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Technical Paper

Fuel Spray Combustion of Waste Cooking Oil and Palm Oil Biodiesel: Direct Photography and Detailed Chemical Kinetics

This paper studies the ignition processes of two biodiesel from two different feedstock sources, namely waste cooked oil (WCO) and palm oil (PO). They were investigated using the direct photography through high-speed video observations and detailed chemical kinetics. The detailed chemical kinetics modeling was carried out to complement data acquired using the high-speed video observations. For the high-speed video observations, an image intensifier combined with OH* filter connected to a high-speed video camera was used to obtain OH* chemiluminscence image near 313 nm. The OH* images were used to obtain the experimental ignition delay of the biodiesel fuels. For the high-speed video observations, experiments were done at an injection pressure of 100, 200 and 300 MPa using a 0.16 mm injector nozzle.
Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Fuel Tank Using Modified Multi-Layer Blow Molding

A new and very practical technology has been developed to prevent gasoline permeation in plastic fuel tanks. The main body of the new tank is multi-layered, consist of high density polyethylene (HDPE), adhesive resin, polyamide (PA). The top and bottom parts of the tank are single layer consist of HDPE. This method has many advantages including such features as excellent gasoline permeation prevention, the processing time is the same as that for conventional blow molding methods, the method is safe because no toxic substances are used in the treatment process, the cost-performance ratio is excellent due to the minimum use of expensive auxiliaries (PA, adhesive resin), and the top and bottom single layer flashes can be re-used if they are pulverized.
Technical Paper

Analysis in cyclic combustion Variation in a Lean Operating S.I. Engine

The causes of the cyclic combustion variation in a lean operating SI engine have been identified using multivariate analysis on the pressure-time data. Principal component analysis on the combustion characteristics obtained from the pressure-time data was conducted in order to select an index of an optimal released heat pattern for analyzing the causes of the cyclic combustion variation. Using this index and the released heat quantity, the IMEP variation was subjected to multiple regression analysis to identify the causes of the cyclic combustion variation. Optimizing the fuel injection timing and swirl ratio made it possible to enrich the mixture near the spark plug. With the lean limit thus extended, a SI engine was operated in a lean range, and the resultant pressure-time data were analyzed. It was found that the main cause of the IMEP variation in the lean operating SI engine was the released heat quantity variation.
Technical Paper

A Study of Exhaust and Noise Emissions Reduction on a Single Spray Direct Injection

Exhaust and noise emissions were successfully reduced using a Single Spray Direct Injection Diesel Engine (SSDI) on a two-liter naturally-aspirated four-cylinder engine. The compression ratio, the swirl ratio and the pumping rate were optimized to obtain good fuel economy, high power output and low exhaust emissions. Furthermore, through a modification of the fuel injection equipment, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were reduced. Upon a test vehicle evaluation of this engine, more than 11% fuel savings relative to Mazda two-liter Indirect Injection Diesel Engines (IDI) were obtained. As for engine noise, structural modifications of the engine were carried out to obtain noise emission levels equivalent to IDI.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Particulate Engine with Ceramic Swirl Chamber

An all-ceramic swirl chamber has been developed which meets the 1987 U.S. particulate emission standard for LDV. The all ceramic construction raises combustion temperature to reduce particulate emission to the necessary level. But particulate reduction led to two-fold increase in NOx. This problem was coped with by applying EGR and fuel injection timing control. As a result NOx has been cut to the same level as with a base engine and particulate has been further reduced.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Air-Fuel Mixture Formation Inside a Low-Pressure Direct Injection Stratified Charge Rotary Engine

Stratified charge engines have been getting attention for the drastic improvement in thermal efficiency at low-load region. There have been researchers on the two types of engines-the high pressure direct injection stratified charge type in which fuel is supplied directly at high pressure into its combustion chamber right before ignition timings, and the low pressure direct injection stratified charge type in which fuel is injected directly into its cylinder while the cylinder pressure is comparatively low[ 1- 3]. Rotary engines have higher freedom than reciprocating engines in terms of equipping direct fuel injection devices, since their combustion chambers rotate along the rotor housing. The fuel supply units, therefore, need not be exposed to high temperature combustion gas.
Technical Paper

Development of the Stratified Charge and Stable Combustion Method in DI Gasoline Engines

The new combustion method in DISC engine has been developed. It has a double structure combustion chamber characterized as ‘Caldera’. The chamber is constructed by a center cavity for the purpose of forming a stable mixture around a spark plug electrode, and by an outer cavity which has a role of a main chamber. This method makes possible a perfect un-throttling operation, and a fuel consumption equal to a diesel engine is achieved. With regard to an out-put of DISC engine, a stoichmetric combustion and a high torque are achieved by controling a fuel injection timing with an electro-magnetic injection system device. With regard to emission regulations, a heavy EGR include residual gas decreases greatly NOx and HC emissions simultaneously, and which suggests a possibility to achieve LEV/ULEV regulations.
Journal Article

Diesel Combustion Noise Reduction by Controlling Piston Vibration

It has been required recently that diesel engines for passenger cars meet various requirements, such as low noise, low fuel consumption, low emissions and high power. The key to improve the noise is to reduce a combustion noise known as “Diesel knock noise”. Conventional approaches to reduce the diesel knock are decreasing combustion excitation force due to pilot/pre fuel injection, adding ribs to engine blocks or improving noise transfer characteristics by using insulation covers. However, these approaches have negative effects, such as deterioration in fuel economy and increase in cost/weight. Therefore, modification of engine structures is required to reduce it. We analyzed noise transfer paths from a piston, a connecting rod, a crank shaft to an engine block and vibration behavior during engine operation experimentally, and identified that piston resonance was a noise source.
Technical Paper

Droplet Behaviors of DI Gasoline Wall Impinging Spray by Spray Slicer

Owing to the small size of engines and high injection pressures, it is difficult to avoid the fuel spray impingement on the combustion cylinder wall and piston head in Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine, which is a possible source of hydrocarbons and soot emission. As a result, the droplets size and distribution are significantly important to evaluate the atomization and predict the impingement behaviors, such as stick, spread or splash. However, the microscopic behaviors of droplets are seldom reported due to the high density of small droplets, especially under high pressure conditions. In order to solve this problem, a “spray slicer” was designed to cut the spray before impingement as a sheet one to observe the droplets clearly. The experiment was performed in a constant volume chamber under non-evaporation condition, and a mini-sac injector with single hole was used.