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Technical Paper

Functional Safety - Progressing Towards Safer Mobility

Increasing complexity in E/E architecture poses several challenges in developing comfortable, clean and safe cars. This mandates robust processes to mitigate potential hazards due to malfunction of electronic systems throughout the product life cycle. With the advent of ISO 26262 [1] which provides guidelines for developing safe cars, the process is getting standardized towards safer mobility. In this paper, the functional safety process is briefly covered and a case study of Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment for specific E/E system is presented. An in-house tool developed for functional safety process and management is covered.
Technical Paper

Design Strategies for Meeting ECE R14 Safety Test for Light Commercial Vehicle

The ECE R-14, AIS015 safety standard specifies the requirements of the safety belt anchorages namely, minimum numbers, their locations, static strength to reduce the possibility of their failure during accidental crashes for effective occupant restraint and the test procedures. This standard applies to the anchorages of safety belts for adult occupants of forward facing or rearward facing seats in vehicles of categories M and N. ECE R14 ensures the passenger safety during sudden acceleration/retardation and accidents. Early simulations revealed some structural short falls that demanded cabin improvements in order to fulfill regulation requirements for the seal belt anchorage test. This paper describes the innovative design modifications done to meet the seat belt anchorage test. Good correlation with the test is achieved in terms of deformations. These simulation methods helped in reducing the number of intermediate physical tests during the design process.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction of Shifter Forks using Steel Inserts

Shift quality of a manual transmission is a critical characteristic that is requires utmost care by the designers while structuring the transmission. Shift quality is affected by many factors viz. synchronizer design, shift fork design, shifter design, gear design, transmission oil selection etc. Designers have realized that shift fork is critical element for improving shift feel of a transmission. This paper focuses upon the reduction in weight of the overall transmission shift system by using steel inserts in aluminum shifter forks. No compromise on the stiffness and strength of the shift fork of a manual transmission is done. Stiffness and strength of shifter fork is optimized using contact pattern analysis and stiffness analysis on MSC Nastran. All the subsystem (i.e. synchronizer and the shift system component) are constrained to optimize the shift fork stiffness. A 5-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the same.
Technical Paper

Selection of Optimal Design Parameters to Achieve Improved Occupant Performance in Frontal Impacts

Crashworthiness enhancement of vehicle structures is a very challenging task during the early design development process. Major factors influencing occupant injury in frontal impact are vehicle front crush space, crash pulse severity, restraint properties and occupant packaging space. This paper establishes a methodology to define suitable criterion that will guide the designers to select the optimal values of the above mentioned parameters during the early phase of the vehicle development. The usage of lumped mass models, pulse characterization techniques were explored to validate the results. Efficient crash energy management, the concepts of ride down and restraint efficiency parameters were also discussed in the paper.
Technical Paper

Cost Efficient Bharat (Trem) Stage IV Solutionsfor TractorEngines

India's high Air Pollution level is the focus of discussions as we grow. Plans to combat this menace and implement the latest Technologies are gathering pace. The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. Tractor manufacturers are evaluating the need for cost-effective technology to meet upcoming stringent emissions targets. Simply following global approach may not work for Indian market considering the customer usage pattern & perceptions. With an anticipation of upcoming emission norms being based on US-EPA TIER-4 final up to 75 Hp, major technology up gradation is expected for farm equipment sold in India. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the operation specific requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Hub Load on Power Steering Pump Using Dynamic Simulation and Experimental Measurement

New trend in steering system such as EPS is coming up, but still hydraulic power steering system is more prevalent in today’s vehicles. Power steering pump is a vital component of hydraulic power steering system. Failure of steering pump can lead to loss of power assistance. Prediction of hub load on pump shaft is an important design input for pump manufacturer. Higher hub loads than the actual designed load of pump bearing may lead to seizure of pump. Pump manufacturer has safe limits for hub load. Simulations can assist for optimization of belt layout and placement of accessories to reduce the hub load. Lower hub load can have direct effect on improvement of pump durability. This paper deals with dynamic simulation of belt drive system in MSC.ADAMS as well as vehicle level measurement of hub load on power steering pump.
Technical Paper

Optimization of IP Duct Vane Articulation for Improved Cabin Airflow Directivity

The air velocity achieved at driver and passenger aim point is one of the key parameters to evaluate the automotive air-conditioning system performance. The design of duct, vent and vanes has a major contribution in the cabin air flow directivity. However, visual appearance of vent and vane receives higher priority in design because of market demand than their performance. More iterations are carried out to finalize the HVAC duct assembly until the target velocity is achieved. The objective of this study is to develop an automated process for vane articulation study along with predicting the optimized velocity at driver and passengers. The automated simulation of vane articulation study is carried out using STAR-CCM+ and SHERPA optimization algorithm which is available in HEEDS tool. The minimum and maximum vane angle are defined as parameters and face level velocity is defined as response.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Power Distribution Unit in Wiring Harness

With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. The concept of next generation power distribution unit in automobiles is achieved using miniaturization of its sub-components which involves replacing the mini fuses and JCASE fuses with LP mini and LP JCASE fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost. Furthermore, to address stringent weight and space targets, LP mini fuses and LP JCASE fuses were further replaced with micro-2 fuse and M-case fuse respectively.
Technical Paper

Develop the Methodology Using DOE Approach to Improve Steering Return Ability of a Vehicle through Virtual Simulation

In driving, Steering is the input motion to the vehicle. The driver uses steering input to change the direction of the vehicle. During Parking or U turn bends the Steering is locked and later released to follow the desired path. Steering return ability is defined as the ratio of difference between steering wheel position at lock condition and steering wheel angle after 3 seconds of release to the steering wheel angle at lock condition. Having proper steering return ability characteristics has an important effect on vehicle steering characteristics. In this study, a full vehicle ADAMS model is prepared, and virtual steering return ability have been simulated in ADAMS/CAR for a Pickup truck vehicle. Simulated responses in the steering wheel angle have been validated by comparison with measurements. A Design of Experiment study is setup and Iterations are carried out to find the effect of Hard points and friction parameters.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Disruption of Circadian Rhythms using Blue Light for Automotive Applications

Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the “sleep hormone” is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum have a higher effect on the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photobiology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by neurologists, endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photobiology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Tip-In Response Character of Sports Utility Vehicle and Verification with Objective Methodology

Each OEM has a distinguishing drivability character that defines its image in the market to achieve brand differentiation. Drivability is one of the important factors along with fuel economy that determines the success of a vehicle vis-à-vis its competitors. It can be said that the need for good drivability among customers is increasing day by day similar to the need for high fuel economy. Drivability is the response that a vehicle delivers to the inputs of the driver which are mainly accelerator, brake, clutch, gear and steering. The dynamic response of the vehicle is mainly in terms of velocity and acceleration. The way the response is delivered will characterize the drivability of a vehicle. The drivability event discussed in this paper is throttle tip-in response which is one of the critical evaluation factors for defining the character of a Sports Utility Vehicle.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Driveline Boom Noise and Vibration of 40 Seat Bus through Structural Optimization

In today’s automotive scenario, noise vibration and harshness (NVH) has become a synonym for quality perception. This paper evaluates the problem of vibration and noise experienced in M2 category 40 seat bus and suggests the counter measures. Severe vibration is experienced on the bus floor, predominantly towards rear part of the bus. Vibration along with acoustic boom occurs prominently in 4th gear wide open throttle operating condition between 1300-1600 rpm of the engine. This paper focuses on reducing NVH levels by working on the transfer path with little modifications on power-train. Preliminary torsional measurements conducted on powertrain indicated high torsional excitation in the driveline during the problematic rpm zone. Further, Operational Deflection Shape (ODS) analysis revealed that the transfer path to the cabin is rear differential unit and suspension links. The dominant frequencies were identified along the transfer path and suitable modifications were done.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sway Prediction in Hydraulic Circuit Failed Condition on 4 Wheeled Vehicle with ‘X’ Split Brake Configuration

A 4 wheeled vehicle with X-split brake configuration, in hydraulic circuit failed condition will have a behavior of induced sway due to braking force variation in the front and rear diagonally. With increasing vehicle speed, engine power & customer expectations, the situation becomes more critical and challenging in designing a brake system which caters in meeting the homologation requirement at an expense of vehicle sway within controllable limits of driver / customer. This paper proposes a novel approach & methodology to overcome the above situation by predicting the effect of brake force distribution variation on the vehicle swaying behavior during circuit failed braking condition. This study will quantify vehicle sway, caused due to imbalance in brake force distribution during a circuit failed braking event on X Split configuration vehicles.
Technical Paper

Driver Reference Generation and Integrated Vehicle Lateral Dynamics Control

With the increase in number of vehicles and amount of traffic, safety has come out to be a big concern in vehicle’s dynamic stability. There are certain system’s limits beyond which if a vehicle is pushed it may become unstable. One of the major areas of research in vehicle dynamics control has been lateral velocity and yaw rate control. With this, situations like vehicle spinning, oversteer, understeer etc. can be addressed. The challenge for the next generations of vehicle control is the integration of the available actuators into a unique holistic control concept. This paper presents the driver reference generator developed for the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control concept. The driver reference generator processes the driver inputs to determine the target vehicle behavior. The generation of reference behavior is a key factor for the integrated control design. The driver reference generation is validated on a real vehicle.
Technical Paper

Crash Pulse Characterization to Minimize Occupant Injuries in Offset Frontal Crash

The objective of this paper is to minimize occupant injuries in offset frontal crash with pulse characterization, by keeping vehicle front crush space & occupant survival space constant. Crash pulse characterization greatly simplifies the representation of crash pulse time histories. The parameters used to characterize the crash pulse are velocity change, time & value of dynamic crush, and zero cross-over time. The crash pulse slope, peaks, average values at discrete time intervals have significant role on occupant injuries. Vehicle crash pulse of different trends have different impact on occupant injury. The intension of crash pulse characterization study is to come out with one particular crash pulse which shows minimum occupant injuries. This study will have significant impact in terms of front loading on crash development of vehicle.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Stick Slip Behavior of Plastics and Target Setting: An OEM Perspective

Automotive OEMs are aggressively using different materials for interiors due to value proposition and variety of options available for customers in market. Excessive usage of different grade plastics with zero gap philosophy can cause stick slip effect leading to squeak noise. Even though systems and subsystems are designed using best practices of structural design and manufacturing tolerances, extreme environmental conditions can induce contacts leading to squeak noise. Appropriate selection of interface material pairs can minimize the possibilities of squeak conditions. Stick-slip behavior of different plastics is discussed in the present study, along with critical parameters during material compatibility testing in a tribological test stand. Friction coefficient of different material pairs for a defined normal load and sliding velocity are analyzed for patterns to recognize squeaks versus time.
Technical Paper

A Unique Methodology to Evaluate the Structural Robustness of a Dual-Mass Flywheel under Real-World Usage Conditions

Dual mass flywheel (DMF) is an excellent solution to improve the noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) characteristic of any vehicle by isolating the driveline from the engine torsional vibrations. For the same reason, DMFs are widely used in high power-density diesel and gasoline engines. However, the real-world usage conditions pose a lot of challenges to the structural robustness of the DMF. In the present work, a new methodology is developed to evaluate the robustness of a DMF fitted in a compact sports utility vehicle (SUV) with rear-wheel drive architecture. The abuse conditions (mis-gear, sudden braking, etc) in the real-world usage could lead to a sudden engine stall leading to an abnormally high angular deceleration of the driveline components. The higher rate of deceleration coupled with the higher rotational moment of inertia of the systems might end up in introducing a significantly high impact torque on the DMF.
Technical Paper

Using Vehicle Specifications to Gain Insights into Different Automotive Market Requirements

Determination of vehicle specifications (for example, powertrain sizing) is one of the fundamental steps in any new vehicle development process. The vehicle system engineer needs to select an optimum combination of vehicle, engine and transmission characteristics based on the product requirements received from Product Planning (PP) and Marketing teams during concept phase of any vehicle program. This process is generally iterative and requires subject matter expertise. For example, accurate powertrain sizing is essential to meet the required fuel economy (FE), performance and emission targets for different vehicle configurations. This paper analyzes existing vehicle specifications (Passenger Cars/SUVs - Gasoline/Diesel) in different automotive markets (India, Europe, US, Japan) and aims to determine underlying trends across them.