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Technical Paper

Simulations Based Approach for Vehicle Idle NVH Optimization at Early Stage of Product Development

The noise and vibration performance of diesel fueled automotives is critical for overall customer comfort. The stationary vehicle with engine running idle (Vehicle Idle) is a very common operating condition in city driving cycle. Hence it is most common comfort assessment criteria for diesel vehicles. Simulations and optimization of it in an early stage of product development cycle is priority for all OEMs. In vehicle idle condition, powertrain is the only major source of Noise and Vibrations. The key to First Time Right Idle NVH simulations and optimization remains being able to optimize all Transfer paths, from powertrain mounts to Driver Ear. This Paper talks about the approach established for simulations and optimization of powertrain forces entering in to frame by optimizing powertrain mount hard points and stiffness. Powertrain forces optimized through set process are further used to predict the vehicle passenger compartment noise and steering vibrations.
Technical Paper

Study of Intake and Exhaust System Acoustic Performance Refinement with the Help of Vibro-Acoustic Analysis Tool

Increase in customer's awareness for better vehicle NVH has prompted automobile industry to address NVH issues more seriously. Among other critical vehicle systems for NVH, Air Intake and Exhaust Systems play an important role in terms of passenger compartment noise, sound quality and vehicle pass-by noise. Hence proper design & development of these systems is imperative to reduce their contribution in overall vehicle NVH. This needs to be achieved within constraints of meeting other functional requirements such as emissions and engine performance. The design parameters one needs to look at while developing the intake and exhaust system are mainly the acoustic transmission loss, structural noise radiations from the surfaces and structural isolation between body and these systems. This paper demonstrates the use of FEM approach for Vibro-Acoustic Analysis as a practical means for design of intake and exhaust system in terms of high transmission loss.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Noise & Sound Quality Refinement for New Generation Common Rail Engines

Noise & sound quality has gained equal importance as that of emissions and crash safety of the vehicles. With increased engine power to weight ratio, the challenges for NVH engineers has increased multifold. Passenger compartment comfort levels are getting affected largely due to lighter and powerful engines. Same time, there is pressure to reduce overall vehicle weight and cost. This impose constraints to NVH engineer in designing the body structure and sound package to reduce the effect of powertrain forces and airborne noise on passenger compartment. In addition to weight constraints, there is trend emerging to use two & three cylinder engines which need to perform on par with four cylinder engines. This has shown adverse effect on vehicle NVH performance due to wider low frequency unbalance forces.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Test with CAE of Dynamic Strains on Transmission Housing for 4WD Automotive Powertrain

Reducing the vibrations in the powertrain is one of the prime necessities in today's automobiles from NVH and strength perspectives. The necessity of 4×4 powertrain is increasing for better control on normal road and off-road vehicles. This leads to bulky powertrains. The vehicle speeds are increasing, that requires engines to run at higher speeds. Also to save on material costs and improve on fuel economy there is a need for optimizing the mass of the engine/vehicle. The reduced stiffness and higher speeds lead to increased noise and vibrations. One more challenge a powertrain design engineer has to face during design of its transmission housings is the bending / torsional mode vibrations of powertrain assembly. This aggravates other concerns such as shift lever vibrations, shift lever rattle, rise in in-cab noise, generation of boom noise at certain speeds, etc. Hence, reducing vibrations becomes an important and difficult aspect in design of an automobile.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Wiping Noises and NVH Design Consideration in a Wiper System

As automobiles become increasingly quieter, the wiper operation noise becomes more noticeable by the customer. This paper deals with the experimental approach and the methodology to investigate the Friction induced wiping noise. Role of design in a wiper system plays a very imperative task in meeting the performance of wipers but at the same time it does not cater to the NVH issues. Some of the important design parameters which affect the NVH properties of the wiper system are highlighted in this paper. For better understanding of the system some of the best in class vehicles for SUV category were tested and compared with our test vehicle. In this study more importance given to analytical part which is more important to investigate and in depth study of the friction induced noise. For analytical study some techniques such as time frequency domain i.e. Wavelet transforms, frequency domain and time domain where extensively used.
Technical Paper

Road Noise Identification and Reduction Measures

In a scenario where cost and weight targets are becoming critical, we tend to produce lighter and more powerful vehicles. In this context, NVH becomes one of crucial parameters in overall performance delivery. Other than power train, road induced noise also becomes an important parameter within vehicle development. Predecessor vehicle is body over frame structure and here a monocoque vehicle is considered for study. Different techniques like transfer path analysis, vibro-acoustic modal analysis, operational deflection shapes are used to identify the major force paths, radiating panels and their sensitivity to noise at operator ear location. Simulation model of body is built with good correlation and input forces are given at different attachment points to predict the noise levels. This combined approach helped us in reducing the overall noise level at certain constant speed by 4 dB(A) and also with great ease. All recommendations from this exercise are implemented
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of Acoustic Cavity Resonances of Vehicle Sub-Systems

The present quiet and comfortable automobiles are the result of years of research carried out by NVH engineers across the world. Extensive studies helped engineers to attenuate the noise generated by major sources such as engine, transmission, driveline and road excitations to a considerable extent, which made other noise sources such as intake, exhaust and tire perceivable inside. Many active and passive methods are available to reduce the effect of said noise sources, but enough care needs to be taken at the design level itself to eliminate the effect of cavity resonances. Experimental investigation of cavity resonances of real systems is necessary besides the FEA model based calculations. Acoustic cavity resonance of vehicle sub systems show their presence in the interior noise through structure borne and air borne excitations. Cavity resonances for some systems e.g. intake can only be suppressed through resonators.
Technical Paper

Measurement Technique for Quantifying Structure Borne and Air Borne Noise Levels in Utility Vehicle

Accurate quantification of structure borne noise is a challenging task for NVH engineers. The structural excitation sources of vibration and noise such as powertrain and suspension are connected to the passenger compartment by means of elastomer mounts and spring elements. The indirect force estimation methods such as complex dynamic stiffness method and matrix inversion method are being used to overcome the limitations of direct measurement. In many practical applications, the data pertaining to load dependent dynamic stiffness of the connections especially related to mounts is not available throughout the frequency range of interest which limits the application of complex dynamic stiffness method. The matrix inversion method mainly suffers from the drawback that it needs operational data not contaminated by the effect of other forces which are not considered for calculation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Drive Line Vibration and Boom Noise in an All Wheel Drive Utility Vehicle

The customer demand for all wheel drive (AWD) vehicles is increasing over the period of time which also requires NVH performance on par with front wheel drive vehicles. AWD vehicles are equipped with power transfer unit, propeller shaft and independent rear differential assembly to achieve their functional requirement. The additional drive train components in AWD vehicles may amplify torsional fluctuations in the drive line. Hence achieving the NVH performance of AWD vehicles on par with FWD vehicles without any major change in the existing design is a major challenge. In this work, an AWD vehicle with severe body vibration and booming noise is studied. The operational measurements are taken throughout the drive train on all sub-systems from engine to the rear part of the body in the problematic operating condition. An operational deflection shape analysis is conducted to visualize the vibration behavior of the drive train.
Technical Paper

Selection of Optimal Design Parameters to Achieve Improved Occupant Performance in Frontal Impacts

Crashworthiness enhancement of vehicle structures is a very challenging task during the early design development process. Major factors influencing occupant injury in frontal impact are vehicle front crush space, crash pulse severity, restraint properties and occupant packaging space. This paper establishes a methodology to define suitable criterion that will guide the designers to select the optimal values of the above mentioned parameters during the early phase of the vehicle development. The usage of lumped mass models, pulse characterization techniques were explored to validate the results. Efficient crash energy management, the concepts of ride down and restraint efficiency parameters were also discussed in the paper.
Technical Paper

Cost Efficient Bharat (Trem) Stage IV Solutionsfor TractorEngines

India's high Air Pollution level is the focus of discussions as we grow. Plans to combat this menace and implement the latest Technologies are gathering pace. The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. Tractor manufacturers are evaluating the need for cost-effective technology to meet upcoming stringent emissions targets. Simply following global approach may not work for Indian market considering the customer usage pattern & perceptions. With an anticipation of upcoming emission norms being based on US-EPA TIER-4 final up to 75 Hp, major technology up gradation is expected for farm equipment sold in India. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the operation specific requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Hub Load on Power Steering Pump Using Dynamic Simulation and Experimental Measurement

New trend in steering system such as EPS is coming up, but still hydraulic power steering system is more prevalent in today’s vehicles. Power steering pump is a vital component of hydraulic power steering system. Failure of steering pump can lead to loss of power assistance. Prediction of hub load on pump shaft is an important design input for pump manufacturer. Higher hub loads than the actual designed load of pump bearing may lead to seizure of pump. Pump manufacturer has safe limits for hub load. Simulations can assist for optimization of belt layout and placement of accessories to reduce the hub load. Lower hub load can have direct effect on improvement of pump durability. This paper deals with dynamic simulation of belt drive system in MSC.ADAMS as well as vehicle level measurement of hub load on power steering pump.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Optimization of 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine Oil Pan Structure for Lower Sound Radiation.

By reducing overall noise emanating from Engine at design phase, permits to reduce both time-to-market and the cost for developing new engines. In order to reduce vibration and radiated noise in engine assembly, oil pan is one of the most critical components. This study explains the key-steps that are executed to optimize the oil pan design for 4-cylinder diesel engine by improving Normal Modes, modified Topology, reduced Forced Frequency Response and ATV analysis for reducing its noise radiation. Using Multi-body tool crankshaft forces were generated and the FE model of Base Design was analysed for its noise radiation and panel contribution was done for finding the most radiating panels using Boundary Element Method approach. A series of iterative optimization were carried out with commercial software. Parameters like Stiffness, material property, Ribbing patterns and Shape of the Oil pan was modified to shift the natural frequencies of the component and reduce the sound radiation.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Polyurethane Composite with Coconut Fiber for NVH Applications

With increasing growth of vehicular population, there is an increasing demand for raw materials. This has added strain to the available resources, which is becoming more and more unsustainable. As a result, search for sustainable materials are continuously happening in our industry and there is a strong focus from everyone to incorporate more and such materials. One way of doing so, is by blending naturally available materials like fibers, with polymers. In this study, naturally available Coconut fibers have been blended successfully with Polyurethane foam, thereby improving the green footprint of the vehicle. Coconut fibers are naturally occurring fiber extracted from the husk of the coconut. Polyurethane foam is the most versatile polymeric foam used in several places of automobile for reducing the Noise, Vibration & Harshness. The composite was manufactured using reaction injection molding technique by reacting polyol with iso-cyanide.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Power Distribution Unit in Wiring Harness

With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. The concept of next generation power distribution unit in automobiles is achieved using miniaturization of its sub-components which involves replacing the mini fuses and JCASE fuses with LP mini and LP JCASE fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost. Furthermore, to address stringent weight and space targets, LP mini fuses and LP JCASE fuses were further replaced with micro-2 fuse and M-case fuse respectively.
Technical Paper

Concept Phase Powertrain Development for NVH Using the Optimization Technique

One of the primary excitation sources in a passenger car comes from the powertrain [1]. Refinement of powertrain induced noise is the most critical tasks during a vehicle refinement. Due to ever increasing demand for reduced design and development cycle, most critical decisions have to be made at the concept stage. Powertrain radiated noise is one of the most important performance factor that must be evaluated during the concept stage. Solution time for calculating the radiated noise using the existing acoustic solvers is very high and requires very expensive resources like software and hardware. Arriving the optimal design with conventional method is very tedious job. A new method has been adopted for identifying the critical areas and coming up with the optimal design modifications within a short span of time. Powertrain radiated noise has been calculated with the help of acoustic solver.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Mirror Induced Wind Noise Using CFD-FEM Approach

Wind noise is becoming important for automotive development due to significant reductions in road and engine noise. This aerodynamic noise is dominant at highway speeds and contributes towards higher frequency noise (>250Hz). In automotive industry accurate prediction and control of noise sources results in improved customer satisfaction. The aerodynamic noise prediction and vehicle component design optimization is generally executed through very expensive wind tunnel testing. Even with the recent advances in the computational power, predicting the flow induced noise sources is still a challenging and computationally expensive problem. A typical case of fluid-solid interaction at higher speeds results into broadband noise and it is inherently an unsteady phenomenon. To capture such a broad range of frequency, Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) has been proven to be the most practical and fairly accurate technique as sighted in literature.
Technical Paper

Driveline Boom Noise Reduction through Simplified FEM Approach

In today's competitive automobile marketplace with reduced vehicle development time and fewer prototypes/tests, CAE is playing very crucial role in vehicle development. Automobile environment demands ever improving levels of vehicle refinement. Performance and refinement are the key factors which can influence the market acceptance of vehicle. Driveline is one of the key systems whose refinement plays critical role in improved customer satisfaction. Because of the virtue of the driveline functionality, driveline induced noise and vibration are the most common issues in the AWD vehicle development programs. Refinement of the drive line needs complicated nonlinear full vehicle CAE MBD models for the evaluation of driveline induced noise and vibration responses at different operating conditions [1]. In this paper a simplified approach is adapted for solving the Noise & Vibration issue which has been identified at the prototype testing level of an AWD vehicle development.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Elimination of Howling Noise in Compact Utility Vehicle

NVH is becoming one of the major factor for customer selection of vehicle along with parameters like fuel economy and drivability. One of the major NVH challenges is to have a vehicle with aggressive drivability and at the same time with acceptable noise and vibration levels. This paper focuses on the compact utility vehicle where the howling noise is occurring at higher rpm of the engine. The vehicle is powered by three cylinder turbocharged diesel engine. The noise levels were higher above 2500 rpm due to the presence of structural resonance. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and Transfer path analysis (TPA) analysis was done on entire vehicle and powertrain to find out the major reason for howling noise at higher engine rpm. It is observed that the major contribution for noise at higher rpm is due to modal coupling between powertrain, half shaft and vehicle sub frame.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Driveline Boom Noise and Vibration of 40 Seat Bus through Structural Optimization

In today’s automotive scenario, noise vibration and harshness (NVH) has become a synonym for quality perception. This paper evaluates the problem of vibration and noise experienced in M2 category 40 seat bus and suggests the counter measures. Severe vibration is experienced on the bus floor, predominantly towards rear part of the bus. Vibration along with acoustic boom occurs prominently in 4th gear wide open throttle operating condition between 1300-1600 rpm of the engine. This paper focuses on reducing NVH levels by working on the transfer path with little modifications on power-train. Preliminary torsional measurements conducted on powertrain indicated high torsional excitation in the driveline during the problematic rpm zone. Further, Operational Deflection Shape (ODS) analysis revealed that the transfer path to the cabin is rear differential unit and suspension links. The dominant frequencies were identified along the transfer path and suitable modifications were done.