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Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Desulfurization Filter

The molecular filtration of sulfur components in ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel is described. A comprehensive screening of potential sulfur removal chemistries has yielded a sorbent which has the capability to efficiently remove organo-sulfur components in ULSD fuel. This sorbent has been used to treat ULSD fuel on a heavy duty engine equipped with NOx adsorber after-treatment technology and has been shown to lengthen the time between desulfation steps for the NOx adsorber. The fuel properties, cetane number and aromatics content, etc., have not been changed by the removal of the sulfur in the fuel with the exception of the lubricity which is reduced.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Metallic Substrate Design for Close Coupled Converter Application

The implementations of the Tier 2 and LEVII emission levels require fast catalyst light-off and fast closed loop control through high-speed engine management. The paper describes the development of innovative catalyst designs. During the development thermal and mechanical boundary conditions were collected and component tests conducted on test rigs to identify the emission and durability performance. The products were evaluated on a Super Imposed Test Setup (SIT) where thermal and mechanical loads are applied to the test piece simultanously and results are compared to accelerated vehicle power train endurance runs. The newly developed light-off catalyst with Perforated Foil Technology (PE) showed superior emission light-off characteristic and robustness.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Three-Way Catalyst Formulation on Sulphur Tolerance and Emissions from Gasoline Fuelled Vehicles

In a collaborative programme, the effects of gasoline sulphur content on regulated emissions from three-way catalyst equipped vehicles have been studied. The programme evaluated the sulphur tolerance of three different catalyst formulations on the same range of vehicles. The catalyst chemistries were chosen to be representative of typical current formulations in different markets, as follows: 1. Platinum/Rhodium (Pt/Rh) 2. Platinum/Rhodium/Nickel (Pt/Rh/Ni) 3. Palladium/Rhodium (Pd/Rh) Each vehicle/catalyst combination was tested with fuels containing sulphur at nominal levels of 50, 250 and 450 ppm weight. All fuels were produced using the low sulphur fuel as a base and doping to 250 and 450 ppm S with a mixture of nine sulphur compounds, typical of those actually occurring in European gasolines. The results show clear differences between the magnitudes of the sulphur effect with different catalyst formulations.
Technical Paper

The Use of Palladium in Advanced Catalysts

New advanced Pd only, Pd:Rh and Pt:Pd:Rh catalysts are compared with a current platinum rhodium catalyst after poisoning and thermal ageing. The results indicate that at equivalent precious metal cost (at 1994 prices) the advanced palladium based catalysts achieve significantly improved performance compared with current Pt, Rh and Pd technology. The new Pd:Rh formulation is recommended for close coupled locations and the Pt:Pd:Rh formulation recommended for underfloor locations where residual fuel lead may be present. The formation of H2S is shown to be low with the palladium based catalysts. Finally, it is shown that the new catalysts with balanced oxidation and reduction capability perform better in multi-brick systems than addition of a highly loaded palladium only front brick.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Durability of Passive Diesel Particulate Filters on Heavy-Duty Vehicles

A multi-year technology validation program was completed in 2001 to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different diesel fleets operating in Southern California. The fuels used throughout the validation program were diesel fuels with less than 15-ppm sulfur content. Trucks and buses were retrofitted with two types of passive DPFs. Two rounds of emissions testing were performed to determine if there was any degradation in the emissions reduction. The results demonstrated robust emissions performance for each of the DPF technologies over a one-year period. Detailed descriptions of the overall program and results have been described in previous SAE publications [2, 3, 4, 5]. In 2002, a third round of emission testing was performed by NREL on a small subset of vehicles in the Ralphs Grocery Truck fleet that demonstrated continued robust emissions performance after two years of operation and over 220,000 miles.
Technical Paper

Field Test Trucks Fulfilling EPA'07 Emission Levels On-Road by Utilizing the Combined DPF and Urea-SCR System

Two campaigns measuring on-road emissions of 23 VN-trucks on a randomly chosen driving cycle, consisting of 10 miles two-lane and 8 miles four-lane road were performed. The first, during October 2004, showed tailpipe NOx emissions on fleet average of 1.06 g/bhp-hr including the time the exhaust gas temperature was below 200°C. The second, during June 2005, showed tailpipe NOx emissions on fleet average of 1.13 g/bhp-hr including the time the exhaust gas temperature was below 200°C. Complementary measurements in a SET-cycle (13 point OICA-cycle) on a chassis dynamometer showed a tailpipe emission of 0.008 g PM per bhp-hr. Moreover, cost analysis show that the diesel fuel consumption remains unchanged whether the truck running on ULSD is equipped with a Combined Exhaust gas AfterTreatment System (CEATS) installed or not.
Technical Paper

Advanced Three-Way Catalyst Formulations for High Temperature Applications

Enhancements in the thermal stability of three-way catalysts have been achieved by: 1) developing improved methods for the incorporation of ceria into catalyst formulations and 2) identifying a proprietary stabilizer which reduces the rate of ceria sintering at high temperature. Improvements in thermal stability are demonstrated by comparing the FTP and engine dynamometer performance of new formulations with a standard formulation after aging on several high temperature engine dynamometer cycles.
Technical Paper


Flow-through diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC's) have been shown to be an effective means of reducing emissions from diesel engines. In this work, the further development of diesel oxidation catalysts for the control of emissions from heavy duty engines is illustrated. Laboratory reactor and engine dynamometer data obtained from engine-based accelerated poisoning and aging studies demonstrate that HC, CO and SO2 oxidation by DOC's can be modified by adjusting platinum and vanadium loadings in alumina-based Pt/V catalyst formulations. The performance and durability of this type of catalyst system are demonstrated with several aging cycles on heavy-duty engines. The fresh performance of two catalyst systems was determined on both US Heavy Duty Transient and ECE-R49 Test cycles with a 1991 calibration Perkins Phaser 6.0 L engine. Gas phase emissions were reduced by a similar amount for both catalysts over both cycles (HC: 60-70%, CO: 45-75%).
Technical Paper

Nickel-Free Hydrogen Sulfide Control Technology for European Applications

In the USA, hydrogen sulfide emissions from three-way catalytic converter-equipped automobiles are effectively suppressed by the addition of nickel to catalyst formulations. This approach is generally not utilized in catalyst formulations for Europe because of European concern about the health, safety and environmental issues surrounding the use of nickel. A modified form of iron oxide has been identified which suppresses hydrogen sulfide emissions from three-way catalysts. This suppression has been achieved without affecting the fresh or aged performance of the catalyst, a problem often encountered with other materials. The performance and durability of catalyst formulations incorporating the new material are demonstrated with a variety of aging and evaluation protocols.
Technical Paper

High Performance Advanced Three-way Catalysts For The Proposed 2004 And 2008 Mercosur Emissions Standards

Recently, significantly more demanding emissions standards for the Mercosur region were proposed, and the intention is that these will be introduced in 2004 and 2008. This paper describes the development of new high performance three-way catalyst formulations for conventional gasoline/gasohol fueled engines that enables them to meet these stringent standards without increasing the content of platinum group metals above the levels currently employed. The performance benefits of these advanced platinum and palladium-based catalysts are demonstrated on both engine bench and vehicles.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

Investigations into NOx Aftertreatment with Urea SCR for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

Future US emissions limits are likely to mean a sophisticated nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction technique is required for all vehicles with a diesel engine, which is likely to be either NOx trap or selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology. To investigate the potential of SCR for NOx reduction on a light duty vehicle, a current model vehicle (EUII M1 calibration), of inertia weight 1810 kg, was equipped with an urea-based SCR injection system and non-vanadium, non-zeolitic SCR catalysts. To deal with carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and volatile organic fraction (VOF), a diesel oxidation catalyst was also incorporated into the system for most tests. Investigations into the effect of placing the oxidation catalyst at different positions in the system, changing the volume of the SCR catalysts, increasing system temperature through road load changes, varying the SCR catalyst composition, and changing the urea injection calibration are discussed.
Technical Paper

Comparison of De-NOx and Adsorber Catalysts to Reduce NOx - Emissions of Lean Burn Gasoline Engines

A comparison of two different types of NOx reducing catalysts will be worked out. The potential of two De-NOx catalysts using engine out hydrocarbon emissions for NOx conversion will be shown by variation of different engine parameters. An analysis of the hydrocarbon species upstream and downstream catalyst will demonstrate, which components are responsible for the NOx reduction in the exhaust gas of a lean burn engine. By variation of different parameters during adsorbtion and regeneration phases of the adsorber catalyst the efficiency in NOx reduction will be optimized. An assessment of the suitability for lean burn engines will consider the emission reduction efficiency as well as the influence on engine fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Catalytic Reduction of NOx in Diesel Exhaust

Reduction of nitrogen oxides in Diesel exhaust gas is a challenging task. This paper reports results from an extensive study using Pt-based catalysts involving synthetic gas activity testing (SCAT), engine bench testing and tests on passenger cars. Preliminary SCAT work highlighted the importance of Pt-dispersion, and both SCAT and bench engine testing yielded comparable NOx conversions under steady state conditions at high HC:NOx ratios. On passenger cars in the European cycle without secondary fuel injection NOx conversion was lower than obtained in the steady state tests. Better conversion was obtained in the FTP cycle, where secondary injection was employed. Higher HC:NOx, ratios and more favourable temperature conditions which were present in the exhaust contributed to this higher conversion.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of Precious Metal Loadings in Automotive Catalysts Using Response Surface Methodology

The effect of changing catalyst precious metal ratios and loadings on close coupled catalytic converter efficiencies has been studied. The three precious metals were platinum, palladium and rhodium. The specific matrix used for the development of response surface models is a central composite design and provides the capability of visually optimising the precious metal loadings. Catalysts were evaluated using perturbed scans. lightoff curves from the dynamometer aged, and vehicle emission tests. These scans show percent conversion efficiencies of the three legislated gases; HC, CO and NOx, over a range of Air Fuel Ratios (λ). Whilst lean and rich lightoff curves provide indications of conversion efficiencies at varying temperatures. Prior to testing the catalysts were aged, using an accelerated dynamometer ageing process, to 80K simulated kilometres. The catalysts were then fitted to a vehicle and chassis roll emission tests conducted.
Technical Paper

Effect of a Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter on Non-Regulated Emissions and Particle Size Distribution

The reduction of particulate emissions from diesel engines is one of the most challenging problems associated with exhaust pollution control, second only to the control of NOx from any “lean burn” application. Particulate emissions can be controlled by adjustments to the combustion parameters of a diesel engine but these measures normally result in increased emissions of oxides of nitrogen. Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) hold out the prospect of substantially reducing regulated particulate emissions and the task of actually removing the particles from the exhaust gas has been solved by the development of effective filtration materials. The question of the reliable regeneration of these filters in situ, however, remains a difficult hurdle. Many of the solutions proposed to date suffer from high engineering complexity and/or high energy demand. In addition some have special disadvantages under certain operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flow Distribution on Emissions Performance of Catalytic Converters

The emissions performance of catalytic converters under different conditions of flow distribution was investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics methods were utilised to model the maldistribution effects of different inlet cones. The effects of maldistribution on ageing, light-off and conversion were investigated using steady state tests on an engine bench. Emission testing was also conducted on a vehicle throughout ECE and EUDC test cycles. Maldistribution was found to have a significant effect on the efficiency of the catalyst during the early stages of the ECE cycle for both fresh and aged catalysts. The effects were less significant over later stages of the ECE cycle and throughout the EUDC except NOx where maldistribution did have an effect on the conversion at higher flow rates during the later stages of the test.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Improvements to Meet European Stage III and ULEV Emissions Criteria

This paper describes the use of advanced three-way catalysts to meet future European and California low emissions legislation. Firstly, it describes the performance of these catalysts tested using the European Stage II test cycle and contrasts their emissions performance over the proposed European Stage III test. The future legislation requires fast catalyst light-off for the low emissions standards to be achieved, therefore the performance of close-coupled catalysts was investigated. The close-coupled catalyst systems gave very low emissions. Space constraints often preclude the use of large volume close-coupled catalysts, and the combination of a small starter catalyst with an underfloor catalyst was tested. This gave performance levels better than the close-coupled configuration. The effect of reducing the underfloor catalyst volume is also described. The work was carried out on a 1.2 litre European Vehicle, the conclusions were verified on a 1.6 litre European vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of Test Methods for Lean-NOx Catalyst Evaluation

A test method, based on parallel sample testing with exhaust fuel injection and certain test procedures, has been developed for diesel lean-NOx catalyst evaluation purposes. The results of the verification tests show uniform distribution of both the exhaust gas and the injected fuel, and a high degree of fuel evaporation. Test procedures are discussed from several points of view. The test method offers a precise and efficient way of testing lean-NOx catalysts on heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of NOx Storage Catalysts as an Effective System for NOx Removal from the Exhaust Gas of Leanburn Gasoline Engines

One possibility to improve the fuel economy of SI-engines is to run the engine with a lean air-fuel-ratio (AFR). Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide after-treatment has been proven under lean operation, but NOx-control remains a challenge to catalyst and car manufacturers. One strategy that is being considered is to run the engine lean with occasional operation at stoichiometry. This would be in conjunction with a three-way-catalyst (TWC) to achieve stoichiometric conversion of the three main pollutants in the normal way and a NOx trap. The NOx trap stores NOx under lean operation to be released and reduced under rich conditions. The trap also functions as a TWC and has good HC and CO conversion at both lean and stoichiometric AFR's. Under lean conditions NO is oxidised to NO2 on Pt which is then adsorbed on an oxide surface. Typical adsorbent materials include oxides of potassium, calcium, zirconium, strontium, lanthanum, cerium and barium.