteristics analysis, the flow model of fluid is set to turbulent K-Epsilon RNG. The dynamic stiffness and loss angle of the hydraulic mount are presented via the finite element model. The simulations of static and dynamic characteristics agree well with corresponding test results. The effects of main structure parameters to the dynamic characteristics of the hydraulic mount are analyzed based on the finite element model.
Technical Paper

Automobile Interior Noise Prediction Based on Energy Finite Element Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-0507
For the purpose of predicting the interior noise of a passenger automobile at middle and high frequency, an energy finite element analysis (EFEA) model of the automobile was created using EFEA method. The excitations including engine mount excitation and road excitation were measured by road experiment at a speed of 120 km/h. The sound excitation was measured in a semi-anechoic chamber. And the wind excitation was calculated utilizing numeric computation method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The sound pressure level (SPL) and energy density contours of the interior acoustic cavity of the automobile were presented at 2000 Hz. Meanwhile, the flexural energy density and flexural velocity of body plates were calculated. The SPL of interior noise was predicted and compared with the corresponding value of experiment.
Technical Paper

The Bus Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis System Design of Hybrid Vehicle Based on Embedded System

2010-10-05
2010-01-1992
Embedded bus monitoring and fault diagnosis system, which was used on the hybrid vehicle was designed in this paper. And this system took the 32-bit embedded one as a hardware platform, customized a WinCE6.0 operation system and used EVC as the tool to design the embedded application. The functions of CAN communication, protocol defamations etc were realized. Good human-computer interaction is developed and the system has already been applied on the bus.
Technical Paper

Fault Tolerant Control Against Actuator Failures of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0405
A fault tolerant control (FTC) approach based on reconfigurable control allocation for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles against driving motor failures is proposed in order to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability after the driving motor failures. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using model predictive control method; 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels aiming at minimizing the total tire usage. The FTC approach is based on the reconfigurable control allocation which reallocates the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators once the actuator failures is detected.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Mass Estimation and Optimal Braking Force Distribution Algorithm of Tractor and Semi-Trailer Combination

2013-04-08
2013-01-0418
Taking a good longitudinal braking performance on flat and level road of tractor and semi-trailer combination as a target, in order to achieve an ideal braking force distribution among axles, while the vehicle deceleration is just depend on the driver's intention, not affected by the variation of semi-trailer mass, the paper proposes a model based vehicle mass identification and braking force distribution strategy. The strategy identifies the driver's braking intention via braking pedal, estimates semi-trailer's mass during the building process of braking pressure in brake chamber, distributes braking force among axles by using the estimated mass. And a double closed-loop regulation of the vehicle deceleration and utilization adhesion coefficient of each axle is presented, in order to eliminate the bad effect of mass estimation error, and enhance the robustness of the whole algorithm. A simulation is conducted by utilizing MATLAB/Simulink and TruckSim.
Technical Paper

The Algorithmic Research of Multi-operating Mode Energy Management System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0988
The traditional energy management algorithm is mainly based on a single driving cycle, it is obvious that many factors might be often neglected by designer, such as different driving cycles would suit for different control strategies. But they tend to make decisions on the balance of torque distribution and battery power that based on a single driving cycle. Therefore, it is very difficult to achieve the optimal control in each case. In this paper we introduce a new design concept of Multi-operating mode energy management, a mathematical model of the energy management applied to a hybrid vehicle system is presented. Results of simulations using the model with the Multi-operating mode energy management were compared with results of simulations using a model with the single mode energy management, allowing the energy efficiency evaluation of the proposed energy management system.
Journal Article

Analysis of Performance Parameters of Torsional Vibration Damper Under Various Operating Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1488
The performance parameters of torsional vibration damper, including stiffness and damping, have great influence on the torsional vibration of automobile driveline. At present, the research on torsional vibration damper mainly concentrates on the torsional stiffness, but rarely on the torsional damping characteristics. This paper systematically studied the effect of torsional stiffness and damping on torsional vibration of automobile driveline under uniform speed conditions, accelerated and decelerated conditions, idling conditions and resonance conditions. The requirements on stiffness and damping of various operating conditions were summarized. The effect and requirements researched were useful to performance match design of torsional vibration damper.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Multi-Universal Coupling Phase on Torsional Vibration of Drive Shaft and Vibration of Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1490
Torsional vibration of drive shaft has great influence on the vibration of vehicle. Reasonable phase arrangement of multi-universal coupling can attenuate vibration. In this paper, theoretical model of drive shaft with planar multi-cross universal coupling was established; the optimization scheme of the phase arrangement of multi-cross universal coupling was presented. The results of test validation and simulation show that the optimization scheme is effective and reasonable. The results of test validation and simulation show that the optimization scheme was effective and reasonable and the optimized scheme could solve the abnormal vibration on floor. Arranging phases of universal joints reasonably is very significative for attenuate the torsional vibration of drive shaft and the floor vibration.
Technical Paper

Study on Objective Evaluation Index System of On-Center Handling for Passenger Car

2013-04-08
2013-01-0714
On-center handling has drawn lots of attention from consumers and car manufactures for its extraordinarily large effect on vehicle security at high speed. So far, there are a large number of objective evaluation indices for on-center handling, but it is not clear which ones are the key points on evaluation indices. In this paper, the authors propose a simplified on-center handling objective evaluation index system. Firstly, a basic on-center handling objective evaluation index system is summarized based on the ones of ISO, GM, MIRA, TRC and Hyundai, and then dynamics analysis on each index is conducted so as to primarily eliminate the redundant indices. Secondly, the repetitive indices are cut out again by the correlation analysis among indices in objective tests for eight types of vehicles. Thirdly, the importance factor of each subjective evaluation index is gained on the basis of subjective evaluation tests for eight types of vehicles by the weighed principal component analysis.
Technical Paper

Research and Improvement of Steering Wheel's Idle Shaking

2013-04-08
2013-01-1711
Vibration tests and modal analysis method were used to recognize cause of steering wheel's idle shaking, it was found that the steering wheel's operating modal was close to engine's second order excitation frequency, which caused steering wheel's idle shaking. Five improvements were presented to relief this problem, including structural optimization, lightweight design of steering wheel, Installation of dynamic vibration absorber, matching of power train mount and reduction of engine idle speed, the effectiveness and rationality of the improvements was verified through experiments.
Journal Article

Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound Quality in Passenger Cars Using Artificial Neural Networks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1704
In this research, the interior noise of a passenger car was measured, and the sound quality metrics including sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were calculated. An artificial neural network was designed to successfully apply on automotive interior noise as well as numerous different fields of technology which aim to overcome difficulties of experimentations and save cost, time and workforce. Sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were estimated by using the artificial neural network designed by using the experiment values. The predicted values and experiment results are compared. The comparison results show that the realized artificial intelligence model is an appropriate model to estimate the sound quality of the automotive interior noise. The reliability value is calculated as 0.9995 by using statistical analysis.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of the Combustion Characteristics of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol-Diesel Blends with Different ABE Component Ratios in a Constant Volume Chamber

2014-04-01
2014-01-1452
Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE), an intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, is considered a promising alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuel which typically emit less pollutants compared to conventional diesel, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for each individual component during the fermentation. With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. In this respect, it is desirable to estimate the performance of different ABE blends to determine the best blend and optimize the production process accordingly. ABE fuels with different component ratio, (A: B: E: 6:3:1; 3:6:1; 0:10:0, vol. %), were blended with diesel and tested in a constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Recognition and Classification of Vehicle Target Using the Vehicle-Mounted Velodyne LIDAR

2014-04-01
2014-01-0322
This paper describes a novel recognition and classification method of vehicle targets in urban road based on a vehicle-mounted Velodyne HDL64E light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. The autonomous vehicle will choose different driving strategy according to the surrounding traffic environments to guarantee that the driving is safe, stable and efficient. It is helpful for controller to provide the efficient stagey to know the exact type of vehicle around. So this method concentrates on reorganization and classification the type of vehicle targets so that the controller can provide a safe and efficient driving strategy for autonomous ground vehicles. The approach is targeted at high-speed ground vehicle, so real-time performance of the method plays a critical role. In order to improve the real-time performance, some methods of data preprocessing should be taken to simplify the large-size long-range 3D point clouds.
Technical Paper

A Sliding Mode Observer for Vehicle Slip Angle and Tire Force Estimation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0865
In this paper, a sliding mode observer for estimating vehicle slip angle and tire forces is developed. Firstly, the sliding mode observer design approach is presented. A system damping is included in the sliding mode observer to speed the observer convergence and to decrease the observer chattering. Secondly, the sliding mode observer for vehicle states is developed based on a 7 DOF embedded vehicle model with a nonlinear tire model ‘UniTire’. In addition, since the tire lateral stiffness is sensitive to the vertical load, the load transfers are considered in the embedded model with a set of algebraic equations. Finally, a simulation evaluation of the proposed sliding mode observer is conducted on a validated 14 DOF vehicle model. The simulation results show the model outputs closely match the estimations by the proposed sliding mode observer.
Technical Paper

Calculation and Analysis of Stiffness of Taper-Leaf Spring with Variable Stiffness

2014-04-01
2014-01-0929
Aiming at the difficulty of sovling the stiffness calculation of taper-leaf spring with variable stiffness, a combined method was proposed, which combine superposition method and finite difference method. Then the calculation results of different differential segments were compared with experimental results. The compared results show that the proposed method is effective and simple. So it has some practical significance in designing the taper-leaf spring. In addition, based on the stiffness test of the taper-leaf spring, the proper adjustments to the correction factor of the single parabolic leaf spring stiffness formula was recommended(ξ =0.92-0.96).
Technical Paper

Computational Accuracy and Efficiency of the Element Types and Sizes for Car Acoustic Finite Element Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0890
Automobile cabin acoustical comfort is one of the main features that may attract customers to purchase a new car. The acoustic cavity mode of the car has an effect on the acoustical comfort. To identify the factors affecting computing accuracy of the acoustic mode, three different element type and six different element size acoustic finite element models of an automobile passenger compartment are developed and experimentally assessed. The three different element type models are meshed in three different ways, tetrahedral elements, hexahedral elements and node coupling tetrahedral and hexahedral elements (tetra-hexahedral elements). The six different element size models are meshed with hexahedral element varies from 50mm to 75mm. Modal analysis test of the passenger car is conducted using loudspeaker excitation to identify the compartment cavity modes.
Journal Article

Prediction of the Sound Absorption Performance of Polymer Wool by Using Artificial Neural Networks Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0889
This paper proposes a new method of predicting the sound absorption performance of polymer wool using artificial neural networks (ANN) model. Some important parameters of the proposed model have been adjusted to best fit the non-linear relationship between the input data and output data. What's more, the commonly used multiple non-linear regression model is built to compare with ANN model in this study. Measurements of the sound absorption coefficient of polymer wool based on transfer function method are also performed to determine the sound absorption performance according to GB/T18696. 2-2002 and ISO10534- 2: 1998 (E) standards. It is founded that predictions of the new model are in good agreement with the experiment results.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Analytical Property Characterization of a Self-Damped Pneumatic Suspension System

2010-10-05
2010-01-1894
This study investigates the fundamental stiffness and damping properties of a self-damped pneumatic suspension system, based on both the experimental and analytical analyses. The pneumatic suspension system consists of a pneumatic cylinder and an accumulator that are connected by an orifice, where damping is realized by the gas flow resistance through the orifice. The nonlinear suspension system model is derived and also linearized for facilitating the properties characterization. An experimental setup is also developed for validating both the formulated nonlinear and linearized models. The comparisons between the measured data and simulation results demonstrate the validity of the models under the operating conditions considered. Two suspension property measures, namely equivalent stiffness coefficient and loss factor, are further formulated.
Technical Paper

Mode Transition Dynamic Control for Dual-Motor Hybrid Driving System

2013-10-14
2013-01-2487
Coordinated control of mode transition is an important part of the multi-mode hybrid vehicles' control strategy, combined with a vehicle torque distribution strategy to realize an optimal working condition of the power sources, as well as achieve smooth mode switching. This paper builds hybrid electric vehicle driveline dynamics model and depth analyzes drive mode transition process, coordinated control methods were provided to solve three types of mode switching, neural network algorithm was provided to estimate the engine torque. The results show that coordinated control can reduce torque fluctuations and decrease jerk during the transition of different modes to improve the vehicle drivability.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Source Identification of Bus Floor's Vibration

2014-04-01
2014-01-0014
To find out the main excitation sources of a bus floor's vibration, modal analysis and spectral analysis were respectively performed in the paper. First we tested the vibration modal of the bus's floor under the full-load condition, and the first ten natural frequencies and vibration modes were obtained for the source identification of the bus floor's vibration. Second the vibration characteristic of the bus floor was measured in an on-road experiment. The acceleration sensors were arranged on the bus's floor and the possible excitation sources of the bus, which includes engine mounting system, driveline system, exhaust system, and wheels. Then the on-road experiment was carefully conducted on a highway under the four kinds of test condition: in-situ acceleration, uniform velocity (90km/h, 100km/h, 110km/h, 120km/h), uniform acceleration with top gear, and stall sliding condition with neutral gear.
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