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Technical Paper

Quantification of Intake System Noise Using an Experimental Source-Transfer-Receiver Model

Design optimisation with respect to interior noise is currently a topic of great concern for the automotive industry. An essential element in this process is to obtain a correct understanding of the various noise sources which are present, and the ways in which these sources propagate to the critical receiver. An experimental source-transfer-receiver methodology is presented, that allows quantifying the structure borne and airborne source strength of the intake system components and its contribution to the interior noise. The method allows interior noise optimisation after identification of the dominant contributors. The methodology is applied to identify the noise contribution of the air intake system to the interior noise of an 8-cylinder upper class vehicle. Correlation of the Structure Borne Transfer Path Analysis and Airborne Source Quantification models with physical decoupling experiments demonstrates a high correspondence.
Technical Paper

Advances in Industrial Modal Analysis

One of the scientific fields where, for already more than 20 years, system identification plays a crucial role is this of structural dynamics and vibro-acoustic system optimization. The experimental approach is based on the “Modal Analysis” concept. The present paper reviews the test procedure and system identification principles of this approach. The main focus though is on the real problems with which engineers, performing modal analysis on complex structures on a daily basis, are currently confronted. The added value of several new testing approaches (laser methods, smart transducers…) and identification algorithms (spatial domain, subspace, maximum likelihood,..) for solving these problems is shown. The discussed elements are illustrated with a number of industrial case studies.
Technical Paper

Tire and Car Contribution and Interaction to Low Frequency Interior Noise

A joint study was conducted between BMW and Goodyear with the objective of analysing the cause and identifying methods to reduce the structure-borne interior noise in a vehicle driving on rough road surfaces. A vibro-acoustic characterization of the car was performed by measuring the car vibro-acoustic transfer functions and by using a transfer path analysis technique to identify the main suspension parts affecting the interior noise at target frequencies. The vibration transmissibility characteristics of the tire were measured and also simulated by Finite Element in [1-200Hz] frequency range. The vibro-acoustic interaction between the tire and car sub-systems was examined. A Finite Element sensitivity analysis was used to define and build new prototype tires. A 3dB(A) interior noise improvement was obtained with these new tires at target frequencies.
Technical Paper

Structural Modelling of Car Panels Using Holographic Modal Analysis

In order to optimise the vibro-acoustic behaviour of panel-like structures in a more systematic way, accurate structural models are needed. However, at the frequencies of relevance to the vibro-acoustic problem, the mode shapes are very complex, requiring a high spatial resolution in the measurement procedure. The large number of required transducers and their mass loading effects limit the applicability of accelerometer testing. In recent years, optical measuring methods have been proposed. Direct electronic (ESPI) imaging, using strobed continuous laser illumination, or more recently, pulsed laser illumination, have lately created the possibility to bring the holographic testing approach to the level of industrial applicability for modal analysis procedures. The present paper discusses the various critical elements of a holographic ESPI modal testing system.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Method for On-Line Oil Consumption Measurement

Fast and exact measurement of engine oil consumption is a very difficult task. Our aim is to achieve this measurement at a common test bed without engine modifications. We resolved this problem with a new technique using Laser Mass Spectrometry to detect appropriate tracers in the raw engine exhaust. The tracers are added to the engine oil. to the engine oil. For detection of these tracers we use a Laser Mass Spectrometer (LAMS). This is a combination of resonant laser ionization (with an all-solid-state laser) and Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Currently this is the only way to detect oil originated molecules (like our tracers) in the raw exhaust very fast (50 Hz) and sensitive (ppb-region). Thus, engine mapping of oil consumption over load and speed can be performed in 1-2 days with about 90 measurements. Even measurement during dynamic engine operation is possible, but not quantitative (due to the lack of information about dynamic exhaust gas mass flow).
Technical Paper

Using Mechanical-Acoustic Reciprocity for Diagnosis of Structure Borne Sound in Vehicles

The low frequency interior noise in cars is for a large part the result of structure borne excitation. The transfer of the structure borne sound involves a large number of components of the engine suspension, wheel suspension and chassis which are all potentially contributing to the overall noise level. This process can be analyzed through a combination of transfer function measurements with operational measurements under normal conditions. This technique, called transfer path analysis, requires large numbers of transfer function measurements with excitation of the body or cabin at the rubber mountings. Unfortunately, bad access to these crucial measurement locations causes either high instrumentation and measurement effort or less accurate measurement data. The practicality and quality of the measurements can be improved by using reciprocal measurements for the mechano-acoustic transfer of the body or cabin structure; a loudspeaker in the cavity is used for the reciprocal excitation.
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

Identification, Quantification and Reduction of Structural- Borne Road Noise in a Mid-Size Passenger Car

This paper presents the measurement & analysis procedures and the results of a complete road noise identification and reduction project on a midsize passenger car. Operational interior noise signals and structural accelerations are measured for several test conditions. The operating data are decomposed into sets of mathematically independent phenomena by Principal Component Analysis. Operating Deflection Shape Analysis and Transfer Path Analysis are applied to each of these independent phenomena. Critical transfer paths are thus identified and quantified. The interior sound level is amplified when the frequency content of the transmitted energy coincides with structural resonances or standing waves of the interior car cavity. The vehicle is dynamically characterized by Experimental Structural Modal Analysis and by Acoustic Modal Analysis.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of Low Frequency Noise Contributions of Interior Vehicle Body Panels in Normal Operation

Low frequency noise from engine- and wheel-vibrations often dominates the interior noise spectrum in vehicles. For the optimization of vehicle bodies it is necessary to know the contribution of individual body panels to sound pressures at the passengers ear. An experimental approach is presented which makes use of reciprocal acoustic transfer function measurements and surface acceleration measurements in normal road operation. This method, called Airborne Source Quantification, has been applied as a diagnostic tool to the interior noise of a four cylinder diesel engined van.
Technical Paper

Digital Aeroacoustics Design Method of Climate Systems for Improved Cabin Comfort

Over the past decades, interior noise from wind noise or engine noise have been significantly reduced by leveraging improvements of both the overall vehicle design and of sound package. Consequently, noise sources originating from HVAC systems (Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning), fans or exhaust systems are becoming more relevant for perceived quality and passenger comfort. This study focuses on HVAC systems and discusses a Flow-Induced Noise Detection Contributions (FIND Contributions) numerical method enabling the identification of the flow-induced noise sources inside and around HVAC systems. This methodology is based on the post-processing of unsteady flow results obtained using Lattice Boltzmann based Method (LBM) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations combined with LBM-simulated Acoustic Transfer Functions (ATF) between the position of the sources inside the system and the passenger’s ears.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Eigenfrequencies and Eigenmodes of Seatbelt Retractors in the Vehicle Environment, Supporting an Acoustically Optimal Retractor Integration by CAE

From an acoustical point of view, the integration of seatbelt retractors in a vehicle is a real challenge that has to be met early in the vehicle development process. The buzz and rattle noise of seat belt retractors is a weak yet disturbing interior noise. Street irregularities excite the wheels and this excitation is transferred via the car body to the mounting location of the retractor. Ultimately, the inertia sensor of the locking mechanism is also excited. This excitation can be amplified by structural resonances and generate a characteristic impact noise. The objective of this paper is to describe a simulation method for an early development phase that predicts the noise-relevant low frequency local modes and consequently the contact of the retractor with the mounting panel of the car body via the finite element method.
Technical Paper

Noise Contribution Analysis at Suspension Interfaces Using Different Force Identification Techniques

Road-tire induced vibrations are in many vehicles determining the interior noise levels in (semi-) constant speed driving. The understanding of the noise contributions of different connections of the suspension systems to the vehicle is essential in improvement of the isolation capabilities of the suspension- and body-structure. To identify these noise contributions, both the forces acting at the suspension-to-body connections points and the vibro-acoustic transfers from the connection points to the interior microphones are required. In this paper different approaches to identify the forces are compared for their applicability to road noise analysis. First step for the force identification is the full vehicle operational measurement in which target responses (interior noise) and indicator responses (accelerations or other) are measured.
Technical Paper

Virtual Car Sound Synthesis Technique for Brand Sound Design of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

One of the practical consequences of the development of low CO₂ emission cars is that many of the traditional NVH sound engineering processes no longer apply and must be revisited. Different and new sound sources, new constraints on vehicle body design (e.g., due to weight) and new sound perception characteristics make that the NVH knowledge built on generations of internal combustion-powered vehicles cannot be simply transferred to Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEV). Hence, the applicability of tools must be reviewed and extensions need to be developed where necessary. This paper focuses on sound synthesis tools as developed for ICE-powered vehicles. Because of the missing masking effect and the missing intake and exhaust noise of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) in electric vehicles, on one hand electric vehicles are quieter than traditional vehicles.
Journal Article

Effect of Local Mesh Refinement on Inverse Numerical Acoustics

Inverse numerical acoustics is a method which reconstructs the source surface normal velocity from the sound measured in the near-field around the source. This is of particular interest when the source is rotating or moving, too light or too hot to be instrumented by accelerometers. The use of laser vibrometers is often of no remedy due to the complex shape of the source. The Inverse Numerical Acoustics technique is based on the inversion of transfer relations (Acoustic Transfer Vectors) using truncated Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Most of the time the system is underdetermined which results in a non unique solution. The solution obtained by the truncated SVD is the minimal solution in the RMS sense. This paper is investigating the impact of non homogeneities in the mesh density (local mesh refinement) on the retrieved solution for underdetermined systems. It will be shown that if transfer quantities are inverted as such, big elements get a higher weight in the inversion.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Global Dynamics of Rotating Systems like Jet Engines, with Special Emphasis on Harmonic Analysis in the Presence of Bearing with Clearances

The paper presents first a description of the methods used for the analysis of global dynamics of rotating systems like jet engines but also auxiliary power units. Different methodologies are described so to model rotating parts using beam, but also Fourier multi-harmonic, three dimensional models or to take into account cyclic symmetry and multistage cyclic symmetry concepts. Advantages and disadvantages of the different model types are discussed and compared. The coupling of the rotating parts with casings and stators is then discussed both in the inertial frame and in the rotating frame. The effect on global dynamics of bearing and other linking devices is taken into account for different type of analysis from critical speed analysis, to harmonic and transient analysis. The effect of gears and gear boxes coupling different rotors (like it is the case for auxiliary power units in a jet engine) is then discussed and appropriate methods described so to model this coupling effect.
Technical Paper

Synergetic 1D-3D-Coupling in Engine Development Part I: Verification of Concept

This paper introduces an innovative approach, named synergetic 1D-3D-Coupling, by using synergy effects of 1D and 3D simulation in order to bring down modeling and simulation efforts. At the same time the methodology sustains the spatial resolution of a 3D model. This goal is reached by reducing the 3D fluid side with its time consuming continuity, momentum, energy and turbulence equations to a simple but precise 1D model. Because of the solid structure staying three dimensional, heat flux direction and spatial resolution have 3D accuracy but short calculation times due to the simple heat diffusion equation to be solved. The 1D model is represented by an automatically generated equation system which is capable of considering transient effects. The energy transfer between 1D fluid model and 3D structure model is realized through a neutral 1D-3D-coupling program and the application of the fluid element specific Nusselt correlations.
Journal Article

Modeling and Simulation of Torsional Vibration of the Compliant Sprocket in Balance Chain Drive Systems

The work presented in this paper outlines the development of a simulation model to aid in the design and development of a compliant sprocket for balancer drives. A design with dual-mass flywheel and a crank-mounted compliant chain sprocket greatly reduces interior noise levels due to chain meshing. However, experimental observations showed the compliant sprocket can enter into resonance and generate excessive vibration energy during startup. Special features are incorporated into the compliant sprocket design to absorb and dissipate this energy. Additional damper spring rate, high hysteresis and large motion angle that overlap the driving range may solve the problem during engine start-up period. This work develops a simulation model to help interpret the measured data and rank the effectiveness of the design alternatives. A Multibody dynamics system (MBS) model of the balancer chain drive has been developed, validated, and used to investigate the chain noise.
Technical Paper

A Steel Solution for a Firewall Using a Hybrid Test/CAE Approach

The firewall design of a BMW1 is optimized for interior noise and weight using a Hybrid Interior Noise Synthesis (HINS) approach. This method associates a virtual firewall with a test based body model. A vibro-acoustic model of the firewall panel, including trim elements and full vehicle boundary conditions, is used for predictions in the 40 Hz - 400 Hz range. The short calculation time of this set-up allows multiple design iterations. The firewall noise is reduced by 0.9 dB and its mass by 5.1% through structural changes. Crashworthiness is maintained at its initial level using advanced steel processing. The total interior noise shows improvement in the 90 Hz - 140 Hz range.
Technical Paper

A New Method for the Investigation of Unburned Oil Emissions in the Raw Exhaust of SI Engines

The study of oil emission is of essential interest for the engine development of modern cars, as well as for the understanding of hydrocarbon emissions especially during cold start conditions. A laser mass spectrometer has been used to measure single aromatic hydrocarbons in unconditioned exhaust gas of a H2-fueled engine at stationary and transient motor operation. These compounds represent unburned oil constituents. The measurements were accompanied by FID and GC-FID measurements of hydrocarbons which represent the burned oil constituents. The total oil consumption has been determined by measuring the oil sampled by freezing and weighing. It has been concluded that only 10 % of the oil consumption via exhaust gas has burned in the cylinders. A correlation of the emission of single oil-based components at ppb level detected with the laser mass spectrometer to the total motor oil emission has been found.