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Technical Paper

Response Corridors of Human Surrogates in Lateral Impacts

2002-11-11
2002-22-0017
Thirty-six lateral PMHS sled tests were performed at 6.7 or 8.9 m/s, under rigid or padded loading conditions and with a variety of impact surface geometries. Forces between the simulated vehicle environment and the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis, as well as torso deflections and various accelerations were measured and scaled to the average male. Mean ± one standard deviation corridors were calculated. PMHS response corridors for force, torso deflection and acceleration were developed. The offset test condition, when partnered with the flat wall condition, forms the basis of a robust battery of tests that can be used to evaluate how an ATD interacts with its environment, and how body regions within the ATD interact with each other.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Biofidelity Ranking System for Anthropomorphic Test Devices

2002-11-11
2002-22-0024
A new biofidelity assessment system is being developed and applied to three side impact dummies: the WorldSID-α, the ES-2 and the SID-HIII. This system quantifies (1) the ability of a dummy to load a vehicle as a cadaver does, “External Biofidelity,” and (2) the ability of a dummy to replicate those cadaver responses that best predict injury potential, “Internal Biofidelity.” The ranking system uses cadaver and dummy responses from head drop tests, thorax and shoulder pendulum tests, and whole body sled tests. Each test condition is assigned a weight factor based on the number of human subjects tested to form the biomechanical response corridor and how well the biofidelity tests represent FMVSS 214, side NCAP (SNCAP) and FMVSS 201 Pole crash environments.
Technical Paper

On the Development of the SIMon Finite Element Head Model

2003-10-27
2003-22-0007
The SIMon (Simulated Injury Monitor) software package is being developed to advance the interpretation of injury mechanisms based on kinematic and kinetic data measured in the advanced anthropomorphic test dummy (AATD) and applying the measured dummy response to the human mathematical models imbedded in SIMon. The human finite element head model (FEHM) within the SIMon environment is presented in this paper. Three-dimensional head kinematic data in the form of either a nine accelerometer array or three linear CG head accelerations combined with three angular velocities serves as an input to the model. Three injury metrics are calculated: Cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) – a correlate for diffuse axonal injury (DAI); Dilatational damage measure (DDM) – to estimate the potential for contusions; and Relative motion damage measure (RMDM) – a correlate for acute subdural hematoma (ASDH).
Technical Paper

Development of Side Impact Thoracic Injury Criteria and Their Application to the Modified ES-2 Dummy with Rib Extensions (ES-2re)

2003-10-27
2003-22-0010
Forty-two side impact cadaver sled tests were conducted at 24 and 32 km/h impact speeds into rigid and padded walls. The post-mortem human subjects were instrumented with accelerometers on the ribs and spine and chest bands around the thorax and abdomen to characterize their mechanical response during the impact. Load cells at the wall measured the impact force at the level of the thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities. The resulting injuries were determined through detailed autopsy and radiography. Rib fractures with or without associated hemo/pneumo thorax or flail chest were the most common injury with severity ranging from AIS=0 to 5. Full and half thorax deflections were computed from the chest band data. The cadaver test data was analyzed using ANOVA and logistic regression. The age of the subject at the time of death had influence on injury outcome while gender and mass of the subject had little or no influence on injury outcome.
Technical Paper

International Harmonized Research Activities (IHRA) status report of the Biomechanics Working Group

2001-06-04
2001-06-0133
A summary of the efforts of the Biomechanics Working Group to complete the task given to it by the International Harmonized Research Activities Steering Committee to determine specifications for a Universal Side Impact Anthropomorphic Test Devices is presented. Topics discussed are the nature of the world side impact problem, the anthropometric characterization of the world population at risk, dummy impact response specifications, and necessary and appropriate injury criteria and performance levels.
Technical Paper

Response of the Eurosid-1 Thorax to Lateral Impact

1999-03-01
1999-01-0709
The Eurosid-1 dummy was subjected to a series of lateral and oblique pendulum impacts to study the anomalous “flat-top” thorax deflection versus time-histories observed in full-scale vehicle tests. The standard Eurosid-1, as well as two different modified versions of the dummy, were impacted at 6 different angles from -15 to +20 degrees (0 degrees is pure lateral) in the horizontal plane. The flat-top deflections were observed in the tests with the standard Eurosid-1, while one of the modified versions reduced the flat-top considerably. Full scale vehicle tests with the standard and modified Eurosid-1 suggest similar reductions. A second series of tests was conducted on the modified Eurosid-1 to investigate the effect of door surface friction on the shoulder rotation and the chest deflection. The data suggested that increasing the friction on the door surface impeded shoulder rotation and ultimately reduced the chest deflection in the Eurosid-1.
Technical Paper

Development of an Advanced ATD Thorax System for Improved Injury Assessment in Frontal Crash Environments

1992-11-01
922520
Injuries to the thorax and abdomen comprise a significant percentage of all occupant injuries in motor vehicle accidents. While the percentage of internal chest injuries is reduced for restrained front-seat occupants in frontal crashes, serious skeletal chest injuries and abdominal injuries can still result from interaction with steering wheels and restraint systems. This paper describes the design and performance of prototype components for the chest, abdomen, spine, and shoulders of the Hybrid III dummy that are under development to improve the capability of the Hybrid III frontal crash dummy with regard to restraint-system interaction and injury-sensing capability.
Technical Paper

RAID - An Investigative Tool to Study Air Bag/Upper Extremity Interactions

1997-02-24
970399
A study of frontal collisions using the NASS data base showed that there were four times as many arm injuries to belt restrained drivers who had an air bag deploy than for the drivers who were simply belted. By far, the distal forearm/hand was the most commonly injured region. Hard copy review identified two modes of arm injury related to the deploying air bag: 1) The arm is directly contacted by the air bag module and/or flap cover, and 2) The arm is flung away and contacts an interior car surface. Based on the field studies, a mechanical device called the Research Arm Injury Device (RAID) was fabricated to assess the aggressivity of air bags from different manufacturers. Results from static air bag deployment tests with the RAID suggested that the RAID was able to clearly distinguish between the aggressive and non-aggressive air bags. Maximum moments ranging between 100 Nm and 650 Nm, and hand fling velocity ranging between 30 and 120 km/h were measured on the RAID in these tests.
Technical Paper

A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Human Brain Under Combined Rotational and Translational Accelerations

1994-11-01
942215
Finite element modelling has been used to study the evolution of strain in a model of the human brain under impulsive acceleration loadings. A cumulative damage measure, based on the calculation of the volume fraction of the brain that has experienced a specific level of stretch, is used as a possible predictor for deformation-related brain injury. The measure is based on the maximum principal strain calculated from an objective strain tensor that is obtained by integration of the rate of deformation gradient with appropriate accounting for large rotations. This measure is used here to evaluate the relative effects of rotational and translational accelerations, in both the sagittal and coronal planes, on the development of strain damage in the brain. A new technique for the computational treatment of the brain-dura interface is suggested and used to alleviate the difficulties in the explicit representation of the cerebrospinal fluid layer existing between the two solid materials.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Trauma Assessment Formulations for Restrained Drivers in Simulated Frontal Impacts

1994-11-01
942206
Sixty-three simulated frontal impacts using cadaveric specimens were performed to examine and quantify the performance of various contemporary automotive restraint systems. Test specimens were instrumented with accelerometers and chest bands to characterize their mechanical responses during the impact. The resulting thoracic injury severity was determined using detailed autopsy and was classified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale. The ability of various mechanical parameters and combinations of parameters to assess the observed injury severities was examined and resulted in the observation that belt restraint systems generally had higher injury rates than air bag restraint systems for the same level of mechanical responses. To provide better injury evaluations from observed mechanical parameters without prior knowledge of what restraint system was being used, a dichotomous process was developed.
Technical Paper

Computational Analysis of Head Impact Response Under Car Crash Loadings

1995-11-01
952718
Computational simulations are conducted for several head impact scenarios using a three dimensional finite element model of the human brain in conjunction with accelerometer data taken from crash test data. Accelerometer data from a 3-2-2-2 nine accelerometer array, located in the test dummy headpart, is processed to extract both rotational and translational velocity components at the headpart center of gravity with respect to inertial coordinates. The resulting generalized six degree-of-freedom description of headpart kinematics includes effects of all head impacts with the interior structure, and is used to characterize the momentum field and inertial loads which would be experienced by soft brain tissue under impact conditions. These kinematic descriptions are then applied to a finite element model of the brain to replicate dynamic loading for actual crash test conditions, and responses pertinent to brain injury are analyzed.
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