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Technical Paper

Large truck crash data collection

2001-06-04
2001-06-0159
The National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA) is collecting crash data relating to large trucks. Two data collection programs are specified. One is a crash causation study to investigate the cause of fatal and serious large truck crashes over two years. The other study is a continuous effort collecting data on large truck motor carrier crashes in each state, as coded on police accident reports.
Technical Paper

Large school bus safety restraint evaluation

2001-06-04
2001-06-0158
This paper describes ongoing research conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to evaluate the potential of safety restraints on large school buses. School bus transportation is one of the safest forms of transportation in the United States. Large school buses provide protection because of their visibility, size, and weight, as compared to other types of motor vehicles. Additionally, they are required to meet minimum Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) mandating compartmentalized seating, emergency exits, roof crush and fuel system integrity, and minimum bus body joint strength.
Technical Paper

Simulations of large school bus safety restraints~NHTSA

2001-06-04
2001-06-0226
This paper describes computer crash simulations performed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) under the current research and testing activities on large school bus safety restraints. The simulations of a frontal rigid barrier test and comparative dynamic sled testing for compartmentalization, lap belt, and lap/shoulder belt restraint strategies are presented. School bus transportation is one of the safest forms of transportation in the United States. School age children transported in school buses are safer than children transported in motor vehicles of any other type. Large school buses provide protection because of their size and weight. Further, they must meet minimum Federal motor vehicle safety standards (FMVSSs) mandating compartmentalized seating, improved emergency exits, stronger roof structures and fuel systems, and better bus body joint strength.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Child Safety Seats in Actual Use

1983-10-17
831656
A comprehensive review of casualty-reducing effectiveness estimates of child safety seats in actual use, obtained by statistical analyses of highway accident data. Recent analyses of large samples of New York and Maryland accidents show statistically significant injury reductions for child safety seats; so does a new analysis of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's accident files. Results from Washington State, Tennessee, New Jersey, and Idaho are also reviewed, as are Nationwide restraint usage and fatality trends. The findings are critically examined for possible data biases. It is concluded that child safety seats definitely reduce deaths and injuries in highway crashes, but that their effectiveness cannot be accurately estimated at this time because of inconsistencies and possible biases in the various studies.
Technical Paper

Light Vehicle Frontal Impact Protection

1982-02-01
820243
This paper addresses the protection of occupants in light vehicles. It presents data and techniques for identifying and measuring potential crashworthiness improvements that would mitigate injuries to occupants striking frontal interior components such as the steering wheel, instrument panel and windshield. Both restrained and unrestrained occupants can be injured by frontal interior components in crashes. The focus of this paper is on the unrestrained occupant. However, performance criteria and associated countermeasures will have to be developed considering the differences in the mechanisms of injury to both the restrained and unrestrained occupants. Work on the restrained occupant and the similarities and differences between both conditions remains to be considered. The paper presents information on the magnitude and types of injuries received from frontal interior components and on how the performance of these components and the vehicle structure affect the resultant injuries.
Technical Paper

Field Operational Test Results of An Automated Collision Notification System

2000-11-01
2000-01-C041
This paper describes a Field Operational Test (FOT) of an Automated Collision Notification (ACN) System, a new way to provide definitive pre- hospital medical care to people injured in motor vehicle crashes. This FOT is part of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA's) research being conducted under the U.S. Department of Transportation's Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) program. Management of the program is by the Office of Vehicle Safety Research in NHTSA. The ACN FOT is a demonstration of the application of advanced technology for the improvement of pre-hospital emergency care for motor-vehicle crash victims. The test, involving approximately 850 volunteers' vehicles, was conducted in rural Western New York State. A partnership of local public agencies and private corporations, led by Veridian, Inc., performed the test.
Technical Paper

Measured Vehicle Inertial Parameters-NHTSA’s Data Through November 1998

1999-03-01
1999-01-1336
This paper is primarily a printed listing of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) Light Vehicle Inertial Parameter Database. This database contains measured vehicle inertial parameters from SAE Paper 930897, “Measured Vehicle Inertial Parameters -NHTSA’s Data Through September 1992” (1), as well as parameters obtained by NHTSA since 1992. The proceeding paper contained 414 entries. This paper contains 82 new entries, for a total of 496. The majority of the entries contain complete vehicle inertial parameters, some of the entries contain tilt table results only, and some entries contain both inertia and tilt table results. This paper provides a brief discussion of the accuracy of inertial measurements. Also included are selected graphs of quantities listed in the database for some of the 1998 model year vehicles tested.
Technical Paper

CRASH 3: Current Status

1987-04-01
870040
The computer program, CRASH 3, uses the equations of motion to estimate the changes in velocity of motor vehicles in crashes and their trajectories following a collision. It was developed in the mid-1970's by McHenry at Caispan for use in accident research. There are important limitations on where and how it should be used. CRASH 3 requires a skilled reconstruction of a crash and an interactive execution of the program to provide reasonably accurate results. The paper also discusses the sensitivity of CRASH 3 to various parameters and the potential for improving it. This paper presents the views of its author and not necessarily those of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
Technical Paper

A Review of Motor Vehicle Glazing-Related Ejection Injuries

1993-03-01
930740
A review was conducted of injuries associated with ejection through motor vehicle glazing, using the 1988 through 1991 National Accident Sampling System data maintained by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The review indicated that one percent of the occupants in towaway crashes were ejected and that 22 percent of fatalities in towaway crashes were ejected. Fifty-three percent of complete ejections were through the glazing openings in motor vehicles. Current motor vehicle glazing does not contribute significantly to occupant injuries, but the effects of glazing changes on serious injuries will need to be considered.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Child Safety Seats Based on Sled Tests

1987-11-01
872210
The injury reducing effectiveness of child safety seats in frontal crashes was evaluated, based on 36 frontal or oblique sled tests run with two or more GM three-year-old dummies in the simulated passenger compartment of a car. Unrestrained, correctly restrained and incorrectly restrained dummies were tested at the range of speeds where most nonminor injuries occur (15-35 mph). Accident data from NHTSA files were used to calibrate a relationship between the front-seat unrestrained dummies' HIC and unrestrained children's risk of serious head injuries; also between torso g's and the risk of serious torso injuries. These relationships were used to predict injury risk for the restrained children as a function of crash speed and to compare it to the risk for unrestrained children. The sled test analysis predicted that the 1984 mix of correctly and incorrectly used safety seats reduced serious injury risk by 40 percent relative to the unrestrained child, in frontal crashes.
Technical Paper

Where Have We Been - Where Are We Going?

1979-02-01
790011
This paper reviews some of the progress that has been made in recent years in the transportation field by behavioral scientists and human factors engineers. The major areas covered are public transportation systems, railroad systems, highway systems, and personal transportation systems. The report suggests what future problems may be encountered in these areas that will need the attention of human factors specialists.
Technical Paper

Test Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation System (Test PAES): A Data Archiving Tool for Engineers and Scientists

1997-02-24
970453
As Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) become more prevalent, the need to archive data from field tests becomes more critical. These data can guide the design of future systems, provide an information conduit among the many developers of ITS, enable comparisons across locations and time, and support development of theoretical models of driver behavior. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is interested in such an archive. While a design for an ITS data archive has not yet been developed, NHTSA has supported the enhancement of the Test Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation System (Test PAES), originally developed by Calspan SRL Corporation for the U. S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory, for possible use in such an archive. On a single screen, Test PAES enables engineering unit data, audio, and video, as well as a vehicle animation, to be time synchronized, displayed simultaneously, and operated with a single control.
Journal Article

Analysis and Mathematical Modeling of Car-Following Behavior of Automated Vehicles for Safety Evaluation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0142
With the emergence of Driving Automation Systems (SAE levels 1-5), the necessity arises for methods of evaluating these systems. However, these systems are much more challenging to evaluate than traditional safety features (SAE level 0). This is because an understanding of the Driving Automation system’s response in all possible scenarios is desired, but prohibitive to comprehensively test. Hence, this paper attempts to evaluate one such system, by modeling its behavior. The model generated parameters not only allow for objective comparison between vehicles, but also provide a more complete understanding of the system. The model can also be used to extrapolate results by simulating other scenarios without the need for conducting more tests. In this paper, low speed automated driving (also known as Traffic Jam Assist (TJA)) is studied. This study focused on the longitudinal behavior of automated vehicles while following a lead vehicle (LV) in traffic jam scenarios.
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