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Technical Paper

Practical Considerations in the Airflow Optimization of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1705
The present work is concerned with the design of an optimum air intake system for a single cylinder reciprocating diesel engine. It is a well known fact that air flow rates of a naturally aspirated engine are sensitive to the geometrical dimensions of the pipes that connect the engine to the atmosphere. Hence, tuning intake system dimensions for optimum airflow rates is of great importance. In this scenario simulation tools can be useful for the optimization of intake system. The one dimensional simulation tool AVL BOOST is used to predict air flow rates with different combinations of connecting hose diameters and lengths. Subsequently air flow rates are measured with selected clean hoses on an engine steady state test bench. It is found in the initial tests that the lengths and diameters of optimum hoses deviate from the AVL BOOST predicted optimum geometric dimensions.
Technical Paper

Design Improvement of Differential Casing through CAE Strain Correlation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0756
A differential casing is one of the important elements in the vehicle power train, whose objective is to house differential gears and take different loads coming from these gears. The function of a differential is to drive a pair of wheels while allowing them to rotate at different speeds. While taking a turn, the outer wheel needs to travel more compared to the inner wheel. This is possible due to the differential which rotates them at different speeds. This Paper highlights a simplified methodology to capture the differential casing failure and to resolve the same. The methodology adopted was then correlated with the test measurements to increase the confidence. During physical tests, strains are measured at different orientations of the differential casing and correlated with simulation results.
Technical Paper

Structural Evaluation Technique Based on RWUP for Scooter Using RLDA

2014-04-01
2014-01-0749
Scooter segment growth is tremendously increasing in India. The increased competition challenges automotive manufacturers to deliver the high quality and high reliable product to the market. Higher reliability involves increased durability testing which involves time and cost. Stress testing a part of durability is initially conducted on prototype vehicles for structural design validation and then later on production units to ensure its structural integrity. The obtained data from the tests can be used for future structural design improvements. Scooters with small tires, suspension limitations transfers more loads to structure, challenges engineers to design robust structure without compromising on weight much. It is necessary to look at Real World Usage Pattern (RWUP) and to create a stress life cycle block for simulation of accelerated testing, thereby optimizing the testing time and the development costs.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Approach for Weight Reduction of BIW Panels through Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0389
This paper describes application of Design of Experiments (DOE) technique and optimization for mass reduction of a Sports utility vehicle (SUV) body in white (BIW). Thickness of the body panels is taken as design variable for the study. The BIW global torsion, bending and front end modes are key indicators of the stiffness and mass of the structure. By considering the global modes the structural strength of the vehicle also gets accounted, since the vehicle is subjected to bending and twisting moments during proving ground test. The DOE is setup in a virtual environment and the results for different configurations are obtained through simulations. The results obtained from the DOE exercise are used to check the sensitivity of the panels. The panels are selected for mass reduction based on the analysis of the results. This final configuration is further evaluated for determining the stiffness and strength of the BIW.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Simulation and Validation of a Crossover

2010-04-12
2010-01-0757
Aerodynamic simulation using commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes is now an integral part of the vehicle design process. Aerodynamic prediction and vehicle development program runs in parallel. This requires a good agreement between experimental measurements and CFD prediction of aerodynamic behavior of a vehicle. The comparison between experimental and simulation results show differences, as it may not be possible to replicate effect of all the wind tunnel parameters in the simulation. This paper presents the details of aerodynamic simulation process of a Crossover and its validation with the experimental results available from the wind tunnel tests. The results are compared for different configurations such as- closing the grille openings, removing the rearview mirror, adding ski-rack and using different tyres. This study also includes the effect of different wind speeds and yaw angles on the coefficient of drag.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Gear Shift Force Curve and Shift Rail Ramp Profile

2010-04-12
2010-01-0896
This paper presents a simulation for the gear shift process of a manual transmission, implemented using a library function. All the subsystem (i.e. synchronizer and the shift system) are correlated to generate a gear shift curve for optimum shift ability prediction of a manual transmission. A 5-speed manual transmission is used as an example in the paper to illustrate the simulation, co-relation and the validation of the gear shift performance curve on the vehicle. The dynamic behavior of the shift system and synchronizer in engaging and disengaging the gear is simulated through the gear shift characteristics to generate the shift rail's ramp profile. The synchronizer travel is co-related with the shift rail ramp profile to get a negative force after synchronization is over. The profile indicates the role of the detent ball diameter, radius on the shift rail ramp's profile etc and how it affects synchronizer force over the shift rail travel.
Technical Paper

Development of Common Rail Engine for LCV BS III and a Step Towards BS IV Emission Compliance

2011-01-19
2011-26-0032
This work discusses about the emission development of a 4 cylinder inline 3.3 liter CRDe to meet BS III emission norms applicable to 3.5 Ton and above category and upgradable to BS IV emission by suitable after treatment. This engine is developed from a 3.2l mechanical pump engine. During development the focus was on the usage of higher swept volume, selection of engine hardware like piston bowl, turbocharger, injectors and optimization of the injection parameters. A cost-effective solution for meeting the BS III norms in the LCV category without application of EGR and exhaust after treatment even though there is 15% increase of the power rating and 10% increase in Peak torque of the engine. Injection parameters like injection timing, injection quantity and pilot injection were optimized to meet the emission target.
Technical Paper

Innovative Method of Calibration to Meet BS4 Emission with Optimized Fuel Economy and Noise in a MPV with 2.5Lit Common Rail Diesel Engine

2011-01-19
2011-26-0028
In today's fast growing automobile world, the Emission limits are stringent; customer expectations of vehicle performance and Fuel economy are more. Achieving these parameters for the given engine are challenging task for any automobile engineers. BS4 Emission limits are 50% more stringent than BS3 limits and from April 2010 onwards, all passenger cars which will be selling in 13 metro cities in India should be BS4 emission compliant. In this paper, we have described how BS4 limits were achieved in a MPV with 2.49 l, 70kW Common Rail Direct Injection Turbocharged Diesel engine, with push rod. During Emission development, the following processes were followed to meet BS4 emission limits without sacrificing the engine performance, Fuel Economy and Noise. Selecting suitable hardwares like Turbocharger, EGR cooler at engine level to reduce NOx and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions with best Brake specific fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Test with CAE of Dynamic Strains on Transmission Housing for 4WD Automotive Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0497
Reducing the vibrations in the powertrain is one of the prime necessities in today's automobiles from NVH and strength perspectives. The necessity of 4×4 powertrain is increasing for better control on normal road and off-road vehicles. This leads to bulky powertrains. The vehicle speeds are increasing, that requires engines to run at higher speeds. Also to save on material costs and improve on fuel economy there is a need for optimizing the mass of the engine/vehicle. The reduced stiffness and higher speeds lead to increased noise and vibrations. One more challenge a powertrain design engineer has to face during design of its transmission housings is the bending / torsional mode vibrations of powertrain assembly. This aggravates other concerns such as shift lever vibrations, shift lever rattle, rise in in-cab noise, generation of boom noise at certain speeds, etc. Hence, reducing vibrations becomes an important and difficult aspect in design of an automobile.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of CRDI Engine Combustion and Gear-Shift Optimization to Meet Stringent Tail-Pipe Emissions for SUV Application

2013-01-09
2013-26-0133
Brazil has implemented a new emission regulation for Light commercial vehicles named PROCONVE L6. This regulation follows Environmental Protection Act (EPA) driving cycle; FTP75. This cycle simulates an urban route of 12.07 km with frequent stops. The maximum speed is 91.2 km/h and the average speed is 31.5 km/h. The regulation has proposed that the gear shift pattern of the manual transmission vehicle can be varied according to the manufacturer's specification. This has lead to the strategy of optimizing gear shift pattern without compromising diesel combustion and engine-out emission with optimized exhaust-gas treatment-devices. The emission is demonstrated to Brazilan Authorities with good margins.
Technical Paper

Tractor Operator Objective Response to Seat Vibration in Real World Usage Pattern

2013-01-09
2013-26-0097
Whole Body Vibration (WBV) of tractors was measured on different surfaces in real world usage pattern of Indian customers on tractors of various capacities. Vibration levels were measured at the interface of the seat and the operator, on the seat base/floor and on the head. The mean weighted Root Mean Square (RMS) values along the different axes, the vector sum of weighted RMS values along the three orthogonal axes, the crest factor, Vibration Dose Value (VDV) and 8 h exposure levels were calculated according to ISO 2631-1. In addition to the above parameters, the transmissibility between the seat base and the seat interface (SEAT) and between the seat interface and the operator head (TR) were also calculated. Finally, these parameters were correlated with the subjective feel of customers which was captured through suitable questionnaires. It is observed that the Indian tractor operators are exposed to WBV that exceeds the cautionary boundaries set in place by the ISO 2631-1.
Technical Paper

Experimental Approach to Improve the Door Slam Noise Quality in Utility Vehicles

2013-01-09
2013-26-0095
The customer perception about the door slam noise and its feel would indicate the brand image of the car. In this paper the authors have made an effort to improve the door slam noise quality of the vehicle, which is currently in production. This paper describes the probable areas in the door to improve the slam noise quality by attempting modifications in the door design factors, such as door alignments, door panel stiffness, door trims, window glass rattle, latch striker alignment, door seals, air extractor. Since the door closing event is a transient phenomenon, it requires special tools such as wavelet transforms, Zwicker loudness to understand the slam events precisely. Subjective jury evaluations have been conducted to understand the effect of these modifications and rank the modifications based on their contributions to the door slam quality.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis and Elimination of Vehicle Shudder in a Sports Utility Vehicle

2013-01-09
2013-26-0090
Ground clearance plays an important role in Sports Utility Vehicles (SUV). Designers are good in designing their own systems but when it comes to integration of systems, the impact of one system on others and cascading effects become the major problems in full vehicle development. The test vehicle is a monocoque construction with power train in transverse (east-west) direction. Vehicle shudder is observed in lateral direction exciting the steering column, floor during the low gear power train run up in Wide Open Throttle (WOT) condition. The shudder is felt predominantly on the front half of the vehicle. Being a low frequency phenomenon with high energy it becomes critical and the phenomenon is easily perceivable by passenger. The paper discusses the measurement and analysis procedures to identify the root cause of shudder. Different modifications are tried out based on the analysis and an optimum solution is selected.
Technical Paper

Seat Squeak Measurement and Diagnosis

2013-01-09
2013-26-0094
BSR (Buzz, Squeak and Rattle) is one of the oldest concerns in automobiles which directly reflect the build, assembly and manufacturing quality of a vehicle. In a cabin all the areas where there is relative motion between two components, such as trims, instrument panel and seats, are prone to squeak. This paper explains the study of seat squeak measurement and diagnosis which is a major concern for one of the products which is already in the market. Since squeak is a friction induced non stationary phenomenon, lot of effort was required to generate squeak in both component as well as vehicle level. At component level, electrodynamic shaker was extensively used for generation of squeak signals. In Vehicle level, driving through different road patterns, pave track and forced excitation on four posters are performed for generation of squeak signals. In this paper usage of wavelet and Zwikker loudness are explained for the diagnosis of seat squeak to identify the problematic frequencies.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low PM, Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine Development Meeting Off-Highway Tier IV (Final) Emission Norms

2013-01-09
2013-26-0110
To meet stringent US EPA - TIER IV final emission norms, the diesel engine manufacturers are using various technology approaches. These approaches are varying from advanced in-cylinder combustion strategies to sophisticated exhaust after-treatment technologies. Generally, the proven technology concepts such as Common Rail System (CRS), efficient Turbocharged-Intercooled (TCI), and controlled-cooled EGR along with DOC-DPF in after treatment are used for emission controls. However, this approach will increase the engine cost in addition to the Packaging challenges for the existing vehicle layouts. This paper describes the successful attempt to meet US EPA TIER IV final (<37 kW power category) emission norms on a 2.7 l, Naturally Aspirated (NA) diesel engine for off-highway application. Use of high pressure CRS system, moderate Excess Air Ratio (λ) and optimum engine swept volume selection helped to retain fuel consumption at par with interim TIER IV engine.
Technical Paper

Studies on Neutral Gear Rattle in Early Stage Design

2013-01-09
2013-26-0109
In today's competitive automobile market, customers have become more sensitive towards NVH behavior of the vehicle than ever. The noise generated by gear rattle is one of the main contributors towards customer's overall NVH perception. This paper adopts a model based design approach towards gear rattle phenomenon to predict the tendency of gear rattle at a very early stage of design. This up-front understanding of gear rattle will potentially reduce the expensive design changes and iterations at later stages. A single unloaded gear pair is modeled in AMESim software, which is then extended to the complete gearbox in neutral condition. The sensitivity of rattle index for different input parameters is studied. Analysis on uncertainty propagation is carried out to find the rattle index distribution for Gaussian variation of input parameters. A novel rattle index based on Jerk is proposed and compared with the existing index.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Exhaust Gas Recirculation Governing for Robust BS-III Compliant 2.5 l Mechanical Pump Drive Diesel Vehicle

2013-01-09
2013-26-0052
October 2010 has brought major change over in Indian Auto Industries, with all India going BS-III Emission compliant (Metro with BS-IV Emission norms). During that time majority of the utility segment vehicles were having diesel engine with simple mechanical fuel injection system. To make these vehicles BS-III compliance cost effectively, with same fuel economy and reliability, was a challenging task. To enable this, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) through simple pneumatic EGR valve was the optimum technique. The EGR valve was controlled by means of simple Electronic Control Unit (ECU). Limitations of mechanical diesel fuel injection pump, stringent emission regulations, coupled with production constraints and variations, calls for robust control logics for governing EGR. The present work describes the robust strategies and logics of intelligent EGR governing of a 2.5 l, four Cylinder turbocharged, mechanical pump diesel engine for a BS-III compliant multi utility vehicle.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and Soot Using Early Post Injection

2013-01-09
2013-26-0055
The effect of early post injection in diesel engine was studied with respect to engine out emissions and torque output. Initial tests indicated that there is significant reduction of soot for same NOx or with reduced NOx due to early Post Injection (POI) in traditional high speed diesel engine depending on various operating conditions. Further studies indicated that varying the post injection quantity and timing improved engine out NOx and soot emissions significantly and that the degree of this influence depends on speed and load of the engine. Additional investigations like study of heat release curve and air by fuel ratio were done to understand this effect completely.
Technical Paper

Development of Hydrogen Powered Three Wheeler Engine

2013-01-09
2013-26-0002
This article is focused on the development of hydrogen fuelled engine with detailed exposure on its derivation from base Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine to discuss the phenomenon on backfiring, control strategies (to avoid knocking and backfiring) and its performance, emission characteristics. In this work, timed manifold injection system was developed to have efficient control over the fuel supply. To achieve the best performance and emission out of the engine, governing parameter like injector pulse width and ignition timing were optimized at full load, part load and idling. For comparison of the results with the same engine experiments were also conducted with base fuel CNG and gasoline using the conventional fuel supply system. It was experimentally observed that engine when fuelled with Hydrogen (H2) produces less maximum power compared to CNG and gasoline.
Technical Paper

In-house Design and Development of Pedestrian Protection Test Rig

2013-01-09
2013-26-0021
Regulations on pedestrian safety have been introduced globally since the year 1990 and in India it will have to be met around the year 2016. Process of making vehicle compliant to this regulation requires rigorous design development and testing. Testing involves propelling head-forms (Child and Adult) on bonnet at 35 km/h and 40 km/h and leg-forms (Upper and Lower) on bumper at 40 km/h according to the different National / International / NCAP regulatory requirements A pedestrian protection test rig has been indigenously designed and developed in-house to perform pedestrian protection impact testing in-house. The paper describes the salient features of the pedestrian protection test rig, its functioning, operation and process of acquiring the data for determination of the values required by crash safety regulations.
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