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Technical Paper

Light Vehicle Frontal Impact Protection

1982-02-01
820243
This paper addresses the protection of occupants in light vehicles. It presents data and techniques for identifying and measuring potential crashworthiness improvements that would mitigate injuries to occupants striking frontal interior components such as the steering wheel, instrument panel and windshield. Both restrained and unrestrained occupants can be injured by frontal interior components in crashes. The focus of this paper is on the unrestrained occupant. However, performance criteria and associated countermeasures will have to be developed considering the differences in the mechanisms of injury to both the restrained and unrestrained occupants. Work on the restrained occupant and the similarities and differences between both conditions remains to be considered. The paper presents information on the magnitude and types of injuries received from frontal interior components and on how the performance of these components and the vehicle structure affect the resultant injuries.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Road Crash Facial Lacerations By Broken Windshields

1987-02-23
870320
The facial laceration test has been proposed as an addition to the dummy injury criteria of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 208. To better understand laceration conditions as they actually occur, three road crashes of increasing severity, all involving facial laceration by the broken (cracked) windshield and one involving partial ejection, have been simulated physically and analytically. The physical simulations used vehicle test bucks, the Hybrid III head with the chamois facial coverings of the facial laceration test, and a piston - constrained Head Impactor. Computer simulations of the three crashes were also carried out using the CALSPAN 3D “CVS” and the 2D “DRISIM” computer programs. The computer simulations provide insight into the effective mass of the head and body on windshield contact, and the forces, velocities, and accelerations involved.
Technical Paper

Light Vehicle Occupant Protection - Top and Rear Structures and Interiors

1982-02-01
820244
This paper addresses serious, occupant crash injuries from: (a) head impacts with A-pillars, roof headers, and roof side rails, and (b) occupant entrapment and roof intrusion in rollover accidents. It also discusses two less frequent causes of injury: (a) fires in crashes, and (b) occupant ejection through the roof and rear window or rear doors. The paper estimates the relative frequencies of these types of injuries, classified according to the body area injured and the vehicle interior component responsible for the injury. Data for these estimates is from the National Crash Severity Study augmented by the 1979 Fatal Accident Reporting System data. Also, this paper addresses the potential for reducing the severity of these injuries in light motor vehicles, with particular emphasis on AIS 3 and more serious injuries.
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