Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Functional Safety - Progressing Towards Safer Mobility

2013-11-27
2013-01-2841
Increasing complexity in E/E architecture poses several challenges in developing comfortable, clean and safe cars. This mandates robust processes to mitigate potential hazards due to malfunction of electronic systems throughout the product life cycle. With the advent of ISO 26262 [1] which provides guidelines for developing safe cars, the process is getting standardized towards safer mobility. In this paper, the functional safety process is briefly covered and a case study of Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment for specific E/E system is presented. An in-house tool developed for functional safety process and management is covered.
Technical Paper

Servomotor Controlled Standard Automated Manual Transmission for Rapid Smooth Shifts

2013-10-14
2013-01-2605
Present day AMT unit uses two high pressure hydraulically operated pistons for select & shift operations which make the unit weigh around 8kg. Besides this it also makes the unit more complex & unreliable with a lot of torque interruption. The use of electrical servo motors steps in here as a better alternative as it provides a more precise and smoother shift. To test this we used a 5-MT Transmission. For the selection, a precise 14.5 degree of twisting was required which was easily achieved by the servo motor. Further, shift of 10.5mm could be made possible by using the motor to shift the rack using a pinion on the shaft. This system then essentially eliminates the whole hydraulic circuit, the housing of actuator pack & power pack making it a simpler unit all together. Thus, it offers an uninterrupted torque path from the engine to vehicle which allows for a seamless gearshift. This seminal paper provides an introduction to the technology together.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Oil Sump for CI Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0135
Recently fuel economy and stringent emission norms are the ever growing concern in automotive global scenario. So, automotive engineers are constantly seeking new cost effective methodologies and techniques to achieve considerable weight reduction and improved performance. Nowadays Automotive OEMs are using Aluminum Oil sump (which is a structured part of an engine and supports considerable amount of transmission housing weight) for better emission, reducing the engine height, engine weight and NVH levels. Our present work reveals the concept of ‘Hybrid oil sump’ which made by sheet metal and aluminum in such a way that weight and cost reduced by 20% and 30 % respectively, without compromising NVH and strength properties. Exactly it deals the iteration part of design to arrive the optimum model, various structural modifications since it carries considerable amount of weight of transmission.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of Acoustic Cavity Resonances of Vehicle Sub-Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0015
The present quiet and comfortable automobiles are the result of years of research carried out by NVH engineers across the world. Extensive studies helped engineers to attenuate the noise generated by major sources such as engine, transmission, driveline and road excitations to a considerable extent, which made other noise sources such as intake, exhaust and tire perceivable inside. Many active and passive methods are available to reduce the effect of said noise sources, but enough care needs to be taken at the design level itself to eliminate the effect of cavity resonances. Experimental investigation of cavity resonances of real systems is necessary besides the FEA model based calculations. Acoustic cavity resonance of vehicle sub systems show their presence in the interior noise through structure borne and air borne excitations. Cavity resonances for some systems e.g. intake can only be suppressed through resonators.
Technical Paper

Analytical Method to Determine Press-fit Tolerance between Torque Carrying Members

2012-09-24
2012-01-1996
This paper deals with an analytical method to calculate the press-fit tolerance and fits between gears and shaft for automotive applications. The relative interferences increase sharply in the small diameter range, therefore one must be especially careful when designing small diameter joints. The strength of press-fit depends on the amount of relative interference; extreme interference leads to excessive contact stresses between the gear and shaft eventually leading to failure. Too little interference leads to slippage of gear on the shaft. In the press fit connection a shaft's spline rolling operation and gear internal broaching is eliminated. It is more economical than a conventional spline connection. Press fit connections are used in various transmission between a shaft and a gear. They are used in 6 speed transmission to 9-speed transmission for (German based Vehicle Manufacturer) heavy and light commercial vehicle company.
Technical Paper

Servomotor Controlled Standard Automated Manual Transmission for Rapid Smooth Shifts

2012-09-24
2012-01-1989
Present day AMT unit uses two high pressure hydraulically operated pistons for select & shift operations which make the unit weigh around 8kg. Besides this it also makes the unit more complex & unreliable with a lot of torque interruption. The use of electrical servo motors steps in here as a better alternative as it provides a more precise and smoother shift. To test this we used a 5 Gear-Manual Transmission. For the selection, a precise 14.5 degree of twisting was required which was easily achieved by the servo motor. Further, shift of 10.5mm could be made possible by using the motor to shift the rack using a pinion on the shaft. This system then essentially eliminates the whole hydraulic circuit, the housing of actuator pack & power pack making it a simpler unit all together. A Motor is attached to the output shaft of the Transmission which drives in power while the AMT unit is making transition from one gear to another.
Technical Paper

A Secondary De-Aeration Circuit for an Engine Cooling System with Atmospheric Recovery Bottle to Improve De-Aeration

2014-09-30
2014-01-2342
In any engine cooling system, de-aeration capability of the system plays a very critical role to avoid over heating of an engine. In general, with recovery bottle engine cooling system there is one vent hose from radiator pressure cap to the recovery bottle and coolant in the bottle is exposed to atmospheric pressure. From this vent hose air bubbles will move to recovery bottle from the engine and radiator when pressure in the system exceeds pressure cap setting. With this arrangement, de-aeration from the engine will happen when thermostat opens only and till that time air bubbles will be in the engine only and in this time there will be chance of overheating at some critical conditions because of air pockets in to the engine water jacket and the entrained air in the cooling circuit. Also, secondly 100 % initial filling cannot be achieved.
Technical Paper

A Particle Swarm Optimization Tool for Decoupling Automotive Powertrain Torque Roll Axis

2014-04-01
2014-01-1687
A typical powertrain mount design process starts with performing the system calculations to determine optimum mount parameters, viz. position, orientation and stiffness values to meet the desired NVH targets. Therefore, a 6 degrees of freedom lumped parameter system of powertrain and mounts is modelled in Matlab®. The approach is to decouple the torque roll axis mode from the remaining five rigid body modes so that the response to the torque pulses is predominantly ‘oscillations about Torque Roll Axis’. This is achieved by optimizing the above mount parameters within specified constraints so that ‘Rotation about the torque roll axis’ is one of the natural modes of vibration. The tool developed here uses ‘Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO) algorithm’ because of its ease of implementation and better convergence to the solution. The algorithm is programmed in TK solver®.
Technical Paper

Selection of Optimal Design Parameters to Achieve Improved Occupant Performance in Frontal Impacts

2013-04-08
2013-01-0756
Crashworthiness enhancement of vehicle structures is a very challenging task during the early design development process. Major factors influencing occupant injury in frontal impact are vehicle front crush space, crash pulse severity, restraint properties and occupant packaging space. This paper establishes a methodology to define suitable criterion that will guide the designers to select the optimal values of the above mentioned parameters during the early phase of the vehicle development. The usage of lumped mass models, pulse characterization techniques were explored to validate the results. Efficient crash energy management, the concepts of ride down and restraint efficiency parameters were also discussed in the paper.
Technical Paper

Approach to Estimate Life of Li-Ion Power Battery for Mild Hybrid Application in India

2015-04-14
2015-01-0249
Development of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) is gaining traction across all geographies to help meet increasing fuel economy regulations and as a pathway to offset concerns due to climate change. But HEVs and EVs have so far been a nascent market for India. These technologies have primarily shifted towards Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) for energy storage due to its high energy and power densities. In order to make actual business sense of these technologies, of which, battery is a major cost driver, it is necessary for these batteries to provide similar performance and life expectancy across the operating boundary of the vehicles, as well as provide the requirements at a competitive cost. In other words, the LIBs have to sustain the normal life cycle requirements and withstand wide range of storage temperatures that the conventional gasoline/diesel vehicles have been good at and still ensure good life.
Technical Paper

Cost Efficient Bharat (Trem) Stage IV Solutionsfor TractorEngines

2015-01-14
2015-26-0092
India's high Air Pollution level is the focus of discussions as we grow. Plans to combat this menace and implement the latest Technologies are gathering pace. The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. Tractor manufacturers are evaluating the need for cost-effective technology to meet upcoming stringent emissions targets. Simply following global approach may not work for Indian market considering the customer usage pattern & perceptions. With an anticipation of upcoming emission norms being based on US-EPA TIER-4 final up to 75 Hp, major technology up gradation is expected for farm equipment sold in India. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the operation specific requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits.
Technical Paper

Effect of Aluminum on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Automotive Grade Gray Cast Iron

2015-01-14
2015-26-0066
Mechanical and wear properties of Al alloyed gray cast iron (0.5% and 1.0%) were compared with that of Mo (1.0%) and Cu (0.77%) alloyed gray cast iron in this investigation. All the alloys showed pearlitic microstructure. The graphite morphology varied due to varying chemistry. The fracture surface showed “cabbage” like dimpled morphology indicating the predominant ductile fracture. It was found that the Mo containing cast iron show 25 to 30% higher strength and 6 to 7 times better wear resistance compared to Al containing cast irons. The worn surface showed oxide formation during sliding.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Hub Load on Power Steering Pump Using Dynamic Simulation and Experimental Measurement

2017-03-28
2017-01-0416
New trend in steering system such as EPS is coming up, but still hydraulic power steering system is more prevalent in today’s vehicles. Power steering pump is a vital component of hydraulic power steering system. Failure of steering pump can lead to loss of power assistance. Prediction of hub load on pump shaft is an important design input for pump manufacturer. Higher hub loads than the actual designed load of pump bearing may lead to seizure of pump. Pump manufacturer has safe limits for hub load. Simulations can assist for optimization of belt layout and placement of accessories to reduce the hub load. Lower hub load can have direct effect on improvement of pump durability. This paper deals with dynamic simulation of belt drive system in MSC.ADAMS as well as vehicle level measurement of hub load on power steering pump.
Technical Paper

Silent Block Bush Design and Optimization for Pick-Up Truck Leaf Spring

2017-03-28
2017-01-0455
Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
Technical Paper

Analytical Design and Development for Automobile Powertrain Mounts Using Low Fidelity Calculators

2016-02-01
2016-28-0185
The excitation to a vehicle is from two sources, road excitation and powertrain excitation. Vehicle Suspension is designed to isolate the road excitation coming to passenger cabin. Powertrain mounts play a vital role in isolating the engine excitation. The current study focuses on developing an analytical approach using Low-Fidelity computer programs to design the Powertrain Mount layout and stiffness during the initial stage of product development. Three programs have been developed as a part of this study that satisfy the packaging needs, NVH requirements and static load bearing requirements. The applications are capable of providing the Kinetic Energy Distribution and Static Analysis (Powertrain Enveloping and Mount Durability) for 3-point and 4-point mounting systems and the ideal mount positions and stiffness for 3-point mounting systems.
Technical Paper

Driveshaft Maximum Torque Estimation via Linear Model, Failure Analysis and Bench Test Simulation, an Alternative Approach

2016-02-01
2016-28-0171
Primary function of a drive half shaft is to transfer torque from transaxle to the wheels in East West configuration powertrain vehicles. Conventional practice is to consider either 1st gear max torque or the Wheel slip torque, whichever being the maximum as design torque. However vehicle dynamics and Powertrain characteristics have a major influence on the Driveshaft torque and the torques experienced can thus go beyond the design torque. This questions the design endurance limit for the driveshaft based on conventional design. One such situation is the torque experienced by the driveshaft during vehicle coasting condition with gear downshift. The torque experienced in such a scenario can go beyond the maximum design torque leading to failure as was observed in Vehicle level validation test.
Technical Paper

Agricultural Tractor Hydraulic Lift Arm Assembly Design for Durability and Correlation with Physical Test

2016-02-01
2016-28-0237
A hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to lift the heavy implements during field operations and transportation. As it is a crucial member of the tractor for its usage, so the power train assembly needs a properly designed lift arm, rocker arm assembly with better strength and stiffness. There are a standard like IS12224, IS4468 which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of tractor and the layout of hydraulic three point linkage. Computer aided engineering techniques followed by laboratory testing have been deployed in the earlier stages of the product design & development itself to deliver the first time right products to the customer. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor hydraulic lift arm to meet the above requirements. A Design Verification Plan (DVP) has been developed consisting of 3 load cases.
Technical Paper

Improved Powertrain Mounts Position for Four Cylinder Engine Commercial Vehicle with Four Point Mounting Configuration

2016-02-01
2016-28-0231
In this era of engine downsizing, the powertrains with higher power densities are configured on next generation vehicles. The bare four cylinder engine without balancer shaft has higher surface velocities, sound pressure & power levels and nearly 10 to 15% higher base level vibration/forces over older generations. Adapting such engines on a new vehicle platform with stringent NVH targets is challenging. Powertrain mount modal analysis, 6DOF or 16DOF is a primary tool followed for initial mount positioning and stiffness definition. From our earlier experiences we have the knowledge that most of the 6DOF iterations lead to the mount positions which are less feasible as per vehicle architecture and packaging point of view, and further optimization is needed to arrive at suitable mount position through 6DOF analysis. In a drive to have first time right solution with minimal modifications, the study was conducted to understand the role of mount position & isolation on different vehicles.
Technical Paper

Study of Energy Absorbing Front Cabin Mount, Its Stiffness Balance with Chassis and Test Correlation in Frontal Impact of Commercial Vehicle Cabin

2019-04-02
2019-01-1034
During design and development of a cabin for any commercial vehicle, meeting the strength requirements of front impact as per Indian regulation (AIS-029) is a very critical milestone. AIS-029 regulation consists of three destructive tests, i.e. Front Impact Test (Test A), Roof Strength (Test B) and Rear Wall Strength (Test C). Study of energy absorbing front cabin mount, its stiffness balance with chassis and CAE correlation with physical test is demonstrated in this study. [1]
Technical Paper

Parametric Modelling & High-Fidelity Algorithms for Vehicle Weight Estimation for Optimized Concept Vehicle Architecture

2019-10-11
2019-28-0036
The concept definition phase of typical vehicle development focuses on the architecture definition and optimization based on different constraints/requirements. With the focus on Sustainability, the architecture optimization process must include “Light-weighting” as an optimization criterion. With only concept vehicle architecture available, the vehicle weight estimation becomes judgmental & inaccurate. This paper aims to address this deficiency with a new analytical approach for vehicle weight estimation. The new approach for vehicle weight estimation is a “bottom-up” approach using parametric models for each system weight with the inputs being the relevant vehicle specifications driving the system engineering. For size/shape-driven (rather than functional) systems, the models are content-based & segment-based. The parametric models are then iterated for multiple architecture concepts & specifications and the optimum concept (meeting all functional & business constraints) is chosen.
X