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Technical Paper

Reducing Background Noise Levels in Plant SQ Test Booths

2007-05-15
2007-01-2383
As customer awareness of product sound grows, the need exists to ensure that product sound quality is maintained in the manufacturing process. To this end in-process controls that employ a variety of traditional acoustical and alternate sound quality metrics are utilized, usually partly or wholly housed in a test enclosure. Often times these test cells are required to attenuate the background noise in the manufacturing facility so that the device under test can be accurately assessed. While design guidelines exist the mere size and cost of such booths make an iterative build and test approach costly in terms of materials as well as engineering and testing time. In order to expedite the design process and minimize the number of confirmation prototypes, SEA can be utilized to predict the transmission loss based upon material selection and booth construction techniques.
Technical Paper

A Study of NVH Vehicle Testing Variability

2005-05-16
2005-01-2553
At certain key stages in the vehicle development process, prototype vehicles are available for NVH testing. This testing fulfills two functions: primarily it is used to assess the status of the vehicle to the program NVH performance targets, but it also provides an opportunity to validate the vehicle SEA model. These single vehicle test events provide a snapshot of the NVH performance but do not provide any understanding of the variability of the NVH performance, which is due to many factors: components, build or assembly and test setup variability. SEA models can be used to estimate the vehicle level variability, if the variability of the interior components is understood, but there is limited data available to confirm the accuracy of these predictions. In this paper we examine the repeatability and reproducibility through a standard gage R&R study of Engine Noise Reduction (engine NR) and Tire NR testing.
Technical Paper

Empirical Study on the Correlation of Random Incidence Sound Absorption Results from Varying Reverberation Room Sizes

2007-05-15
2007-01-2380
Recent effort has focused on correlating random incidence absorption coefficients obtained in different sizes of reverberation rooms based on round robin testing of identical samples in a database driven approach. An alternate approach presented here is to correlate random incidence sound absorption coefficients among different reverberation rooms using an apparent linear relationship between sound absorption coefficients and a geometric property of the test samples. Linearity can be judged in relation to the uncertainty of each individual measurement. The study will encompass experimental work on three different sizes of reverberation rooms for both a single layer material and a multi-layered material. By examining the different sound absorption coefficient values from each size of room, as a function of geometric parameters, we illustrate the quantitative correlation that might be established between the different sizes reverberation rooms.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Interior Trim & Electrical

2004-03-08
2004-01-1256
Driven by a tight vehicle development schedule and unique performance and styling goals for the new Ford GT, a Ford-Lear team delivered a complete interior and electrical package in just 12 months. The team used new materials, processes and suppliers, and produced what may be the industry's first structural instrument panel.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Electrical & Electronics

2004-03-08
2004-01-1259
The Ford GT Program Team was allocated just 22 months from concept to production to complete the Electrical and Electronics systems of the Ford GT. This reduced vehicle program timing - unlike any other in Ford's history -- demanded that the team streamline the standard development process, which is typically 54 months. This aggressive schedule allowed only 12 weeks to design the entire electrical and electronic system architecture, route the wire harnesses, package the components, and manufacture and/or procure all components necessary for the first three-vehicle prototype build.
Technical Paper

Statistical Energy Analysis of a Fuel Cell Vehicle

2005-05-16
2005-01-2425
In this paper the application of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) to the sound package design for a fuel cell powered sedan is presented. Fuel cell vehicles represent a different challenge to a vehicle with a conventional powertrain. With the replacement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), a principal source of airborne and structure-borne powertrain noise, the expectation is that the cabin noise levels would be significantly reduced as the main noise sources would be road and wind noise. A fuel cell powertrain, however, has a number of mechanical sources on the body structure that will radiate airborne noise and may transmit significant structure-borne noise to the vehicle interior. With this alternative power train, much of the conventional wisdom on vehicle sound package developed from experience with ICE's must be reconsidered.
Technical Paper

The Use of Subjective Jury Evaluations for Interior Acoustic Packaging

2003-05-05
2003-01-1506
Unweighted dB, dB(A), and Articulation Index do not always accurately identify the sound quality of vehicle interior noise. This paper attempts to determine the relevance of sound quality in interior automotive acoustics. Traditionally, overall dB(A) levels have been the driving factor, along with cost, in selecting an interior automotive acoustic package. In this paper, we make use of subjective jury evaluations to compare perceptions of various interior acoustic packages and compare these results to objective values. These values include, but are not restricted to, dB, dB(A), and Articulation Index. Considerations are made as to whether differences between packages can be perceived by customers. This paper also attempts to show that subjective evaluations can differ with the standard metrics used to select acoustic packages and describe why such evaluations might be important in acoustic package selection.
Technical Paper

The Use of in Vehicle STL Testing to Correlate Subsystem Level SEA Models

2003-05-05
2003-01-1564
For the assessment of vehicle acoustics in the early design stages of a vehicle program, the use of full vehicle SEA models is becoming the standard analysis method in the US automotive industry. One benefit is that OEM's and Tier 1 suppliers are able to cascade lower level acoustic performance targets for NVH systems and components. Detailed SEA system level models can be used to assess the performance of systems such as dash panels, floors and doors, however, the results will be questionable until test data Is available. Correlation can be accomplished with buck testing, which is a common practice in the automotive industry for assessing the STL (sound transmission loss) of vehicle level components. The opportunity to conduct buck testing can be limited by the availability of representative bodies to be cut into bucks and the availability of a transmission loss suite with a suitably large opening.
Technical Paper

Development of a Luxury Vehicle Acoustic Package using SEA Full Vehicle Model

2003-05-05
2003-01-1554
Interior noise has become a significant performance attribute in modern passenger vehicles and this is extremely important in the luxury market segment where a quiet interior is the price of entry. With the elimination of early prototype vehicles to reduce development costs, high frequency analytical SEA models are used to design the vehicle sound package to meet targets for interior noise quality. This function is important before representative NVH prototypes are available, and later to support parameter variation investigations that would be cost prohibitive in a hardware test. This paper presents the application of an analytical full vehicle SEA model for the development of the acoustic package of a cross over luxury utility vehicle. The development concerns addressed were airborne powertrain noise and road noise. Power flow analysis was used to identify the major noise paths to the interior of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

SAE Recommended Formats for Presenting Acoustical Data

2003-05-05
2003-01-1439
Automobile manufacturers recently requested the help of the SAE Acoustical Materials Committee to develop standard data formats that could be used by suppliers to present data on NVH products. An SAE task force with representatives from material suppliers and from OEMs chose formats covering a broad range of acoustical tests commonly conducted in the automotive industry. These formats cover both material and vehicle tests. They include details on samples and test conditions and graphs with preferred axes and data ranges. SAE recommended practice J2629 will be issued that describes the use of these preferred formats for acoustical data. The automobile manufacturers have requested that all suppliers of NVH products use these formats to present results from this point onward.
Technical Paper

Package Tray Optimization Using Experimental and Analytical Techniques

1999-05-17
1999-01-1686
The area in the neighborhood of the package tray can be a significant path for road noise and exhaust noise. Air extraction routes and loudspeakers add to the difficulty of effective system design. A variety of designs were prototyped and their transmission loss measured in a standard SAE J1400 sound transmission loss suite. The performance of the various designs was compared to an untrimmed piece of sheet metal with embedded air extraction holes. The addition of trim added from 1 dB to 14 dB to the transmission loss. Statistical energy analysis (SEA) models of a variety of package tray systems will also be shown. Both of these techniques can provide design guidance at an early stage of vehicle program development.
Technical Paper

Use of Layered Media for Noise Abatement in Automotive Interiors: A Balanced Approach

2001-04-30
2001-01-1456
Concepts for dual density materials for usage as absorbers and decouplers are based on well-established layered media principles and have been applied for many years in non-automotive applications. Balancing the mass, air flow resistance, and thickness allows for improved noise attenuation in the low to mid frequency range which is of particular interest for automotive NVH management. Using these principles, products were tuned via mass and airflow resistance to reduce noise levels while also significantly reducing mass. Validation in various vehicles confirmed that up to a 55% reduction of a sound package's mass is possible. The considerable weight reductions of dash insulators and carpet systems are possible at the same times as the sound level in the vehicle interior is at least maintained and frequently improved.
Technical Paper

Creating a Biofidelic Seating Surrogate

1999-03-01
1999-01-0627
In order to more accurately simulate the load distributions and histories experienced by automotive seats in field use, more biofidelic motion and loading devices are needed. A new test dummy was developed by Lear Corporation and First Technology Safety Systems. This dummy uses exact skeletal geometry encased in a one-piece seamless mold with contours based on ASPECT data. A prototype was constructed and tested to demonstrate the efficacy of the concept. The skeleton and contour molds were created from CAD-generated rapid prototypes. The flesh was carefully formulated to have the mechanical properties of bulk muscular tissue in a state of moderate contraction, using data from the literature. This design allows much greater accuracy in reproducing human loads than was ever possible previously. The design has applications in durability, vibration and comfort testing.
Technical Paper

Creating the Next Generation Ingress/Egress Robot

1999-03-01
1999-01-0628
In order to more accurately simulate the load distributions and histories experienced by automotive seats in field use, more biofidelic motion and loading devices are needed. Lear and KUKA have developed a system capable of controlling the coordinated motions of a pelvis, thighs and torso dummy in order to mimic human motions. The system takes kinematic data collected from human trials and converts them directly to a robot program. Additionally, simultaneous measures of human loading using pressure distribution mats can be obtained, and these measures are used as the basis for teaching the robot to correct the kinematic data using a neural net learning algorithm. The robot has direct and indirect load feedback integration that allows the load to be precisely maintained throughout the duration of a cycle test.
Technical Paper

Noise Absorption of Automotive Seats

1998-02-01
980659
Seat covers made from textiles, leather and vinyl were evaluated for noise absorption. The textiles included woven velours, pile knits and flat wovens. The noise absorption of the covers and the corresponding seat assemblies was tested by the reverberation room method per ASTM C423. The effect of different foams was also tested. For the leather and vinyl covers, the effect of perforation was evaluated. Test results showed distinctive differences between textiles and leather/vinyl with cloth seats having superior noise absorption. Even among the textiles, there are significant differences. Core foam densities affect the characteristics as well. For pile fabrics (woven velours and pile knits), the size of the pile fiber does not affect the acoustic characteristics of the seat. Also, no significant difference was observed between a bonded seat and a conventional (cut and sew) seat.
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Automotive Noise and Vibration Control Practices in the New Millennium

2003-05-05
2003-01-1589
The approaches used to develop an NVH package for a vehicle have changed dramatically over the last several years. New noise and vibration control strategies have been introduced, new materials have been developed, advanced testing techniques have been implemented, and sophisticated computer modeling has been applied. These approaches help design NVH solutions that are optimized for cost, performance, and weight. This paper explains the NVH practices available for use in designing vehicles for the new millennium.
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