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Technical Paper

Extending the Operating Region of Multi-Cylinder Partially Premixed Combustion using High Octane Number Fuel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1394
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept by which it is possible to get low smoke and NOx emissions simultaneously. PPC requires high EGR levels to extend the ignition delay so that air and fuel mix prior to combustion to a larger extent than with conventional diesel combustion. This paper investigates the operating region of single injection PPC for three different fuels; Diesel, low octane gasoline with similar characteristics as diesel and higher octane standard gasoline. Limits in emissions are defined and the highest load that fulfills these requirements is determined. The investigation shows the benefits of using high octane number fuel for Multi-Cylinder PPC. With high octane fuel the ignition delay is made longer and the operating region of single injection PPC can be extended significantly. Experiments are carried out on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine at low, medium and high speed.
Journal Article

A Metal Fibrous Filter for Diesel Hybrid Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0604
Trends towards lower vehicle fuel consumption and smaller environmental impact will increase the share of Diesel hybrids and Diesel Range Extended Vehicles (REV). Because of the Diesel engine presence and the ever tightening soot particle emissions, these vehicles will still require soot particle emissions control systems. Ceramic wall-flow monoliths are currently the key players in the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) market, offering certain advantages compared to other DPF technologies such as the metal based DPFs. The latter had, in the past, issues with respect to filtration efficiency, available filtration area and, sometimes, their manufacturing cost, the latter factor making them less attractive for most of the conventional Diesel engine powered vehicles. Nevertheless, metal substrate DPFs may find a better position in vehicles like Diesel hybrids and REVs in which high instant power consumption is readily offered enabling electrical filter regeneration.
Technical Paper

Minimization of Risks and Difficulties from DESIGN to MASS PRODUCTION for Powertrain Components and Modules

2011-04-12
2011-01-0524
One main general goal during product development in the passenger car industry as well as in the commercial vehicle industry is to reduce time to market. The customer wants to get the newest product and is not accepting the risk of any product call backs. This means the minimization of the risk of field claims for the manufacturer. The challenge to reach this goal is a capable volume production of each new product. To create a competitive, innovative product it is the task for design and simulation engineers in the development phase to design the product in view of function, efficiency, fatigue strength, optimized weight and optimized product costs. Additionally an agreement between design and industrial production planning is required. An early involvement of production engineers into the development of a product ensures design for manufacturing from the very beginning.
Technical Paper

Two-Cylinder Gasoline Engine Concept for Highly Integrated Range Extender and Hybrid Powertrain Applications

2010-09-28
2010-32-0130
The demand for improved fuel economy and the request for Zero Emission within cities require complex powertrains with an increasing level of electrification already in a short-termed timeframe until 2025. According to general expectations the demand for Mild-Hybrid powertrains will increase significantly within a broad range of implementation through all vehicle classes as well as on electric vehicles with integrated Range Extender (RE) mainly for use in urban areas. Whereas Mild Hybrid Vehicles basically use downsized combustion engines at current technology level, vehicles with a high level of powertrain electrification allow significantly different internal combustion engine (ICE) concepts. At AVL, various engine concepts have been investigated and evaluated with respect to the key criteria for a Range Extender application. A Wankel rotary engine concept as well as an inline 2 cylinder gasoline engine turned out to be most promising.
Technical Paper

Future Engine Control Enabling Environment Friendly Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0697
The aim of this paper is to compile the state of the art of engine control and develop scenarios for improvements in a number of applications of engine control where the pace of technology change is at its most marked. The first application is control of downsized engines with enhancement of combustion using direct injection, variable valve actuation and turbo charging. The second application is electrification of the powertrain with its impact on engine control. Various architectures are explored such as micro, mild, full hybrid and range extenders. The third application is exhaust gas after-treatment, with a focus on the trade-off between engine and after-treatment control. The fourth application is implementation of powertrain control systems, hardware, software, methods, and tools. The paper summarizes several examples where the performance depends on the availability of control systems for automotive applications.
Journal Article

SI Gas Engine: Evaluation of Engine Performance, Efficiency and Emissions Comparing Producer Gas and Natural Gas

2011-04-12
2011-01-0916
The Technical University of Denmark, DTU, has designed, built and tested a gasifier [1, 8] that is fuelled with wood chips and achieves a 93% conversion efficiency from wood to producer gas. By combining the gasifier with an ICE and an electric generator a co-generative system can be realized that produces electricity and heat. The gasifier uses the waste heat from the engine for drying and pyrolysis of the wood chips while the gas produced is used to fuel the engine. To achieve high efficiency in converting biomass to electricity an engine is needed that is adapted to high efficiency operation using the specific producer gas from the DTU gasifier. So far the majority of gas engines have been designed and optimized for operation on natural gas. The presented work uses a modern and highly efficient truck sized natural gas engine to investigate efficiency, emissions and general performance while operating on producer gas compared to natural gas operation.
Journal Article

Blowdown Interference on a V8 Twin-Turbocharged Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0337
The exhaust blowdown pulse from each cylinder of a multi-cylinder engine propagates through the exhaust manifold and can affect the in-cylinder pressure of other cylinders which have open exhaust valves. Depending on the firing interval between cylinders connected to the same exhaust manifold, this blowdown interference can affect the exhaust stroke pumping work and the exhaust pressure during overlap, which in turn affects the residual fraction in those cylinders. These blowdown interference effects are much greater for a turbocharged engine than for one which is naturally aspirated because the volume of the exhaust manifolds is minimized to improve turbocharger transient response and because the turbines restrict the flow out of the manifolds. The uneven firing order (intervals of 90°-180°-270°-180°) on each bank of a 90° V8 engine causes the blowdown interference effects to vary dramatically between cylinders.
Technical Paper

LES Simulation of Flame Propagation in a Direct-Injection SI-Engine to Identify the Causes of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Variations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1084
A Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) approach is applied to the calculation of multiple SI-engine cycles in order to study the causes of cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. The single-cylinder research engine adopted in the present study is equipped with direct fuel-injection and variable valve timing for both the intake and exhaust side. Operating conditions representing cases with considerably different scatter of the in-cylinder pressure traces are selected to investigate the causes of the cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. In the simulation the engine is represented by a coupled 1D/3D-CFD model, with the combustion chamber and the intake/exhaust ports modeled in 3D-CFD, and the intake/exhaust pipework set-up adopting a 1D-CFD approach. The adopted LES flow model is based upon the well-established Smagorinsky approach. Simulation of the fuel spray propagation process is based upon the discrete droplet model.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Chemical Kinetics on Soot Formation Event of n-Heptane Spray Combustion

2014-04-01
2014-01-1254
In this reported work, 2-dimsensional computational fluid dynamics studies of n-heptane combustion and soot formation processes in the Sandia constant-volume vessel are carried out. The key interest here is to elucidate how the chemical kinetics affects the combustion and soot formation events. Numerical computation is performed using OpenFOAM and chemistry coordinate mapping (CCM) approach is used to expedite the calculation. Three n-heptane kinetic mechanisms with different chemistry sizes and comprehensiveness in oxidation pathways and soot precursor formation are adopted. The three examined chemical models use acetylene (C2H2), benzene ring (A1) and pyrene (A4) as soot precursor. They are henceforth addressed as nhepC2H2, nhepA1 and nhepA4, respectively for brevity. Here, a multistep soot model is coupled with the spray combustion solver to simulate the soot formation/oxidation processes.
Technical Paper

Effect of Relative Mixture Strength on Performance of Divided Chamber ‘Avalanche Activated Combustion’ Ignition Technique in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1327
This article deals with application of a pre-chamber type ignition device in a heavy duty engine operated with natural gas. A particular pre-chamber ignition strategy called Avalanche Activated Combustion (originally ‘Lavinia Aktyvatsia Gorenia’ in Russian), commonly referred to as LAG-ignition process, has been studied by performing a parametric study of various pre- and main chamber mixture strength combinations. This strategy was first proposed in 1966 and has been mostly applied in light duty automotive engines. A majority of published data are results from developmental studies but the fundamental mechanism of the LAG-ignition process is unclear to date. To the best of authors' knowledge, the study presented in this article is the first generalized study to gain deeper understanding of the LAG-ignition process in heavy duty engines operating with natural gas as fuel for both chambers.
Journal Article

Study of the Early Flame Development in a Spark-Ignited Lean Burn Four-Stroke Large Bore Gas Engine by Fuel Tracer PLIF

2014-04-01
2014-01-1330
In this work the pre- to main chamber ignition process is studied in a Wärtsilä 34SG spark-ignited lean burn four-stroke large bore optical engine (bore 340 mm) operating on natural gas. Unburnt and burnt gas regions in planar cross-sections of the combustion chamber are identified by means of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) from acetone seeded to the fuel. The emerging jets from the pre-chamber, the ignition process and early flame propagation are studied. Measurements reveal the presence of a significant temporal delay between the occurrence of a pressure difference across the pre-chamber holes and the appearance of hot burnt/burning gases at the nozzle exit. Variations in the delay affect the combustion timing and duration. The combustion rate in the pre-chamber does not influence the jet propagation speed, although it still has an effect on the overall combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Radiocarbon and Hydrocarbon Analysis of PM Sources During WHTC Tests on a Biodiesel-Fueled Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1243
PM in diesel exhaust has been given much attention due to its adverse effect on both climate and health. As the PM emission levels are tightened, the portion of particles originating from the lubrication oil is likely to increase. In this study, exhausts from a biodiesel-fueled Euro 5 engine were examined to determine how much of the carbonaceous particles that originated from the fuel and the lubrication oil, respectively. A combination of three methods was used to determine the PM origin: chain length analysis of the hydrocarbons, determination of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and the concentration of 14C found in the exhausts. It was found that the standard method for measuring hydrocarbons in PM on a filter (chain length analysis) only accounted for 63 % of the OC, meaning that it did not account for all non-soot carbon in the exhausts.
Technical Paper

Mixing in Wall-Jets in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine: A LES Study

2014-04-01
2014-01-1127
The paper presents a large eddy simulation investigation on the effect of fuel injection pressure on mixing, in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine. Recent investigation on impinging wall jets at constant-volume and quiescent conditions exhibited augmented air entrainment in wall jets with increasing injection pressure, when compared with a free jet. The increased mixing rates were explained as owing to enhanced turbulence and vortex formation in the jet-tip in the recirculation zone. A recent investigation carried out in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine indicated however a negligible effect of injection pressure on the mixing in the engine environment. The effect of enhanced turbulence and vortex formation of the jet-tip in the recirculation zone is believed weaker than the effect of engine confinement, due to the presence of fuel from adjacent jets limiting the mixing the fuel with the ambient gas.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston Bowl Shape and Swirl Ratio on Engine Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1141
Heat transfer losses are one of the largest loss contributions in a modern internal combustion engine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the piston bowl type and swirl ratio to heat losses and performance. A commercial CFD tool is used to carry out simulations of four different piston bowl geometries, at three engine loads with two different swirl ratios at each load point. One of the geometries is used as a reference point, where CFD results are validated with engine test data. All other bowl geometries are scaled to the same compression ratio and make use of the same fuel injection, with a variation in the spray target between cases. The results show that the baseline case, which is of a conventional diesel bowl shape, provides the best emission performance, while a more open, tapered, lip-less combustion bowl is the most thermodynamically efficient.
Journal Article

Computational Study of the Aerodynamics of a Realistic Car Model by Means of RANS and Hybrid RANS/LES Approaches

2014-04-01
2014-01-0594
The aerodynamic properties of a BMW car model, representing a 40%-scaled model of a relevant car configuration, are studied computationally by means of the Unsteady RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) and Hybrid RANS/LES (Large-Eddy Simulation) approaches. The reference database (geometry, operating parameters and surface pressure distribution) are adopted from an experimental investigation carried out in the wind tunnel of the BMW Group in Munich (Schrefl, 2008). The present computational study focuses on validation of some recently developed turbulence models for unsteady flow computations in conjunction with the universal wall treatment combining integration up to the wall and high Reynolds number wall functions in such complex flow situations. The turbulence model adopted in both Unsteady RANS and PANS (Partially-Averaged Navier Stokes) frameworks is the four-equation ζ − f formulation of Hanjalic et al. (2004) based on the Elliptic Relaxation Concept (Durbin, 1991).
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cooling Systems for Reducing Fuel Consumption and Carbon Dioxide: Literature Survey

2010-05-05
2010-01-1509
The number of vehicles in use is increasing from year to year. It causes more fuel/energy to be consumed, and more carbon dioxide or other exhaust gases are released to the environment. But the legislations on carbon dioxide emissions have become stricter than before. In the overall effort to achieve sustainability, advanced technological solutions have to be developed to reduce fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from vehicles. More than half of the energy in vehicles is lost as heat to the different cooling systems (engine cooling system, air conditioning, frictional components cooling) and exhaust gas. Reducing the amount of energy lost in vehicle cooling systems will enhance the fuel efficiency of the vehicles. This paper presents a literature survey of different cooling systems in vehicles, which includes the engine cooling system, air conditioning of the compartment, the electronic cooling system and cooling of frictionally heated parts.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particle Number Measurements from the Full Dilution Tunnel, the Tailpipe and Two Partial Flow Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-1299
The regulation of particle number (PN) has been introduced in the Euro 5/6 light-duty vehicle legislation, as a result of the light duty inter-laboratory exercise of the Particle Measurement Program (PMP). The heavy-duty inter-laboratory exercise investigates whether the same or a similar procedure can be applied to the heavy-duty regulation. In the heavy-duty exercise two "golden" PN systems sample simultaneously; the first from the full dilution tunnel and the second from the partial flow system. One of the targets of the exercise is to compare the PN results from the two systems. In this study we follow a different approach: We use a PMP compliant system at different positions (full flow, partial flow and tailpipe) and we compare its emissions with a "reference" system always sampling from the full flow dilution tunnel.
Technical Paper

Influence of Inlet Pressure, EGR, Combustion Phasing, Speed and Pilot Ratio on High Load Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion

2010-05-05
2010-01-1471
The current research focuses in understanding how inlet pressure, EGR, combustion phasing, engine speed and pilot main ratio are affecting the main parameters of the combustion (e.g. efficiency, NOx, soot, maximum pressure rise rate) in the novel concept of injecting high octane number fuels in partially premixed combustion. The influence of the above mentioned parameters was studied by performing detailed sweeps at 32 bar fuel MEP (c.a. 16-18 bar gross IMEP); three different kinds of gasoline were tested (RON: 99, 89 and 69). The experiments were ran in a single cylinder heavy duty engine; Scania D12. At the end of these sweeps the optimized settings were computed in order to understand how to achieve high efficiency, low emissions and acceptable maximum pressure rise rate.
Journal Article

How Hythane with 25% Hydrogen can Affect the Combustion in a 6-Cylinder Natural-gas Engine

2010-05-05
2010-01-1466
Using alternative fuels like Natural Gas (NG) has shown good potentials on heavy duty engines. Heavy duty NG engines can be operated either lean or stoichiometric diluted with EGR. Extending Dilution limit has been identified as a beneficial strategy for increasing efficiency and decreasing emissions. However dilution limit is limited in these types of engines because of the lower burnings rate of NG. One way to extend the dilution limit of a NG engine is to run the engine on Hythane (natural gas + some percentage hydrogen). Previously effects of Hythane with 10% hydrogen by volume in a stoichiometric heavy duty NG engine were studied and no significant changes in terms of efficiency and emissions were observed. This paper presents results from measurements made on a heavy duty 6-cylinder NG engine. The engine is operated with NG and Hythane with 25% hydrogen by volume and the effects of these fuels on the engine performance are studied.
Technical Paper

Tool Based Calibration with the OBDmanager

2010-04-12
2010-01-0249
At the moment the documentation of failure inhibition matrices and the fault path management for different controller types and different vehicle projects are mainly maintained manually in individual Excel tables. This is not only time consuming but also gives a high potential for fault liability. In addition there is also no guarantee that the calibration of these failure inhibition matrices and its fault path really works. Conflicting aims between costs, time and fault liability require a new approach for the calibration, documentation and testing of failure inhibition matrices and the complete Diagnostic System Management (DSM) calibration. The standardization and harmonization of the Diagnostic System Management calibration for different calibration projects and derivates is the first step to reduce time and costs. Creating a master calibration for the conjoint fault paths and labels provides a significant reduction of efforts.
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