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Technical Paper

Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Evaluation of a Supercharged, Hydrogen-Powered, 4-Cylinder Engine

This paper presents the results of efficiency, emissions, and performance testing of a supercharged, hydrogen-powered, four-cylinder engine. Tests were run at various speeds, loads, and air/fuel ratios in order to identify advantageous operating regimes. The tests revealed that a maximum thermal brake efficiency of 37% could be achieved and that certain operating regimes could achieve NOx emissions as low as 1 ppm without aftertreatment. Measurement of cylinder pressure traces in all four cylinders allowed a detailed assessment of cylinder-cylinder deviation. Several measures to further increase hydrogen engine performance in order to reach the goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy are being discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Blending Hydrogen with Methane on Engine Operation, Efficiency, and Emissions

Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers and transportation fuels. Because of the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations, widespread introduction of vehicles powered by pure hydrogen is not likely in the near future. Blending hydrogen with methane could be one solution. Such blends take advantage of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and, at the same time, reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. In this paper, the authors analyze the combustion properties of hydrogen/methane blends (5% and 20% methane [by volume] in hydrogen equal to 30% and 65% methane [by mass] in hydrogen) and compare them to those of pure hydrogen as a reference. The study confirms that only minor adjustments in spark timing and injection duration are necessary for an engine calibrated and tuned for operation on pure hydrogen to run on hydrogen/methane blends.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Injection Parameters in a Hydrogen DI Engine Using an Endoscopic Access to the Combustion Chamber

In order to achieve the targets for hydrogen engines set by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - a brake thermal efficiency of 45% and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions below 0.07 g/mi - while maintaining the same power density as comparable gasoline engines, researchers need to investigate advanced mixture formation and combustion strategies for hydrogen internal combustion engines. Hydrogen direct injection is a very promising approach to meeting DOE targets; however, there are several challenges to be overcome in order to establish this technology as a viable pathway toward a sustainable hydrogen infrastructure. This paper describes the use of endoscopic imaging as a diagnostic tool that allows further insight into the processes that occur during hydrogen combustion. It also addresses recent progress in the development of advanced direct-injected hydrogen internal combustion engine concepts.
Technical Paper

Effects of Nanofluid Coolant in a Class 8 Truck Engine

The cooling system of a Class 8 truck engine was modeled using the Flowmaster computer code. Numerical simulations were performed replacing the standard coolant, 50/50 mixture of ethylene-glycol and water, with nanofluids comprised of CuO nanoparticles suspended in a base fluid of a 50/50 mixture of ethylene-glycol and water. By using engine and cooling system parameters from the standard coolant case, the higher heat transfer coefficients of the nanofluids resulted in lower engine and coolant temperatures. These temperature reductions introduced flexibility in system parameters - three of which were investigated for performance improvement: engine power, coolant pump speed and power, and radiator air-side area.
Technical Paper

Morphological Examination of Nano-Particles Derived from Combustion of Cerium Fuel-Borne Catalyst Doped with Diesel Fuel

This experimental work focuses on defining the detailed morphology of secondary emission products derived from the combustion of cerium (Ce) fuel-borne catalyst (FBC) doped with diesel fuel. Cerium is often used to promote the oxidation of diesel particulates collected in diesel aftertreatment systems, such as diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However, it is suspected that the secondary products could be emitted from the vehicle tailpipe without being effectively filtered by the aftertreatment systems. In this work, these secondary emissions were identified by means of a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), and their properties were examined in terms of morphology and chemistry. In preparation for fuel doping, a cerium-based aliphatic organic compound solution was mixed with a low-sulfur (110 ppm) diesel fuel at 50 ppm in terms of weight concentration.
Technical Paper

Efficiency-Optimized Operating Strategy of a Supercharged Hydrogen-Powered Four-Cylinder Engine for Hybrid Environments

As an energy carrier, hydrogen has the potential to deliver clean and renewable power for transportation. When powered by hydrogen, internal combustion engine technology may offer an attractive alternative to enable the transition to a hydrogen economy. Port-injected hydrogen engines generate extremely low emissions and offer high engine efficiencies if operated in a lean combustion strategy. This paper presents experimental data for different constant air/fuel ratio engine combustion strategies and introduces variable air/fuel ratio strategies for engine control. The paper also discusses the shift strategy to optimize fuel economy and contrasts the different engine control strategies in the conventional vehicle environment. The different strategies are evaluated on the urban driving cycle, then engine behaviors are explained and fuel economy is estimated. Finally, the paper projects the potential of hybridization and discusses trends in powertrain cycle efficiencies.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Reforming Gasoline: All Components are Not Created Equal

Gasoline is a complex fuel. Many of the constituents of gasoline that are beneficial for the internal combustion engine (ICE) are expected to be challenging for on-board reformers in fuel-cell vehicles. To address these issues, the autothermal reforming of gasoline and individual components of gasoline has been investigated. The results indicate that aromatic components require higher temperatures and longer contact times to reform than paraffinic components. Napthenic components require higher temperatures to reform, but can be reformed at higher space velocities than paraffinic components. The effects of sulfur are dependent on the catalyst. These results suggest that further evolution of gasoline could reduce the demands on the reformer and provide a better fuel for a fuel-cell vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol Additives on Diesel Particulate and NOx Emissions

Particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions from a 1.9-liter Volkswagen diesel engine were measured for three different fuels: neat diesel fuel, a blend of diesel fuel with 10% ethanol, and a blend of diesel fuel with 15% ethanol. Engine-out emissions were measured on an engine dynamometer for five different speeds and five different torques using the standard engine-control unit. Results show that particulate emissions can be significantly reduced over approximately two-thirds of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Nitrogen oxide emissions can also be significantly reduced over a smaller portion of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Moreover, there is an overlap between the regions where particulate emissions can be reduced by up to 75% and nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced by up to 84% compared with neat diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Soot Loading on the Thermal Characteristics of Diesel Engine Oils

When compared with new oil, used diesel engine oils exhibited thermal conductivity that increases as the concentration of soot increases. The magnitude of the effect depends on the oil composition, and on the size and dispersion of the soot particles. Although soot in engine oil is generally deleterious to engine performance from the standpoint of wear and deposits, no negative effects were observed on the thermal performance of the oil itself; indeed, even slight positive effects are expected for oils that maintain soot in stable dispersion. Therefore, the thermal challenge for engine oils in diesel engines that use exhaust gas recirculation will be to prevent soot deposition on engine surfaces.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Energy Recovery in Vehicles by Using Regenerative Magnetic Shock Absorbers

Road vehicles can expend a significant amount of energy in undesirable vertical motions that are induced by road bumps, and much of that is dissipated in conventional shock absorbers as they dampen the vertical motions. Presented in this paper are some of the results of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness of efficiently transforming that energy into electrical power by using optimally designed regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers. In turn, the electrical power can be used to recharge batteries or other efficient energy storage devices (e.g., flywheels) rather than be dissipated. The results of the study are encouraging - they suggest that a significant amount of the vertical motion energy can be recovered and stored.
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Morphology and Dimensions of Diesel Particulates via Thermophoretic Sampling

A thermophoretic particulate sampling device was used to investigate the detailed morphology and microstructure of diesel particulates at various engine-operating conditions. A 75 HP Caterpillar single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine was operated to sample particulate matter from the high-temperature exhaust stream. The morphology and microstructure of the collected diesel particulates were analyzed using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and subsequent image processing/data acquisition system. The analysis revealed that spherical primary particles were agglomerated together to form large aggregate clusters for most of engine speed and load conditions. Measured primary particle sizes ranged from 34.4 to 28.5 nm at various engine-operating conditions. The smaller primary particles observed at high engine-operating conditions were believed to be caused by particle oxidation at the high combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Mapping and Analysis of the Toyota Prius HEV Engine

The Prius is a major achievement by Toyota: it is the first mass-produced HEV with the first available HEV-optimized engine. Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Test Facility has been testing the Prius for model validation and technology performance and assessment. A significant part of the Prius test program is focused on testing and mapping the engine. A short-length torque sensor was installed in the powertrain in-situ. The torque sensor data allow insight into vehicle operational strategy, engine utilization, engine efficiency, and specific emissions. This paper describes the design and process necessary to install a torque sensor in a vehicle and shows the high-fidelity data measured during chassis dynamometer testing. The engine was found to have a maximum thermodynamic efficiency of 36.4%. Emissions and catalyst efficiency maps were also produced.
Technical Paper

Transient Efficiency, Performance, and Emissions Analysis of a Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Pick-up Truck

Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers. There are several challenges that must be overcome in order to establishing a “hydrogen economy”, including the development of a practical, efficient, and cost-effective power conversion device. Using hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a huge step toward developing a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. This paper summarizes the testing of a hydrogen powered pick-up truck on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle is powered by a port-injected 8-cylinder engine with an integrated supercharger and intercooler. The 4-wheel drive chassis dynamometer is equipped with a hydrogen delivery, metering and safety system as well as hydrogen specific instrumentation. This instrumentation includes numerous sensors, includes a wide-band lambda sensor and an exhaust gas hydrogen analyzer. This analyzer quantifies the amount of unburned hydrogen in the exhaust indicating the completeness of the combustion.
Technical Paper

Nanoparticle-enhanced Heat Transfer Fluids for Spacecraft Thermal Control Systems

The addition of metal nanoparticles to standard coolant fluids dramatically increases the thermal conductivity of the liquid. The properties of the prepared nanofluids will allow for lighter, smaller, and higher efficiency spacecraft thermal control systems to be developed. Nanofluids with spherical or rod-shaped metal nanoparticles were investigated. At a volume concentration of 0.5%, the room temperature thermal conductivity of a 2 nm spherical gold nanoparticle-water solution was increased by more than 10% over water alone. Silver nanorods increased the thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol by 53% and water by 26%.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property Impacts on Diesel Particulate Morphology, Nanostructures, and NOx Emissions

Detailed diesel particulates morphology, nanostructures, fractal geometry, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were analyzed for five different test fuels in a 1.7-L, common-rail direct-injection diesel engine. The accurately formulated fuels permit the effects of sulfur, paraffins, aromatics, and naphthene concentrations to be determined. A novel thermophoretic sampling technique was used to collect particulates immediately after the exhaust valves. The morphology and nanostructures of particulate samples were examined, imaged with a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and quantitatively analyzed with customized digital image processing/data acquisition systems. The results show that the particle sizes and the total mass of particulate matter (PM) emissions correlate most strongly with the fuels' aromatics and sulfur content.
Technical Paper

Analyzing the Uncertainty in the Fuel Economy Prediction for the EPA MOVES Binning Methodology

Developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Multi-scale mOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) is used to estimate inventories and projections through 2050 at the county or national level for energy consumption, nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) from highway vehicles. To simulate a large number of vehicles and fleets on numerous driving cycles, EPA developed a binning technique characterizing the energy rate for varying Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) under predefined vehicle speed ranges. The methodology is based upon the assumption that the vehicle behaves the same way for a predefined vehicle speed and power demand. While this has been validated for conventional vehicles, it has not been for advanced vehicle powertrains, including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) where the engine can be ON or OFF depending upon the battery State-of-Charge (SOC).
Technical Paper

Ignition Characteristics of Methane-air Mixtures at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures

Lean operation of natural gas fired reciprocating engines has been the preferred mode of operation as it allows low NOx emissions and simultaneous high overall efficiencies. In such engines, the operation point is often close to where the ignition boundary and the knock limiting boundary cross-over. While knocking is, to a large extent, limited by engine design, ignition of lean-mixtures is limited by the mode of ignition. Since significant benefits can be achieved by extending the lean-ignition limits, many groups have been researching alternate ways to achieve ignition reliably. One of the methods, laser ignition, appears promising as it achieves ignition at high pressures and under lean conditions relatively easily. However, most of the current knowledge about laser ignition is based on measurements performed at room temperature. In this paper, ignition studies on methane-air mixtures under in-cylinder conditions are presented.
Technical Paper

Emissions, Performance, and In-Cylinder Combustion Analysis in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operating on a Fischer-Tropsch, Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel

SunDiesel™ is an alternative bio-fuel derived from wood chips that has certain properties that are superior to those of conventional diesel (D2). In this investigation, 100% SunDiesel was tested in a Mercedes A-Class (model year 1999), 1.7L, turbocharged, direct-injection diesel engine (EURO II) equipped with a common-rail injection system. By using an endoscope system, Argonne researchers collected in-cylinder visualization data to compare the engine combustion characteristics of the SunDiesel with those of D2. Measurements were made at one engine speed and load condition (2,500 rpm, 50% load) and four start-of-injection (SOI) points, because of a limited source of SunDiesel fuel. Significant differences in soot concentration, as measured by two-color optical pyrometry, were observed. The optical and cylinder pressure data clearly show significant differences in combustion duration and ignition delay between the two fuels.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector Nozzle Finish on Performance and Emissions in a HSDI, Light-duty, Diesel Engine

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of injector nozzle hole size, shape, and finish on performance and emissions in a light-duty diesel engine. Two sets of six-hole valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzles were tested with nearly identical volumetric flow rates but varying geometry and finish. The 17% hydro-erosion (HE) nozzles had a 22% larger discharge coefficient (CD), compared to the 7% HE nozzles. In order to maintain similar volumetric flow rates, the orifice diameter of the 17% HE nozzles were reduced by almost 10%.The nozzles were tested in a 1.7L, four-cylinder, common rail diesel engine, operating on conventional D2 diesel fuel. The 17% HE, conical-shaped nozzles reduced fuel specific particulate matter (PM) and increased fuel specific oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, over the 7% HE, straight-shaped nozzle.