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Technical Paper

Diesel Particle Exhaust Emissions from Light Duty Vehiclesand Heavy Duty Engines

Diesel engines are widespread in both passenger car and heavy duty truck applications. However, despite that the combustion concepts are similar in the two cases, the engine calibration required for compliance with the different emission standards leads to distinct particle emission behavior from the two categories. This paper compares the exhaust particle emissions from heavy duty engines with typical diesel passenger cars of similar emission standard and/or emission control technology. Measurements were conducted with the same sampling system and sampling protocol to avoid interferences induced by the sampling methodology. A range of particle properties were studied, including mass, number of solid and total particles and total particle surface. For comparability, the results are expressed per unit of exhaust volume, per unit of fuel consumed and per unit of distance driven.
Technical Paper

Comparative Assessment of Two Different Sampling Systems for Particle Emission Type-Approval Measurements

The Particle Measurement Programme (PMP), initiated from different Member States, aims at developing a method and sampling recommendations for a particle number-based emission standard, to support future emission regulation in Europe. In this paper we applied two different commercially available dilution systems (an FPS from Dekati Ltd and an MD19-2E from Matter Engineering AG) to record the particle emissions of a Euro II and a Euro III diesel passenger car. The latter was also fitted with a diesel particle filter (DPF) to simulate future emission levels. At their present development stage, both dilution systems failed to totally comply with all requirements of the PMP protocol. The main problems appeared to be the lack of accurate determination of the dilution ratio and the inability to reach the desired dilution temperature.
Technical Paper

Designing Single-Purpose or Multi-Purpose Engines for On-Road and Non-Road Use - A Platform Approach

The paper gives an overview of the partially extremely complex problem when looking into commonalities and differences of the three main application areas of engines and powertrains - automotive, agricultural tractors, and industrial engines, the last being predominantly but not exclusively focused on construction equipment. The modern “platform” approach has been used in the automotive world to a large extent and the learned experiences may be of interest for the agricultural tractors and/or the construction equipment manufacturers. On the other hand the truck engine engineers and manufacturers will learn more about the special requirements of the tractor and the industrial engines fields, and thus influence concepts and development procedures and also the production of the automotive engines which in many cases serve as the basis for derivate engines.
Technical Paper

Overview of the European “Particulates” Project on the Characterization of Exhaust Particulate Emissions From Road Vehicles: Results for Light-Duty Vehicles

This paper presents an overview of the results on light duty vehicles collected in the “PARTICULATES” project which aimed at the characterization of exhaust particle emissions from road vehicles. A novel measurement protocol, developed to promote the production of nucleation mode particles over transient cycles, has been successfully employed in several labs to evaluate a wide range of particulate properties with a range of light duty vehicles and fuels. The measured properties included particle number, with focus separately on nucleation mode and solid particles, particle active surface and total mass. The vehicle sample consisted of 22 cars, including conventional diesels, particle filter equipped diesels, port fuel injected and direct injection spark ignition cars. Four diesel and three gasoline fuels were used, mainly differentiated with respect to their sulfur content which was ranging from 300 to below 10 mg/kg.
Technical Paper

Overview of the European “Particulates” Project on the Characterization of Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Vehicles: Results for Heavy Duty Engines

This paper presents an overview of the results on heavy duty engines collected in the “PARTICULATES” project, which aimed at the characterization of exhaust particle emissions from road vehicles. The same exhaust gas sampling and measurement system as employed for the measurements on light duty vehicles [1] was used. Measurements were made in three labs to evaluate a wide range of particulate properties with a range of heavy duty engines and fuels. The measured properties included particle number, with focus separately on nucleation mode and solid particles, particle active surface and total mass. The sample consisted of 10 engines, ranging from Euro-I to prototype Euro-V technologies. The same core diesel fuels were used as in the light duty programme, mainly differentiated with respect to their sulphur content. Additional fuels were tested by some partners to extend the knowledge base.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of a Novel Sampling and Measurement System for Exhaust Particle Characterization

This paper presents a novel partial flow sampling system for the characterization of airborne exhaust particle emissions. The sampled aerosol is first conditioned in a porous dilutor and then subsequent ejector dilutors are used to decrease its concentration to the range of the instrumentation used. First we examine the sensitivity of aerosol properties to boundary sampling conditions. This information is then used to select suitable sampling parameters to distinguish both the nucleation and the accumulation mode. Selecting appropriate sampling parameters, it is demonstrated that a distinct nucleation mode can be formed and measured with different instruments. Using these parameters we examine the performance of the system over transient vehicle operation. Additionally, we performed calculations of particle losses in the various components of the system which are then used to correct signals from the instruments.
Technical Paper

Particle Emissions Characteristics of Different On-Road Vehicles

Due to the stringent emission standards set worldwide, particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel vehicles have been significantly curtailed in the last decade, and are expected to be reduced even further in the future. This evolution has brought forward two main issues: whether PM emissions should only be regulated for diesel vehicles and whether gasoline powered vehicles can be further neglected from PM emission inventories. This paper addresses these issues comparing the characteristics of particle emissions from a current diesel passenger car, a gasoline one and two small two-wheelers. It is shown that the gasoline car is a negligible source of particle emissions while the two-wheelers may be even more significant particle sources than the diesel car.
Technical Paper

Can the Technology for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines be Common for Future Emission Regulations in USA, Japan and Europe?

Exhaust emission legislation world-wide have a common trend towards very low limits, measured for compliance in transient cycles specific for the United States, Japan and Europe. The emission development strategy is focussing on lowest engine-out emissions to require a minimum of exhaust gas aftertreatment. The base engine concept is described and test results, complying with Euro 4, are shown. The emission reduction development for future regulations requires exhaust gas aftertreatment, test results are shown for US 2007, JNLTR and Euro 5. With exhaust gas aftertreatment, discussed in the appendix, the engine development is faced with a big challenge to ensure the minimum exhaust gas temperature required for their proper function.
Technical Paper

The Clean Heavy Duty Diesel Engine of the Future: Strategies for Emission Compliance

The internal combustion engines, and the heavy duty truck diesel engines in particular, are facing a severe challenge to cope with the upcoming stringent emission legislation world-wide. To comply with these low limits, engine internal measures must be complemented with exhaust gas aftertreatment systems with sophisticated electronic control. A reduction of NOx and particulate emission of more than 90% is required. Various strategies to comply with Euro 4, 5 and US 2007 are discussed, also in view of engine performance, fuel economy and cooling system load. Recommendations are given for the most suitable approach to comply also in future with emission legislation in Europe and the United States.
Technical Paper

Sampling Conditions Effects on Real-Time Particle Measurements from a Light Duty Vehicle

The effect of sampling conditions on the diesel exhaust aerosol characteristics has been studied so far with the application of Electrostatic Classifiers under steady state conditions. This paper aims at examining the same effects with application of an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor under transient engine operating conditions. Explanation of the results obtained takes into account the different operational characteristics of this new technique (recorded magnitude, size range and resolution). The study confirms particle formation in the dilution tunnel and downstream of a DPF and also coagulation of liquid particles in the tunnel. However, separation of the liquid particle phase has led to modification of the aerosol properties in a direction which may be conversely recorded by instruments based on different operation principles.
Technical Paper

Impact of Future Exhaust Gas Emission Legislation on the Heavy Duty Truck Engine

Emission standards as proposed in Europe and the United States for heavy duty diesel engines will require a NOx and particulate reduction of more than 90%. This cannot be achieved by internal engine measures alone. Aftertreatment systems, for either one or both emission components, plus sophisticated electronic control strategies will be required. Various strategies to comply with EU 4, 5 and US 2007 are discussed, also showing their impact on engine performance. For typical 1 and 2 liter per cylinder engines, emission reduction concepts are assessed to identify the most suitable technology for major worldwide markets. The assessment is based on thermodynamic studies, test-bed results and estimates on cost and infrastructure implications.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer to the Combustion Chamber and Port Walls of IC Engines - Measurement and Prediction

This paper summarizes the results of several investigations on in-cylinder heat transfer during high-pressure and gas exchange phases as well as heat transfer in the inlet and outlet ports for a number of different engine types (DI Diesel, SI and gaseous fueled engine). The paper contains a comparision of simulation results and experimental data derived from heat flux measurements. Numerical results were obtained from zero-, one- and three-dimensional simulation methods. Time and spatially resolved heat fluxes were measured applying the surface temperature method and special heat flux sensors. The paper also includes an assessment of different sensor types with respect to accuracy and applicability.