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Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Heat Release and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine Operated on DME

2001-09-24
2001-01-3634
In this study, an experimental investigation was conducted using a direct injection single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a test common rail fuel injection system to clarify how dimethyl ether (DME) injection characteristics affect the heat release and exhaust emissions. For that purpose the common rail fuel injection system (injection pressure: 15 MPa) and injection nozzle (0.55 × 5-holes, 0.70 × 3-holes, same total holes area) have been used for the test. First, to characterize the effect of DME physical properties on the macroscopic spray behavior: injection quantity, injection rate, penetration, cone angle, volume were measured using high-pressure injection chamber (pressure: 4MPa). In order to clarify effects of the injection process on HC, CO, and NOx emissions, as well as the rate of heat release were investigated by single-cylinder engine test. The effects of the injection rate and swirl ratio on exhaust emissions and heat release were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Environmental Parameters on Real-World NOx Emissions and Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Using an OBD Approach

2018-09-10
2018-01-1817
OBD (On-Board Diagnostic) test system is applied to research influences of environmental parameters (altitude and environment temperature) on real-world NOx emission and fuel consumption for heavy-duty diesel trucks in this paper. The research results indicate that altitude and environment temperature have great influence on NOx emission rate and fuel consumption. High altitude in range of 3000~4000 m results in NOx emission rate is lower than low and moderate temperature because of air intake amount decreasing. However the fuel consumption rate is higher than lower altitude because altitude influences real-time changes of air inflow and combustion conditions in the cylinder of the engine. NOx emission rate and fuel consumption is more stable at different vehicle speed, VSP and RPM at high altitude, and NOx emission rate fluctuate dramatically at low and moderate altitude. The fuel consumption rate is higher at 10~20 °C than that at lower and higher temperature.
Technical Paper

Studies on Steering Feeling Feedback System Based on Nonlinear Vehicle Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-1494
The steer-by-wire system has been widely studied due to many advantages such as good controllability. In the system, the steering column is cancelled and the driver can't feel the feedback torque (also called steering feeling) coming from the ground. Therefore a steering feeling feedback system is needed. In this paper, we propose a simple method to calculate desired feedback torque based on a nonlinear 2DOF vehicle model. The vehicle model contains the nonlinearity of tire. So that the proposed method is also appropriate for big acceleration conditions. Besides that, the properties of steering system such as friction and stiffness are also taken into consideration. As for conventional steering system, driver can only feel part of the feedback torque due to the power assist system. In order to provide steering feeling similar to conventional steering system, a weighting function is proposed to compensate the influence of power assist system.
Journal Article

Prediction of Automotive Ride Performance Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Fuzzy Clustering

2015-06-15
2015-01-2260
Artificial intelligence systems are highly accepted as a technology to offer an alternative way to tackle complex and non-linear problems. They can learn from data, and they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data. Once trained, they can perform prediction and generalization at high speed. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel approach utilizing the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and the fuzzy clustering method for automotive ride performance estimation. This study investigated the relationship between the automotive ride performance and relative parameters including speed, spring stiffness, damper coefficients, ratios of sprung and unsprung mass. A Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy inference system associated with artificial neuro network was employed. The C-mean fuzzy clustering method was used for grouping the data and identifying membership functions.
Technical Paper

Hierarchical Framework for Adaptive Cruise Control with Model Predictive Control Method

2017-09-23
2017-01-1963
Adaptive cruise control (ACC), as one of the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), has become increasingly popular in improving both driving safety and comfort. Since the objectives of ACC can be multi-dimensional, and often conflict with each other, it is a challenging task in its control design. The research presented in this paper takes ACC control design as a constrained optimization problem with multiple objectives. A hierarchical framework for ACC control is introduced, aimed to achieve optimal performance on driving safety and comfort, speed and/or distance tracking, and fuel economy whenever possible. Under the hierarchical framework, the operational mode is determined in the upper layer, in which a model predictive control (MPC) based spacing controller is employed to deal with the multiple control objectives. On the other hand, the lower layer is for actuator control, such as braking and driving control for vehicle longitudinal dynamics.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Illumination Condition Effect on Vehicle Detection in Photo-Realistic Virtual World

2017-09-23
2017-01-1998
Intelligent driving, aimed for collision avoidance and self-navigation, is mainly based on environmental sensing via radar, lidar and/or camera. While each of the sensors has its own unique pros and cons, camera is especially good at object detection, recognition and tracking. However, unpredictable environmental illumination can potentially cause misdetection or false detection. To investigate the influence of illumination conditions on detection algorithms, we reproduced various illumination intensities in a photo-realistic virtual world, which leverages recent progress in computer graphics, and verified vehicle detection effect there. In the virtual world, the environmental illumination is controlled precisely from low to high to simulate different illumination conditions in the driving scenarios (with relative luminous intensity from 0.01 to 400). Sedan cars with different colors are modelled in the virtual world and used for detection task.
Technical Paper

Traffic Modeling Considering Motion Uncertainties

2017-09-23
2017-01-2000
Simulation has been considered as one of the key enablers on the development and testing for autonomous driving systems as in-vehicle and field testing can be very time-consuming, costly and often impossible due to safety concerns. Accurately modeling traffic, therefore, is critically important for autonomous driving simulation on threat assessment, trajectory planning, etc. Traditionally when modeling traffic, the motion of traffic vehicles is often considered to be deterministic and modeled based on its governing physics. However, the sensed or perceived motion of traffic vehicles can be full of errors or inaccuracy due to the inaccurate and/or incomplete sensing information. In addition, it is naturally true that any future trajectories are unknown. This paper proposes a novel modeling method on traffic considering its motion uncertainties, based on Gaussian process (GP).
Technical Paper

Identification of Driver Individualities Using Random Forest Model

2017-09-23
2017-01-1981
Driver individualities is crucial for the development of the Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS). Due to the mechanism that specific driving operation action of individual driver under typical conditions is convergent and differentiated, a novel driver individualities recognition method is constructed in this paper using random forest model. A driver behavior data acquisition system was built using dSPACE real-time simulation platform. Based on that, the driving data of the tested drivers were collected in real time. Then, we extracted main driving data by principal component analysis method. The fuzzy clustering analysis was carried out on the main driving data, and the fuzzy matrix was constructed according to the intrinsic attribute of the driving data. The drivers’ driving data were divided into multiple clusters.
Technical Paper

Research on Temperature Stability of an Independent Energy Supply Device with Organic Rankine Cycles Based on Hydraulic Retarder

2017-09-22
2017-01-7003
Hydraulic retarder, as an auxiliary braking device, is widely used in commercial vehicles. Nowadays, the hydraulic retarder’s internal oil is mainly cooled by the coolant circuit directly. It not only aggravates the load of engine cooling system, but also makes the abundant heat energy not be recycled properly. In this study, an independent energy supply device with organic Rankine cycles is applied to solve the problems above. In the structure of this energy supply device, the evaporator’s inlet and outlet is connected in parallel with the oil outlet and inlet of the retarder respectively. A part of oil enters the evaporator to transfer heat with the organic fluid, and the rest of oil enters the oil-water heat exchanger to be cooled by the coolant circuit. According to the different braking conditions of the retarder, the oil temperature in the inlet of the hydraulic retarder can be kept within the proper range through adjusting the oil flow rate into the evaporator properly.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Stability Control Strategy Based on Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1565
A vehicle dynamics stability control system based on integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (I-EHB) system with hierarchical control architecture and nonlinear control method is designed to improve the vehicle dynamics stability under extreme conditions in this paper. The I-EHB system is a novel brake-by-wire system, and is suitable to the development demands of intelligent vehicle technology and new energy vehicle technology. Four inlet valves and four outlet valves are added to the layout of a conventional four-channel hydraulic control unit. A permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) provides a stabilized high-pressure source in the master cylinder, and the four-channel hydraulic control unit ensures that the pressures in each wheel cylinder can be modulated separately at a high precision. Besides, the functions of Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System and Regenerative Braking System, Autonomous Emergency Braking can be integrated in this brake-by-wire system.
Technical Paper

Performance Characteristics Analysis of Variable Expansion Ratio Expander Based on Organic Rankine Cycle for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery

2017-10-08
2017-01-2183
A reciprocating piston expander model based on organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is built for engine waste heat recovery. The expander characterizes by variable expansion ratio through adjusting working fluid injection timing. This paper investigates the effect of working fluid evaporating pressure, expansion ratio and clearance volume on the expander performance which mainly includes output power, equivalent recovery efficiency, total output power, expander efficiency, and the weighted efficiency of the expander, weighted heat recovery efficiency of the expander. The results demonstrate that the total output power and the equivalent heat recovery efficiency increase with working fluid evaporating pressure under overall operating conditions, while the increment is negligible. The expander reaches maximum total output power up to 83.4kW under c100 engine condition and 1.1MPa working fluid evaporating pressure within the research operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Overtaking or Merging? Eco-Routing Decision and Speed Trajectory with Full Terrain Information

2018-04-03
2018-01-0038
With vehicle platooning becoming an important research field in recent years, it is now imperative to introduce platoons as part of the dynamic environment, considering overtaking and merging possibilities. This article studies optimal speed trajectories and longitudinal control with optimized energy efficiency for an autonomous vehicle with several preceding platoons and full terrain information. It aims at improving the energy efficiency of vehicles with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). A forward discrete dynamic programming (DDP) algorithm with distance as the discretization basis is used to derive speed trajectories in the trade-off between air drag reduction and energy saved by utilizing the road slope information. The problem is decomposed into decisions whether to overtake or to merge into the nearest platoon with the assumption of sufficient distance among platoons.
Technical Paper

Driving Behavior Prediction at Roundabouts Based on Integrated Simulation Platform

2018-04-03
2018-01-0033
Due to growing interest in automated driving, the need for better understanding of human driving behavior in uncertain environment, such as driving behavior at un-signalized crossroad and roundabout, has further increased. Driving behavior at roundabout is greatly influenced by different dynamic factors such as speed, distance and circulating flow of the potentially conflicting vehicles, and drivers should choose whether to leave or wait at the upcoming exit according to these factors. In this paper, the influential dynamic factors and driving behavior characteristics at the roundabout is analyzed in detail, random forest method is then deployed to predict the driving behavior. For training the driving behavior model, four typical roundabout layouts were created under a real-time driving simulator with PanoSim-RT and dSPACE. Traffic participants with different motion style were also set in the simulation platform to mimic real driving conditions.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Testing and Evaluation Approach for Autonomous Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0124
Performance testing and evaluation always plays an important role in the developmental process of a vehicle, which also applies to autonomous vehicles. The complex nature of an autonomous vehicle from architecture to functionality demands even more quality-and-quantity controlled testing and evaluation than ever before. Most of the existing testing methodologies are task-or-scenario based and can only support single or partial functional testing. These approaches may be helpful at the initial stage of autonomous vehicle development. However, as the integrated autonomous system gets mature, these approaches fall short of supporting comprehensive performance evaluation. This paper proposes a novel hierarchical and systematic testing and evaluation approach to bridge the above-mentioned gap.
Technical Paper

Aeroelastic Response and Structural Improvement for Heavy-Duty Truck Cab Deflectors

2019-01-14
2019-01-5004
Numerical simulations on the fluid-structure interaction were conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+ and ABAQUS. The aeroelastic responses of a deflector under several different working conditions were simulated utilizing finite volume and finite element methods to investigate the aeroelastic problem of automotive deflectors. Results showed that the structural response of a top deflector is minimal under the influence of aerodynamics given its large structural stiffness. The size of the top deflector was optimised by using thickness as a variable. The volume and quality of the top deflector were significantly reduced, and its lightweight performance was improved to satisfy the stiffness performance requirement. The vibration of a side deflector structure was mainly induced by the turbulence on the structure surface. The amplitude of vibration was small and the vibration gradually converged in a few seconds without obvious regularity.
Technical Paper

Research on Control Algorithm of Active Steering Control Based on the Driver Intention

2019-11-04
2019-01-5064
Active steering technology can improve the operability of the driver by the involvement to the steering system. Driver is the major controller of the vehicle Therefore, the involvement of advanced technologies including the active steering technology shouldn’t interfere with the intention of the driver, and the driver should still have great control of the vehicle. The aim of this paper is to solve the problem of the driver’s control when the active steering system works to improve the flexibility of the low speed and the stability of the high speed, and the active steering model based on the driver’s steering intention is established. Through the CarSim simulation software, this paper adopts 9 parameters related to the vehicle steering of the DLC (Double Line Change). And PCA (Principal Component Analysis) algorithm, a tool of statistical analysis, is applied to select 4 parameters which can stand for the DLC from the 9 parameters, which makes the data processing easier.
Technical Paper

Research on the Classification and Identification for Personalized Driving Styles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1096
Most of the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) applications are aiming at improving both driving safety and comfort. Understanding human drivers' driving styles that make the systems more human-like or personalized for ADAS is the key to improve the system performance, in particular, the acceptance and adaption of ADAS to human drivers. The research presented in this paper focuses on the classification and identification for personalized driving styles. To motivate and reflect the information of different driving styles at the most extent, two sets, which consist of six kinds of stimuli with stochastic disturbance for the leading vehicles are created on a real-time Driver-In-the-Loop Intelligent Simulation Platform (DILISP) with PanoSim-RT®, dSPACE® and DEWETRON® and field test with both RT3000 family and RT-Range respectively.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy PID Based Optimization of Starting Control for AMT Clutch of Heavy-duty Trucks

2018-04-03
2018-01-1166
Starting control has become a troublesome issue in the developing field of the control system for heavy-duty trucks, due to the complexity of vehicle driving and the variability of driver's intention. The too fast clutch engagement may result in serious impact, influence on the comfort and fatigue life, and even the engine flameout, while the too slow clutch engagement may lead to long time of friction, the increased temperature, and accelerated wear of friction pair, as well as influence on the power performance and fatigue life[1]. Therefore, the key technique of starting control is clutch engagement control, for which the fuzzy PID based optimization of starting control for AMT clutch is proposed, with the pneumatic AMT clutch of heavy-duty trucks as the research object.
Technical Paper

Optimal Anti-vibration Design of Vehicle-mounted Vibration Isolation Platform

2018-04-03
2018-01-1400
A vehicle-mounted anti-vibration system is designed to semi-actively reduce accelerations acting on vibration isolation platform under different road conditions. To provide the basis for optimal anti-vibration design, the kinematics and dynamics of the platform are analyzed to investigate the relationship between leg length, strength, the platform position and vibration properties. As the platform is fixed on vehicle, a combined vehicle-platform model is necessary for verifying the performance and applying some suitable control algorithms. Also, typical digital testing roads will be built using road load spectrum. To optimize the platform parameters, especially stiffness and damping, an active control system is designed at first. An anti-vibration system including a semi-active inerter is designed to match the control forces which are calculated from the above active system.
Technical Paper

Deterioration Characteristic of Catalyzed DPF Applied on Diesel Truck Durable Ageing

2018-09-10
2018-01-1701
In this paper, it was researched the degradation characteristics of catalytic performance of three kinds of DPFs (C1, C2 and C3, with precious metal concentrations being 15, 25 and 35 g/ft3 respectively) after diesel truck aging. It is found out that the crystallinity of three kinds of DPF samples (Used) in full vehicle aging was higher than that of fresh samples (Fresh) and aged samples (Aged) in the laboratory. Compared with Fresh samples, the concentration of Pt atom in precious metal on the surface of Aged and Used samples tends to decrease in most cases. Activities to CO and C3H8 of Aged and Used samples of three kinds of DPFs had all been degraded, and activity degradation showed a substantial correlation with concentration reduction rate of precious metal on the carrier surface. NO2 productivity of Used samples all rose. Crystallinity of DPF samples after full vehicle aging in Inlet, Middle and Outlet areas successively increased.
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