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Technical Paper

A General Method of Life Cycle Assessment

In previous Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods, environmental burden items to be analyzed, prior to a life cycle inventory analysis, were assumed as the main factors of environmental problems regardless of the product category. Next, the life cycle inventory analysis, in which the total amount of environmental burden items emitted during the life cycle of a product was calculated, and an environmental impact assessment were performed. The environmental impact assessment was based on the initially assumed environmental burden items. The process, in other words, was a particular solution based on this assumption. A general solution unconstrained by this assumption was necessary. The purpose of this study was to develop a general method of LCA that did not require such initially assumed environmental burden items, and to make it possible to perform a comprehensive environmental impact assessment and strategically reduce environmental burden of a product.
Technical Paper

Spot Friction Welding of Aluminum to Steel

Spot friction welding (SFW) is a cost-effective spot joining technology for aluminum sheets compared with resistance spot welding (RSW) [1]. In this study, coated mild steel was spot friction welded to 6000 series aluminum using a tool with shoulder diameter of 10 mm and welding conditions of 1500-2000 rpm and time of 5 s. Testing showed that tensile shear strength increased as the solidus temperature of the coating on the steel decreased. Microstructure characterizations of steel/Al joint interfaces showed that zinc from the coatings was incorporated into the stir nuggets and that intermetallic phases may have formed but not in continuous layers. Some Al-Zn oxides that appeared to be amorphous were also found in the joint interfaces.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Ambient Air Entrainment into Split Injection D.I. Gasoline Spray by LIF-PIV Technique

Effects of split injection, with a relatively short time interval between the two sprays, on the spray development process, and the air entrainment into the spray, were investigated by using laser induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV) techniques. The velocities of the spray and the ambient air were measured. The cumulative mass of the ambient air entrained into the spray was calculated by using the entrainment velocity normal to the spray boundary. The vortex structure of the spray, formed around the leading edge of the spray, showed a true rotating flow motion at low ambient pressures of 0.1 MPa, whereas at 0.4 MPa, it was not a true rotating flow, but a phenomenon of the small droplets separating from the leading edge of the spray and falling behind, due to air resistance. The development processes of the 2nd spray were considerably different from that of the 1st spray because the 2nd spray was injected into the flow fields formed by the 1st spray.
Technical Paper

Application of Plasma Welding to Tailor- Welded Blanks

In recent years, improving fuel efficiency and collision safety are important issue. We have worked on a new construction method to develop body structure which is light weight and strong/stiff. We adopt multi type Tailor-Welded Blanks (TWB) which is formed after welding several steel sheets for ATENZA (MAZDA 6), NEW DEMIO (MAZDA 2), and RX-8. This is a technology to consistently improve of such product properties and to reduce costs. Laser welding is a common TWB welding method, but for further equipment cost reductions and productivity improvements, we have developed a higher welding speed and robust plasma welding and introduced this to mass production. We introduce this activity and results in this report.
Technical Paper

Collapse of Thin-Walled Curved Beam with Closed-Hat Section - Part 2: Simulation by Plane Plastic Hinge Model

This paper describes a calculating method to predict the quasi-static collapsing behaviors of spot-welded closed-hat section curved beams under axial compression. The overall deformat ions and the local buckling modes of beams were calculated using a geometrical model. Force-displacement relations were predicted by a elastic-plastic structural analysis method using the ‘plastic hinge’ concept. Collapsing tests were made on beams which are differenting section size, rotation angle, and metal sheet thickness. Comparisons between the calculated and experimental results of deformed shapes of beams, the local buckling modes and the force displacement relations are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Corrosion Resistance of Organic Composite-Coated Steel Sheets

In order to investigate the corrosion resistance of organic composite-coated steel sheets ( OCS ) in a real automotive environment, many kinds of corrosion tests were performed on test pieces and real automotive doors. Tests with a corrosive solution including iron rust were introduced to simulate the real corrosive environment of automotive doors. The relationship between the components of OCS and the corrosion resistance in the rust-including tests was examined. In addition, electrochemical studies were performed. Results indicate OCS has much better corrosion resistance than plated steel sheets with heavier coating weight in all tests. OCS shows excellent corrosion resistance in rust-free corrosive solution, however, some types of OCS do have corrosion concerns in rust-including tests. It became clear that these OCS types have an organic coating with lower cross-linking.
Technical Paper

Development of Simultaneous Zinc Phosphating Process for Aluminum and Steel Plates

A method was studied for simultaneous zinc phosphating on aluminum and steel surfaces to obtain high corrosion resistance on aluminum surfaces, which conventional phosphatic processing could not provide with sufficient corrosion resistance. Since aluminum is protected by an oxide film on its surface, it has poor processability with zinc phosphating solutions applied to steel. An appropriate quantity of fluoride was therefore added to improve processing, and the coating film, aluminum composition and surface conditions were optimized to suppress filiform corrosion, which is characterized by string-like blisters of paint film starting from a paint defect. In addition, in view of the actual production environment, the corrosion resistance of the ground area made for readjustment after stamping was studied for the optimization of the processing solution.
Technical Paper

Influence of Geometry of Rear part on the Aerodynamic Drag and Wake Structure of a Vehicle

The substantial part of the drag of an automobile is the pressure drag. Therefore, the car must be designed as it produces minimum pressure drag. The present paper describes effects of geometrical configuration of the rear part of a car on the aerodynamic drag. Experiments were made on 1/5 scale models of fastback and notchback design. For the fastback car the drag depends heavily on the angle of a rear window. At a certain critical angle the drag shows a sharp peak. This peak drag can be reduced drastically by the tapering of plan form of the rear geometry. For the notch-back design some combination of the angle of rear window and height of trunk deck shows similar maximum in the drag. Methods of avoiding the large drag were also found. Our experiment was extended to the measurement of structure of wake by hot wire anemometers and total pressure tubes. The correlation between the wake structure and drag was clarified by the consideration of vorticity and circulation.
Technical Paper

Development of Sliding Surface Material for Combustion Chamber of High-Output Rotary Engine

The present trend of internal combustion engines toward higher-speed and higher-output capacity is pressing the need for improved lubrication of sliding parts in the combustion chamber to secure reliability. To meet this need, investigation into frictional phenomena was made with a rotary engine, which led to the development of a method of coating the inner surface of the rotor housing with fluorocarbon resin superior in self-lubrication and friction resistance. Rotary engines given this surface finishing showed no trace of irregular wear of the sliding surfaces even when subjected, prior to completion of run-in firing (in green condition), to high-speed and high-load tests, indicating this method's noteworthy benefit of improving comformability. This method offers an excellent surface finish for sliding parts of internal combustion engines (rotary and reciprocating) which will gain increasingly higher output in the future.
Technical Paper

Superior Color Matching of Fascia and Body

To coat flexible parts such as R-RIM Urethane Fascia baked at low temperatures, a different painting approach from one for steel parts is employed. Since paint color differences between the fascia and the body would downgrade the product, a color matching technique is required. For better color matching, matching of color shades was attempted with improvement of paint resin, optimal pigment blending and analysis of how color is affected by varying conditions. Application of a primer for finishing has brought about the desired paint film distinctness. Introduced was also the high weatherablilty paint for plastic parts. All such techniques were utilized on R-RIM Urethane Fascia to achieve high-grade color matching.
Technical Paper

Unsteady-Wake Analysis of the Aerodynamic Drag of a Notchback Model with Critical Afterbody Geometry

For both notchback-type and fastback-type models, it has been found that critical geometries which increase the aerodynamic drag exist, and the time-averaged wake patterns basically consist of an arch vortex behind the rear window and trailing vortices in the wake. The unsteady characteristics of the wake seem to be directly related to aerodynamic drag. However, the unsteady characteristics of these wake patterns for notchback and fastback cars were not clear. The purpose of present paper is to clarify these phenomena. We try to analyze experimentally the unsteady characteristics by measuring the velocity fluctuations in the wake, the pressure fluctuations on the trunk deck and the drag-force fluctuations acting on the model. At the same time, the analysis of the numerical simulation was made by using the same numerical model as the experimental model. The computed flow visualization behind the rear window showed a fluctuating arch vortex.
Technical Paper

Development of Capacitance-Loaded Window Antenna for AM/FM Car Radios

Mazda established an original design methodology combining a capacitive coupling technology and transmission line theory, to develop a high performance window antenna for AM/FM radios which construction is very simple to construct and requires no use of any antenna boosters or matching circuits. This paper introduces the design methodology and performance characteristics of the new antenna as well as its application to the production '95 model Mazda 929.
Technical Paper

Application of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet for Autobody Structural Parts

As a demand for vehicles of higher functionality grows, automakers and material suppliers are devoting increasing efforts to develop technologies for greater safety, lighter weight, higher corrosion resistance, and enhanced quietness. The resin-sandwiched vibration damping steel sheet (VDSS), developed as a highly functional material for reducing vehicle vibration and noise, has been used for oil pans1) and compartment partitions2). First applied for a structural dash panel of the new Mazda 929, a Zn-Ni electroplated VDSS which allows direct electric welding has contributed to greater weight reduction as well as improved quietness.
Technical Paper

Carbonitriding and Hard Shot Peening for High-Strength Gears

A new process for manufacturing high-strength gears has been developed to meet the requirement of automobile transmission miniaturization. The points of the process are to increase the shot peening intensity and to perform optimal control of the initial (before shot peening) microstructure by heat treatment corresponding with the peening intensity in order to obtain higher residual compressive stress. The new process, named Carbonitriding and Hard Shot Peening in Mazda, brings a much higher fatigue strength than the one obtained by the conventional carburizing and shot peening process.
Technical Paper

Droplet Behaviors of DI Gasoline Wall Impinging Spray by Spray Slicer

Owing to the small size of engines and high injection pressures, it is difficult to avoid the fuel spray impingement on the combustion cylinder wall and piston head in Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine, which is a possible source of hydrocarbons and soot emission. As a result, the droplets size and distribution are significantly important to evaluate the atomization and predict the impingement behaviors, such as stick, spread or splash. However, the microscopic behaviors of droplets are seldom reported due to the high density of small droplets, especially under high pressure conditions. In order to solve this problem, a “spray slicer” was designed to cut the spray before impingement as a sheet one to observe the droplets clearly. The experiment was performed in a constant volume chamber under non-evaporation condition, and a mini-sac injector with single hole was used.