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Journal Article

General Modeling of Nonlinear Isolators for Vehicle Ride Studies

The advancements made in modeling and parameter identification of nonlinear isolation components in the underlying investigation confirm the importance of accurate Multibody Dynamics modeling of these components for reducing vibration and/or improving ride comfort. Considering dynamic stiffness and loss angle characteristics, the proposed nonlinear isolation component uses the Bouc/Wen hysteresis model for excitation amplitude dependency and a transfer function for excitation frequency dependency. Various combinations of Bouc/Wen hysteresis parameters result in different shapes for hysteresis loops and allows for modeling a wide range of soft and stiff isolator characteristics. The effect of the proposed isolation component on ride studies is illustrated by simulating a maneuver on a road profile using the OpenCRG road description with SimXpert Motion Workspace and Adams/Car. Tire belt dynamics are captured by adding a rigid ring part to the PAC2002 tire model [ 1 ].
Technical Paper

The Holistic Analysis of Flexible Aircraft Maneuvering Under Comprehensive Aerodynamic Loading

The reduction of a full aircraft structure/loading system from a Cartesian space to a condensed, modal space offers significant computational advantages in complex aero-elastic analysis without sacrificing the system kinematic and kinetic integrity. By combining linear, finite-element (FEA)-based structural analysis with non-linear, mechanical system simulation (MSS), the same modal basis coordinate set is used to represent the aerodynamic loading, structural, and gross motion behavior of maneuvering, high-integrity, full aircraft system models. Examples are shown of full aircraft, comprised of flexible, single-and multiple-structures, performing stores separation, landing, and general maneuvers. These are done using aerodynamic modeling of varying completeness ranging from complete, Panel Method (PM)-derived loads to more simplified, distributed loads. Limits on the validity of the linearity assumptions are discussed
Technical Paper

Extensive Correlation Study of Acoustic Trim Packages in Trimmed Body Modeling of an Automotive Vehicle

In the automotive sector, the structure borne noise generated by the engine and road-tire interactions is a major source of noise inside the passenger cavity. In order to increase the global acoustic comfort, predictive simulation models must be available in the design phase. The acoustic trims have a major impact on the noise level inside the car cavity. Although several publications for this kind of simulations can be found, an extensive correlation study with measurement is needed, in order to validate the modeling approaches. In this article, a detailed correlation study for a complete car is performed. The acoustic trim package of the measured car includes all acoustic trims, such as carpet, headliner, seats and firewall covers. The simulation methodology relies on the influence of the acoustic trim package on the car structure and acoustic cavities. The challenge lies in the definition of an efficient and accurate framework for acoustic trimmed bodies.
Technical Paper

Continuously Variable Displacement Drive for Engines Part 2, Design, Analysis, and Test

A new type of drive system has been designed, analyzed, patented, prototyped, and tested. The drive’s unique capabilities include the ability to vary the bottom dead center position to reduce the stroke, and simultaneously vary the top dead center position to achieve the desired compression ratio with one simple, low friction mechanism. The purpose of the concept is to reduce losses associated with operation at partial load as most engines spend a preponderance of their operating life at partial load. This paper covers the design and analysis, prototyping, and testing of the unit as an air compressor. Engine simulation of the unit configured as a gasoline engine showed a ~30% improvement in fuel economy on a 10-mode weighted cycle and is covered in SAE 2021-01-0442, “Continuously Variable Displacement Drive for Engines Part 1, Performance Simulation.”
Technical Paper

An Analytical Methodology for Engine Gear Rattle and Whine Assessment and Noise Simulation

In this paper, a CAE methodology based on a multiphysics approach for engine gear noise evaluation is reviewed. The method comprises the results and outputs from several different analytical domains to perform the noise risk assessment. The assessment includes the source-path analysis of the gear-induced rattling and whining noise. The vibration data from the exterior surface of the engine is extended through acoustic analysis to perform the engine noise simulation and to identify acoustic hot spots contributing to the noise. The study includes simulations under different engine loading conditions with results presented in both time and frequency domains. Various sensitivity analyses involving different gear geometries and micro-geometries are investigated as well. Finally, the simulation results from three different engines are compared vis-a-vis.