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Technical Paper

Scavenging the 2-Stroke Engine

1954-01-01
540258
THE indicated output of a 2-stroke engine is primarily dependent upon the success with which the products of combustion are driven from the cylinder and are replaced by fresh air or mixture during the scavenging period. Such replacement must, of course, be accomplished with a minimum of blower power. This paper deals with various aspects of 2-stroke research conducted at M.I.T. during the past 10 years. Among the subjects discussed are the methods used in the prediction and measurement of scavenging efficiency, and the effect of engine design and operating variables on the scavenging blower requirements as reflected by the scavenging ratio.
Technical Paper

IGNITION OF FUELS BY RAPID COMPRESSION

1950-01-01
500178
THE autoignition characteristics of several fuels under various conditions of mixture strength, compression ratio, and temperature have been studied by means of a rapid-compression machine. The behaviors of a knock inhibitor, tetraethyl lead, and a knock inducer, ethyl nitrite, have also been studied. Simultaneous records of pressure, volume, and the inflammation have been obtained. These records show the diverse aspects of the autoignition phenomenon and indicate, among other things, according to the authors, that a comparison of the detonating tendencies of fuels must include not only a consideration of the length of the delay period but also an evaluation of the rate of pressure rise during autoignition. Physical interpretations of the data are presented but chemical interpretations have been avoided. The work was exploratory in nature. The authors hope that the results will stimulate activity in this important branch of combustion research.
Technical Paper

Creativity In Engineering

1956-01-01
560004
ANALYZED in this paper are the creative problem, the creative process, and the creative person. Among factors essential to the creative individual, the author says, are: 1. More ideas per unit of time. 2. Ability to rule out judgment during the idea-forming stage. 3. Lack of barriers between the subconscious and conscious mind. 4. Fluency of ideation. 5. Flexibility. 6. Originality. 7. Sensitivity to existence of problems. Most encouraging, he feels, is the fact that exercise and practice can develop most of these factors in most people. He urges greater interest and endeavor in this direction throughout American industry.
Technical Paper

Small Scale Research in Automobile Aerodynamics

1966-02-01
660384
This paper describes a three component strain gage balance designed to measure aerodynamic forces exerted on small automobile models when subjected to turbulence in an experimental wind tunnel. The instrument is described and the details of obtaining values with it are fully explained. Although tests were conducted on these models at quarter-scale Reynolds number, results agree closely with similar tests on larger models. The balance makes practical some unusual preliminary investigations before developing full-scale prototypes.
Technical Paper

LOOP SCAVENGING versus THROUGH SCAVENGING of TWO-STROKE ENGINES

1958-01-01
580044
THIS paper reports the latest investigation of the relative merits of loop scavenging versus through scavenging. The authors hope that the conditions of the work permitted an objective evaluation of the two types of engines. The results of the study may be summarized as follows: 1. With symmetrical timing, neither cylinder shows significant advantage in trapping efficiency. 2. With symmetrical timing, the best ratio of exhaust-port to inlet-port effective area seems to be about 0.6. 3. Unsymmetrical timing is an effective method of improving trapping efficiency. 4. The value of net indicated fuel economy shows no significant difference between the two cylinders. The authors point out that because the areas were equal it is unlikely that the optimum port design of each type was used in comparing the cylinders. If optimum porting had been used, the two types might have shown more difference.
Technical Paper

Measurement of -- Gas Temperature in an Engine by the VELOCITY OF SOUND METHOD

1958-01-01
580064
THIS paper outlines a new method of measuring end-gas temperatures within the cylinder of an operating engine. The new instrument measures the acoustical properties by the pulse method, transmitting an acoustical impulse through a gas path of known length and measuring the time of propagation through the gas. The method yields a value for the average velocity of sound in the path. The authors describe the instrument and engine modifications necessary. The results of tests are also discussed, with a detailed description of one series. The appendixes outline the mathematical steps of finding the sound velocity in gas mixtures and the fuel-air cycle for the detailed series of tests.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Evaluating Body Architecture Concepts Using Technical Cost Modeling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0767
The ability to make accurate decisions concerning early body-in-white architectures is critical to an automaker since these decisions often have long term cost and weight impacts. We address this need with a methodology which can be used to assist in body architecture decisions using process-based technical cost modeling (TCM) as a filter to evaluate alternate designs. Despite the data limitations of early design concepts, TCM can be used to identify key trends for cost-effectiveness between design variants. A compact body-in-white architecture will be used as a case study to illustrate this technique. The baseline steel structure will be compared to several alternate aluminum intensive structures in the context of production volume.
Technical Paper

Using Mass Spectrometry to Detect Ethanol and Acetaldehyde Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Operating on Ethanol/Gasoline Blends

2011-04-12
2011-01-1159
Ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions from a direct ignition spark ignition were measured using mass spectrometry. Previous methods focused on eliminating or minimizing interference from exhaust species with identical atomic mass and fragment ions created in ionization process. This paper describes a new technique which exploits the fragment ions from ethanol and acetaldehyde. A survey of mass spectra of all major species of exhaust gas was conducted. It was found that ethanol contributes most ions in mass number 31 and that no other gas species produces ions at this mass number. Acetaldehyde detection suffers more interference. Nevertheless, it was estimated that detection at mass number 43 is possible with 10% error from 2-methylbutane. This new technique was validated in an engine experiment. By running the engine with pure gasoline and E85, the validity of the technique can be checked.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Cold Fast Idle Conditions for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

2011-04-12
2011-01-1305
The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0° C to 40° C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under cold fast idle condition. For E10 to E85, PN increases modestly when the ECT is lowered. The distributions, however, are insensitive to the ethanol content of the fuel. The PN for E0 is substantially higher than the gasohol fuels at ECT below 20° C. The total PN values (obtained from integrating the PN distribution from 15 to 350 run) are approximately the same for all fuels (E0 to E85) when ECT is above 20° C. When ECT is decreased below 20° C, the total PN values for E10 to E85 increase modestly, and they are insensitive to the ethanol content. For E0, however, the total PN increases substantially. This sharp change in PN from E0 to E10 is confirmed by running the tests with E2.5 and E5. The midpoint of the transition occurs at approximately E5.
Technical Paper

The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Inside DPF Inlet Channels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1584
Ash inside a honeycomb-configured diesel particulate filter (DPF) inlet channel accumulates both as a cake layer along the channel walls and as a “plug” towards the back of the channel. Experimental studies of DPF ash distribution have shown both an axial variation of deposits along channels and accumulation towards the end plugs. This study evaluates the sensitivity of DPF pressure drop on ash axial distribution and the potential to reduce flow restrictions by controlling and optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF channels. A computational model has been used in conjunction with experimental data to illustrate the sensitivity of ash spatial distribution on DPF performance. The classical constant-thickness DPF one-dimensional models have substantially been updated to include layer thickness axial variations. Material properties, such as ash characteristics, are provided by recent experiments at the authors' laboratory.
Journal Article

In-Situ Optical Analysis of Ash Formation and Transport in Diesel Particulate Filters During Active and Passive DPF Regeneration Processes

2013-04-08
2013-01-0519
The formation and transport processes governing the build-up of incombustible ash deposits in diesel particulate filters (DPF) are influenced to a large extent by the filter's operating history. More specifically, the regeneration process, whether active, passive, or some variation of the two, has long been assumed to exert significant influence on the resulting ash characteristics. Until recently, only limited circumstantial evidence was available to describe differences in ash properties and distribution impacting DPF performance for filters subjected to different regeneration strategies. This work presents, for the first time, results from a comprehensive series of evaluations with optically-accessible DPF core samples showing the processes controlling the formation, transport, and interaction of the soot and ash deposits over a range of DPF regeneration conditions.
Journal Article

Direct Measurements of Soot/Ash Affinity in the Diesel Particulate Filter by Atomic Force Microscopy and Implications for Ash Accumulation and DPF Degradation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1486
Inorganic engine lubricant additives, which have various specific, necessary functions such as anti-wear, leave the combustion chamber bound to soot particles (approximately ≤1% by mass) as ash [13], and accumulate in aftertreatment components. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is especially susceptible to ash-related issues due to its wall-flow architecture which physically traps most of the soot and ash emissions. Accumulated lubricant-derived ash results in numerous problems including increased filter pressure drop and decreased catalytic functionality. While much progress has been made to understand the macroscopic details and effects of ash accumulation on DPF performance, this study explores the nano- and micron-scale forces which impact particle adhesion and mobility within the particulate filter.
Journal Article

Engine Friction Accounting Guide and Development Tool for Passenger Car Diesel Engines

2013-10-14
2013-01-2651
The field of automotive engineering has devoted much research to reduce fuel consumption to attain sustainable energy usage. Friction reductions in powertrain components can improve engine fuel economy. Quantitative accounting of friction is complex because it is affected by many physical aspects such as oil viscosity, temperature, surface roughness and component rotation speed. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to develop a useful tool for evaluating the friction in engine and accessories based on test data; second, to exercise the tool to evaluate the fuel economy gain in a drive cycle for several friction reduction technologies.
Journal Article

A Dual Grid Curved Beam Finite Element Model of Piston Rings for Improved Contact Capabilities

2014-04-01
2014-01-1085
Piston rings are large contributors to friction losses in internal combustion engines. To achieve higher engine efficiency, low friction ring packs that can maintain good sealing performance must be designed. To support this effort, simulation tools have been developed to model the performance of piston rings during engine operation. However, the challenge of predicting oil consumption, blow by, and ring pack friction with sufficient accuracy remains. This is mostly due to the complexity of this system. Ring dynamics, deformation, interaction with liner and piston, gas and lubricant flow must all be studied together to make relevant predictions. In this paper, a new curved beam finite element model of piston rings is proposed. Ring structural deformation and contact with the liner are treated on two separate grids. A comparison with ring models in the literature and analytical solutions shows that it can provide accurate results efficiently.
Journal Article

Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Ash Accumulation and Mobility in Ceramic Exhaust Particulate Filters and Potential for Improved Ash Management

2014-04-01
2014-01-1517
Ash accumulation in the channels of ceramic, honeycomb-type particulate filters is controlled by several key parameters, which are the focus of this study. Ultimately, it is the formation of ash deposits, their transport, and the manner in which the ash accumulates in the particulate filter, which determines the useful service life of the filter and its resulting impact on engine performance. Although significant variations in ash deposit properties and their spatial distribution within the filter channels have been reported, depending on the filter's application, understanding the key parameters and mechanisms, such as the effects of exhaust flow and temperature conditions, as well as the processes occurring during filter regeneration events (whether passive or active) are critical in developing improved filter ash management strategies.
Technical Paper

Performance Maps of Turbocharged SI Engines with Gasoline-Ethanol Blends: Torque, Efficiency, Compression Ratio, Knock Limits, and Octane

2014-04-01
2014-01-1206
1 Downsizing and turbocharging a spark-ignited engine is becoming an important strategy in the engine industry for improving the efficiency of gasoline engines. Through boosting the air flow, the torque is increased, the engine can thus be downsized, engine friction is reduced in both absolute and relative terms, and engine efficiency is increased. However knock onset with a given octane rating fuel limits both compression ratio and boost levels. This paper explores the operating limits of a turbocharged engine, with various gasoline-ethanol blends, and the interaction between compression ratio, boost levels, and spark retard, to achieve significant increases in maximum engine mean effective pressure and efficiency.
Journal Article

On the High Load Limit of Boosted Gasoline HCCI Engine Operating in NVO Mode

2010-04-12
2010-01-0162
The high load limit of a boosted homogeneous-charge-compression-ignition (HCCI) engine operating on negative-valve-overlap (NVO) was assessed. When operating under stoichiometric condition with no external dilution, the load, as measured by the net indicated mean effective pressure (NIMEP), increased with increase in manifold absolute pressure (MAP), and with decrease in trapped amount of residual gas. The maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR), however, also increased correspondingly. When the MAP and the amount of residual gas were adjusted so that the engine operating point could be held at a constant MPRR value, the NIMEP increased with the simultaneous decrease in MAP and residual until the misfire limit was reached. Therefore if a MPRR ceiling is imposed, the high load limit of an HCCI engine is at the intersection of the constraining MPRR line and the misfire line.
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Motion and Laminar Flame Speed on Late Robust Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0350
The effects of charge motion and laminar flame speeds on combustion and exhaust temperature have been studied by using an air jet in the intake flow to produce an adjustable swirl or tumble motion, and by replacing the nitrogen in the intake air by argon or CO₂, thereby increasing or decreasing the laminar flame speed. The objective is to examine the "Late Robust Combustion" concept: whether there are opportunities for producing a high exhaust temperature using retarded combustion to facilitate catalyst warm-up, while at the same time, keeping an acceptable cycle-to-cycle torque variation as measured by the coefficient of variation (COV) of the net indicated mean effective pressure (NIMEP). The operating condition of interest is at the fast idle period of a cold start with engine speed at 1400 RPM and NIMEP at 2.6 bar. A fast burn could be produced by appropriate charge motion. The combustion phasing is primarily a function of the spark timing.
Journal Article

Effects of Secondary Air Injection During Cold Start of SI Engines

2010-10-25
2010-01-2124
An experimental study was performed to develop a more fundamental understanding of the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on exhaust gas emissions and catalyst light-off characteristics during cold start of a modern SI engine. The effects of engine operating parameters and various secondary air injection strategies such as spark retardation, fuel enrichment, secondary air injection location and air flow rate were investigated to understand the mixing, heat loss, and thermal and catalytic oxidation processes associated with SAI. Time-resolved HC, CO and CO₂ concentrations were tracked from the cylinder exit to the catalytic converter outlet and converted to time-resolved mass emissions by applying an instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate model. A phenomenological model of exhaust heat transfer combined with the gas composition analysis was also developed to define the thermal and chemical energy state of the exhaust gas with SAI.
Technical Paper

Alcohol Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Using Clean, High Efficiency Engines

2010-10-25
2010-01-2199
Non-petroleum based liquid fuels are essential for reducing oil dependence and greenhouse gas generation. Increased substitution of alcohol fuel for petroleum based fuels could be achieved by 1) use in high efficiency spark ignition engines that are employed for heavy duty as well as light duty operation and 2) use of methanol as well as ethanol. Methanol is the liquid fuel that is most efficiently produced from thermo-chemical gasification of coal, natural gas, waste or biomass. Ethanol can also be produced by this process but at lower efficiency and higher cost. Coal derived methanol is in limited initial use as a transportation fuel in China. Methanol could potentially be produced from natural gas at an economically competitive fuel costs, and with essentially the same greenhouse gas impact as gasoline. Waste derived methanol could also be an affordable low carbon fuel.
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