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Technical Paper

Cost and Weight Efficient Differential Housing for Off-Road Vehicles

Differential in Gear Box play vital role in Tractors for assisting it in turning and also to take straight path. Light weight machine always have advantage in terms of fuel economy and performance. Weight optimized rotating part have additional benefits of saving power loss, against stationary dead weight. Differential Housing is such a part, which rotates during the vehicle motion and torque transmission. [1] This paper describes a method by which weight of the Differential Housing is optimized. In this particular body of work, additional constraints of avoiding any change in existing cold forged parts like Bevel Gear & Pinion. This also have additional benefit of enhanced flow of Oil inside Differential Housing for better lubrication of Bevel Gears and Pinion. This resulted in weight saving of Differential Housing and finally fuel economy of Tractor.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gear Shift Indicator Technique Enhancing Improved Fuel Economy on SUV

Improving the fuel economy of the vehicle resulting in energy conservation on long run is a challenging task in the automotive field without compromising the emission margins. Fuel economy improvement by effective driving is the main focus of this paper by the proper utilization of gears which can enable good fuel economy even when the vehicle is driven by different drivers. GSI technique was implemented on Sports utility vehicle operating with 2.2 l engine. Tests were carried with GSI and the effect of fuel consumption and emissions were compared to the regular driving cycle. Optimization of various gear shifting points were analyzed and implemented for better fuel economy keeping the drivability in mind, meeting the BS4 emission norms comfortably. The experiments were carried out in both cold and hot conditions to check the effect of GSI and positive results of fuel economy improvement was yielded.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Oil Flow inside Tractor Transmission for Splash Type Lubrication

This study introduces a method to examine the flow path of the lubricant inside a transmission housing of a tractor. A typical gearbox has several loads bearing elements which are in relative sliding motion to each other which causes heat to be released. The major sources of friction as well as heat are the meshing teeth between gears (sun/planet, planet/ring & power/range drive gear), thrust washers, thrust bearings and needle roller bearings. The churning of oil performs the vital function of both lubricating these sliding interfaces and cooling these sources of heat, thereby preventing failure of the gearbox. In this paper, we have applied VOF multiphase flow model and sliding meshing to simulate the fluid flow during splashed lubrication within a mating gear box. Lubrication oil dynamics and oil surface interaction with the air is modeled using VOF multiphase approach.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Selection of Turbocharger Meeting BS6 Emission Norms for 1.99l Engine

Migration to BS6 emission norms from BS4 levels involves strenuous efforts involving advanced technology and higher cost. The challenging part is on achieving the stringent emission norms without compromising the engine fuel economy, performance and NVH factors. Selection of hardware and attaining an optimal behaviour is therefore vital. This article focuses on the evaluation of three different configuration of turbochargers for the same engine to meet the BS6 emission norms and performance. The turbocharger samples used measure the same compressor diameter with varying trim ratios. Simulation and testing of turbochargers ensured positive results for confirmation of the system. Parameters like low speed torque, smoke and compressor efficiency were evaluated and analysed for all configurations. The safe limits of surge and choke regions of all the compressors were also studied and verified.
Technical Paper

Parametric Calculation and Significance of Engine Dynamic Torque in Performance Benchmarking of a Vehicle

The automotive industries around the world is undergoing massive transformation towards identifying technological capabilities to improve vehicle performance. In this regard, the engine dynamic torque plays a crucial role in defining the transient performance and drivability of a vehicle. Moreover, the dynamic torque is used as a visualization parameter in performance prediction of a vehicle to set the right engineering targets and to assess the engine potential. Hence, an accurate measurement and prediction of the engine dynamic torque is required. However, there are very few methodologies available to measure the engine dynamic torque with reasonable accuracy and minimum efforts. The measurement of engine brake torque using a torque transducer is one of the potential methods. However, it requires a lot of effort and time to instrument the vehicle. It is also possible to back-calculate the engine torque based on fuel injection quantity and other known engine parameters.
Technical Paper

Performance Modification of Three Cylinder Diesel Engine Ge-Rotor Oil Pump through Rotor and PRV System

Current high rating thermal loaded engines must have super-efficient lubrication system to provide clean oil at appropriate pressure and appropriate lube oil temperature to every part of the engine at all engine RPM speeds and loads. So oil pump not only have to satisfy above parameters but also it should be durable till engine life. Gerotor pumps are internal rotary positive-displacement pumps in which the outer rotor has one tooth more than the inner rotor. The gear profiles have a cycloidal shape. Both are meshed in conjugate to each other. Gerotor takes up engine power through crankshaft and deliver to various engine consumers at required pressure and required time. Over the complete engine rpm speed and loads range, oil pump need to perform efficiently to provide proper functioning of the engine. Otherwise low oil pressure leads to more friction in the pump, seizure of bearings and final failure of the engine .High oil pressure can lead to failure in oil filter, gaskets and seal.
Technical Paper

Benefits of Variable Discharge Oil Pump on Performance of 3 Cylinder SI Engine

Lubrication system is a critical factor for engine health. But it creates parasitic load and increased fuel consumption of the engine. The oil demand of an engine depends on engine speed, load, bearing clearances, operating temperature and engine's state of wear. Ideally, the oil pump should adapt the delivery volume flow to actual engine oil demand and should avoid unnecessary pumping of oil which causes increased power and fuel consumption. However in a conventional mechanical oil pump, there is no control on the oil flow and it is purely a function of operating speed. A variable discharge oil pump (VDOP) is an approach to reduce the parasitic losses wherein the oil flow is regulated based on the mechanical needs of the engine. This study is based on the results of a two stage VDOP installed on a 1.2 litre, 3 cylinder MPFI engine. The oil supply is regulated by a solenoid control which receives command from Engine Control Unit (ECU). The study was done in two stages.
Technical Paper

Digital Automotive AC Pulldown Prediction in a Real Driving Condition

Automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are always striving to deliver fast Air-Conditioning (AC) pulldown performance with consistent distribution of cabin temperature to meet customer expectations. The ultimate test is the OEM standard, called “AC Pull Down,” conducted at high ambient temperature and solar load conditions with a prescribed vehicle drive cycle. To determine whether the AC system in the vehicle has the capacity to cool the cabin, throughout the drive cycle test, cabin temperature measurements are evaluated against the vehicle target. If the measured cabin temperatures are equal or lower than the required temperatures, the AC system is deemed conventional for customer usage. In this paper, numerical predictions of the cabin temperatures to replicate the AC pulldown test are presented. The AC pulldown scenario is carried out in a digital Climatic Wind Tunnel simulation. The solution used in this study is based on a coupled approach.
Technical Paper

Methodological Approach for Matching Gear and Final Drive Ratio for Better Fuel Economy, Performance and Drivability

Fuel economy, performance and drivability are the three important parameters for evaluating the vehicle performance. Powertrain matching plays a major role in meeting the above targets. Fuel economy is measured based on city, highway and some user defined driving cycles which can be considered as real world usage profiles. Performance and Drivability is evaluated based on the in-gear, thru-gear (acceleration performance) and grade-ability performance. The load collective points of the engine greatly influence the engines performance, fuel economy and emissions, which in-turn depends on the N/V ratio of the vehicle. The optimal selection of gear and final drive ratios plays a key role in the optimization of the Powertrain for a particular vehicle. The current study involves dynamic simulation of the vehicle performance and fuel economy at transient engine test-bed for different gear and final drive ratio combinations using AVL DynoExcat-dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Performance Optimization of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Oil Pump through PRV and Rotor System

Oil pump is one of the important engine parasitic loads which takes up engine power through crankshaft to deliver oil flow rate according to engine demand to maintain required oil pressure. The proper functioning of oil pump along with optimum design parameters over various operating conditions is considered for required engine oil pressure. Pressure relief passage is also critical from design point of view as it maintains the required oil pressure in the engine. Optimal levels of oil pressure and flow are very important for satisfied performance and lubrication of various engine parts. Low oil pressure will lead to seizure of engine and high oil pressure leads to failure of oil filters, gasket sealing, etc. Optimization of pressure relief passage area along with other internal systems will also reduce the power consumed by the pump.
Technical Paper

Develop the Methodology to Predict the Engine Mount Loads from Road Load Data Using MSC ADAMS and FEMFAT Virtual Iteration

Design of powertrain mounting bracket is always a challenge in achieving good NVH characteristics and durability with less weight. For this activity engine mount load is necessary to optimize the weight to meet durability and NVH targets. This paper introduces a new method to calculate engine mount loads from chassis accelerations. The method starts by measuring chassis acceleration near engine mount location, then reproducing the same chassis acceleration in Multi Axis Shaker Table (MAST), and finally extracting the load in engine mount using testing (using load cell). The MAST test actuator displacement input is imported into ADAMS and engine mount loads are extracted. The extracted loads are correlated with physical test results. The correlation includes load time history and peak-to-peak load range. It is recommended to implement this method in early vehicle design phases. Implementing engine mount bracket weight optimization is desirable in early design stages.
Technical Paper

Innovative setting bracket design to improve the tractor Fit and Finish between the Bonnet and Custer panel (Scuttle)

In the tractor bonnet will mounted on the front axle and Custer panel (Scuttle) will mount on the clutch housing. As the Custer panel (Scuttle) is the fixed part and the Bonnet will be swing openable type. We will provide the gap of 5mm between the parts but Due to the manufacturing process variation between the parts and accordingly Tolerances are stack up and its create the more Gap variation between the Bonnet and Custer panel (Scuttle). This Gap varies ±5mm As it’s the customer front view point it create the astatic fit and finish issue. Hence to overcome this we designed the intermediate bracket and gauge design to mount the bonnet first and internal intermediate bracket is mounted in position by using the setting gauge. This internal intermediate bracket will taken care the Stack up variation. Now Custer panel (Scuttle) will mount on intermediate bracket. Hence, we achieved the gap between the bonnet and Scuttle
Technical Paper

Customized Rops Application for Configurable Design

Tractor roll over is the most common farm-related cause of fatalities nowadays. ROPS (Roll-Over Protective Structures) are needed to prevent serious injury and death. It creates a protective zone around the operator when a rollover occurs. In India the ROPS is getting mandatory across all HP ranges except narrow track. In the present study states the customized ROPS application for configurable design such as Automated safety zone for all homologation standards, Rops A0-D excel calculator for selection of material at concept stage and bolt calculator for selection of size. For the above applications below aspects need to consider such as Tractor weight, Rear housing mounting, Operator seat index position (SIP), Seat reference points (SRP) and all Rops homologation standards. This Rops application is to reduce the timeline, manual error and ensure the reliability of the modular optimal design.