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Technical Paper

Developed Technologies of the New Rotary Engine (RENESIS)

The newly developed rotary engine has achieved major progress in high performance, improved fuel economy and clean exhaust gas by innovative action. The engine of the next generation is named RENESIS, which stands for “The RE (Rotary Engine)'s GENESIS” or the rotary engine for the new millennium. The peripheral exhaust port of the previous rotary engine is replaced by a side exhaust port system in the RENESIS. This allows for an increase in the intake port area, thus producing higher power. Exhaust opening timing is retarded to improve thermal efficiency. The side exhaust port also allows reducing the internal EGR, stabilizing the combustion at idling. The improved thermal efficiency and the stabilized idle combustion result in higher fuel economy. In addition, the side exhaust port allows a reduction of the HC mass, realizing reduced exhaust gas emission.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Improving Correlation of Solid Finite Element Models

The quest to simulate noise problems has led to the building of larger and more detailed finite element models in order to perform vibration solutions to higher frequencies. This leads to the building of solid finite element models of complex geometries, such as castings, which might previously have contained less detail or even been built with shell elements. Unfortunately, detailed geometric representations used to build models do not always agree with as built parts and lead to discrepancies between analysis results and test data. This paper presents an approach that reduces the time and cost necessary to identify these differences.
Technical Paper

Experimental Transfer Path Analysis of Gear Whine

Conventionally, the effort of gear whine reduction has focused on minimizing the transmission error generated in automobile transmission. In mean time, as demands on gear whine reduction increased, the need of controlling noise transfer path was arisen because transmission error turns into interior noise in those paths [1-2]. In this paper, we provide experimental technologies to clarify the noise transfer path which dominants high frequency gear whine from experimental point of view.
Technical Paper

Analysis of High Frequency Gear Whine Noise by Using an Inverse Boundary Element Method

Some of the frequencies of transmission gear whine noise reach up to several kHz. High-frequency gear whine noise is mostly transmitted by air (airborne); therefore, it is critical to reduce transmission radiation noise. This paper presents how to solve the problem of high-frequency noise in the range of 2.0 - 4.1kHz by experiment using Inverse Boundary Element Method (IBEM) and by computer simulation using Boundary Element Method (BEM).
Technical Paper

The Complex Cornering Compliance Theory and its Application to Vehicle Dynamics Characteristics

The Complex Cornering Compliance (Complex CC) theory is a method to cascade desired vehicle dynamics characteristics into suspension / steering system applying the Equivalent Cornering Power based on a single track model. Complex CC is used to find front / rear slip angle and time constant after converting the system elements into complex numbers as “slip angle per 1g (gravity) of lateral acceleration and occurrence time”. This enables an analysis of the contribution rate of the slip angle and time constant on the system elements and the impact on lateral force.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Pitching Stability of Sedan-Type Vehicles Influenced by Pillar-Shape Configurations

The present study investigated the aerodynamic pitching stability of sedan-type vehicles under the influence of A- and C-pillar geometrical configurations. The numerical method used for the investigation is based on the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method. Whilst, the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method was employed to realize the prescribed pitching oscillation of vehicles during dynamic pitching and fluid flow coupled simulations. The trailing vortices that shed from the A-pillar and C-pillar edges produced the opposite tendencies on how they affect the aerodynamic pitching stability of vehicles. In particular, the vortex shed from the A-pillar edge tended to enhance the pitching oscillation of vehicle, while the vortex shed from the C-pillar edge tended to suppress it. Hence, the vehicle with rounded A-pillar and angular C-pillar exhibited a higher aerodynamic damping than the vehicle with the opposite A- and C-pillars configurations.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Aerodynamics Evaluation of Road Vehicles in Dynamic Maneuvering

A road vehicle’s cornering motion is known to be a compound motion composed mainly of forward, sideslip and yaw motions. But little is known about the aerodynamics of cornering because little study has been conducted in this field. By clarifying and understanding a vehicle’s aerodynamic characteristics during cornering, a vehicle’s maneuvering stability during high-speed driving can be aerodynamically improved. Therefore, in this study, the aerodynamic characteristics of a vehicle’s cornering motion, i.e. the compound motion of forward, sideslip and yaw motions, were investigated. We also considered proposing an aerodynamics evaluation method for vehicles in dynamic maneuvering. Firstly, we decomposed cornering motion into yaw and sideslip motions. Then, we assumed that the aerodynamic side force and yaw moment of a cornering motion could be expressed by superposing linear expressions of yaw motion parameters and those of sideslip motion parameters, respectively.
Technical Paper

Development of Integrated Functions Module Carriers by Injection Molding with Long Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene

We have developed injection molding technologies consist of a new high-strength long-glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (PPLGF). They are key technologies of new modular design for substantial reductions of weight and cost, offering integrated functionality. The strength of injection molded parts are three times stronger than that of the conventional material. This technology makes it possible to replace parts from steel stamping and press molded glass-mat reinforced polypropylene. The front end and door modules of Atenza / Mazda6, Demio / Mazda2, RX-8 employs the module carriers using this material, resulting in dramatic weight and cost savings. (Fig. 1)
Technical Paper

Introduction of Gear Noise Reduction Ring by Mechanism Analysis Including FEM Dynamic Tuning

Reduction of transmission error by gear tooth profile optimization and tuning of gear resonance modes are known as effective methods for gear noise reduction. This paper concentrates on structuring a process for reducing gear noise using the latter method. The procedure comprises a study of gear noise mechanism from transmission error to radiation noise, an application of Steyer's method in gear frequency analysis and implementation of an invented device called “noise reduction ring”. This inexpensive and practical ring reduces gear noise drastically by 10dB, which is predicted by the simulation and verified by the experiment.
Technical Paper

Development of Module Carriers by Injection Molding with Long Glass-Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene

We have developed injection molding technologies consist of a new high-strength long-glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (PPLGF). They are key technologies of new modular design for substantial reductions of weight and cost, offering integrated functionality. The strength of injection molded parts are three times stronger than that of the conventional material. This technology makes it possible to replace parts from steel stamping and press molded glass-mat reinforced polypropylene. The front end and door modules of Mazda 6 employ the module carriers using this material, resulting in dramatic weight and cost savings.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Nozzle Internal Flow and Near-Field Spray of Multi-Hole Injectors for Diesel Engines

The combustion process, emission formation and the resulting engine performance in a diesel engine are well known to be governed mainly by spray behaviors and the consequent mixture formation quality. One of the most important factors that affect the spray development is the nozzle configuration. Originally, single-hole diesel injector is usually applied in fundamental research to provide insights into the spray characteristics. However, the spray emerging from a realistic multi-hole injector approaches the practical engine operation situation better. Meanwhile, previous research has shown that the reduced nozzle hole diameter is effective for preparing more uniform mixture. In the current paper, a study about the effects of nozzle configuration and hole diameter on the internal flow and spray properties was conducted in conjunction with a series of experimental and computational methods.
Journal Article

Flow Structures above the Trunk Deck of Sedan-Type Vehicles and Their Influence on High-Speed Vehicle Stability 2nd Report: Numerical Investigation on Simplified Vehicle Models using Large-Eddy Simulation

In the present study, two kinds of simplified vehicle models, which can reproduce flow structures around the two sedan-type vehicles in the previous study, are constructed for the object and the unsteady flow structures are extracted using Large-Eddy Simulation technique. The numerical results are validated in a stationary condition by comparing the results with a wind-tunnel experiment and details of steady and unsteady flow characteristics around the models, especially above the trunk deck, are investigated. In quasi- and non- stationary manner with regard to vehicle pitch motion, unsteady flow characteristics are also investigated and their relations to an aerodynamic stability are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Low Pumping Loss Rotary Engine with a New Port Mechanism

The thermal efficiency of a three-rotor rotary engine (RE) was improved by a reduction in the pumping losses. These pumping losses were reduced by using a new port mechanism. The port mechanism utilized was an indirect recirculation type of late intake port closing. It was equipped with a recirculation chamber outside of the housings. This chamber interconnected the recirculation ports within each housing. This port mechanism yielded three main benefits 1. A Considerable reduction in the pumping losses. 2. A uniformly distributed air-fuel mixture in each housing. 3. A limited amount of residual gas in the housing. This residual gas was under specific pulsations by the recirculation chamber thus preventing deterioration in combustion under light loads. The above phenomena were clarified by experiments and simulations. The possibility of a reduction in exhaust emissions was also investigated.
Technical Paper

The Evaluation of the Influence of Vehicle Crashworthiness and Interior Parts on Occupant Injury

In order to secure effective occupant protection at vehicle collisions, it is necessary to conduct close examination into vehicle crash characteristics as well as interior parts, etc. This paper analyzes the behavior of a HYBRID III dummy restrained by three point seatbelt using MVMA2D computer simulation program at a 35 mph vehicle frontal barrier crash. As a result, it is found for good agreement between experiment and simulation that the exact input data of successive toeboard intrusion play an important role. As for the parametric study on vehicle crashworthiness, the authors propose the convenient method to represent the actual crash pulse by two simplified trapezoids. Then using these trapezoids, the parametric study clarifies the influence of vehicle deformation characteristics as well as the interior parts on dummy injury.
Technical Paper

Thixomolding® of Magnesium Automotive Components

Thixomolding® produces net-shape parts from Magnesium alloys in a single step process involving high speed injection molding of semi-solid thixotropic alloys. A description of the process and status of commercial developments will be presented.. The mechanical properties and microstructures of Thixomolded® AZ-91D magnesium materials will be presented. Tensile strengths of semi-solid AZ-91D at both room temperature and elevated temperatures ( 373K, 423K) are compared with die cast AZ-91D. Data on enhanced creep properties of Thixomolded® AZ91-D alloy relative to die cast AZ-91D will be examined with respect to relative changes in microstructural features. Controlling the percent solids in the semi-solid state prior to injection molding can lead to improved creep performance for use in net-shape automotive components.