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Technical Paper

Study of Nozzle Fouling: Deposit Build-Up and Removal

The global demand for decreased emission from engines and increased efficiency drives manufactures to develop more advanced fuel injection systems. Today's compression-ignited engines use common rail systems with high injection pressures and fuel injector nozzles with small orifice diameters. These systems are highly sensitive to small changes in orifice diameters since these could lead to deteriorations in spray characteristics, thus reducing engine performance and increasing emissions. Phenomena that could create problems include nozzle fouling caused by metal carboxylates or biofuels. The problems increase with extended use of biofuels. This paper reports on an experimental study of nozzle hole fouling performed on a single-cylinder engine. The aim was to identify if the solubility of the fuel has an effect on deposit build-up and, thus, the reduction in fuelling with associated torque loss, and if there is a probability of regenerating the contaminated injectors.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels

Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as a drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Low quality drop-in fuel can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified compounds were constituents of soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates since these have been found to be one of the components of the soft particles and associated with other engine malfunctions as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuel’s effect on engines.
Technical Paper

Contaminants Affecting the Formation of Soft Particles in Bio-Based Diesel Fuels during Degradation

Renewable fuels are essential in the field of heavy duty transportation if we are to reach a fossil-free society in the foreseeable future. However renewable diesel fuels based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) might face problems with degradation and with cold flow properties. From the perspective of an engine, this may cause problems in the fuel injection system, such as fuel filter clogging and injector deposits. These phenomena, especially fuel filter clogging, can be connected to gel-like soft particles, which could originate from degradation products as well as from byproducts created during biodiesel refining. In this study, soft particles from the degradation of bio-based diesel fuel were examined. The tested fuels included hydrogenated vegetable oils (HVO), rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and 10% blend of rapeseed methyl ester with standard diesel (B10).
Journal Article

Characterization of Deposits Collected from Plugged Fuel Filters

Fuel filters serve as a safety belt for modern compression ignition engines. To meet the requirements from environmental regulations these engines use the common rail injection system, which is highly susceptible to contamination from the fuel. Furthermore, the public awareness towards global warming is raising the need for renewable fuels such as biodiesel. An increased fuel variety brings a higher requirement for fuel filters as well. To better understand the process of filtration, awareness of the different possible contaminants from the field is needed. This study used several chemical characterization techniques to examine the deposits from plugged fuel filters collected from the field. The vehicle was run with a biodiesel blend available on the market.
Technical Paper

A Measurement of Fuel Filters’ Ability to Remove Soft Particles, with a Custom-Built Fuel Filter Rig

Biofuel can enable a sustainable transport solution and lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to standard fuels. This study focuses on biodiesel, implemented in the easiest way as drop in fuel. When mixing biodiesel into diesel one can run into problems with solubility causing contaminants precipitating out as insolubilities. These insolubilities, also called soft particles, can cause problems such as internal injector deposits and nozzle fouling. One way to overcome the problem of soft particles is by filtration. It is thus of great interest to be able to quantify fuel filters’ ability to intercept soft particles. The aim of this study is to test different fuel filters for heavy-duty engines and their ability to filter out synthetic soft particles. A custom-built fuel filter rig is presented, together with some of its general design requirements. For evaluation of the efficiency of the filters, fuel samples were taken before and after the filters.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics, Performance and NOx Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Ethanol-Diesel Direct Injection Engine

Diffusive combustion of direct injected ethanol is investigated in a heavy-duty single cylinder engine for a broad range of operating conditions. Ethanol has a high potential as fossil fuel alternative, as it provides a better carbon footprint and has more sustainable production pathways. The introduction of ethanol as fuel for heavy-duty compression-ignition engines can contribute to decarbonize the transport sector within a short time frame. Given the resistance to autoignition of ethanol, the engine is equipped with two injectors mounted in the same combustion chamber, allowing the simultaneous and independent actuation of the main injection of pure ethanol and a pilot injection of diesel as an ignition source. The influence of the dual-fuel injection strategy on ethanol ignition, combustion characteristics, engine performance and NOx emissions is evaluated by varying the start of injection of both fuels and the ethanol-diesel ratio.
Technical Paper

On the Effects of Urea and Water Injection on Particles across the SCR Catalyst in a Heavy - Duty Euro VI Diesel Engine

Particle emissions from heavy-duty engines are regulated both by mass and number by Euro VI regulation. Understanding the evolution of particle size and number from the exhaust valve to the tail pipe is of vital importance to expand the possibilities of particle reduction. In this study, experiments were carried out on a heavy-duty Euro VI engine after-treatment system consisting of diesel oxidation catalyst, diesel particulate filter and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit with AdBlue injection followed by ammonia slip catalyst. The present work focusses on the SCR unit with regard to total particle number with and without nucleation particles both. Experiments were conducted by varying the AdBlue injection quantity, SCR inlet temperature [to vary the reaction temperature], exhaust mass flow rate [to vary the residence time in SCR], and fuel injection pressures [to vary inlet particle number and inlet NOx].
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing the Formation of Soft Particles in Biodiesel

In order to mitigate the effect of fossil fuels on global warming, biodiesel is used as drop in fuel. However, in the mixture of biodiesel and diesel, soft particles may form. These soft particles are organic compounds, which can originate from the production and degradation of biodiesel. Further when fuel is mixed with unwanted contaminants such as engine oil the amount soft particles can increase. The presence of these particles can cause malfunction in the fuel system of the engine, such as nozzle fouling, internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) or fuel filter plugging. Soft particles and the mechanism of their formation is curtail to understand in order to study and prevent their effects on the fuel system. This paper focuses on one type of soft particles, which are metal soaps. More precisely on the role of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) during their formation. In order to do so, aged and unaged B10 was studied.