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Technical Paper

Accelerometers Equivalency in Dummy Crash Testing

1996-02-01
960454
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has initiated research to develop performance specifications for dummy-based accelerometers in the crash test environment, and to provide criteria for defining and establishing equivalent performance among accelerometers from different manufacturers. These research efforts are within the general guidelines on transducer equivalency outlined in the current revision of the Society of Automotive Engineers recommended practice, Instrumentation for Impact Test, SAE 211/2 March 1995. Representative data from vehicle crash and component level tests have been analyzed to determine the acceleration levels and frequency content in a realistic dynamic environment for dummy-based accelerometers.
Technical Paper

Occupant Injury Patterns in Crashes with Airbag Equipped Government Sponsored Cars

1987-11-01
872216
In 1983, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) initiated two air hag vehicle fleet programs. The objective was to demonstrate that both original equipment and retrofit air bag systems operate in vehicles as intended. As of July 1, 1987, the two fleets together have accumulated over 200 million miles. Data are presented for 112 crashes involving air bag deployment in these government sponsored fleet vehicles in service between 1984 and July 1, 1987. Of the 112 drivers involved in the crashes, 103 sustained either no injury or only minor (AIS 1)[1]1 injuries. Of the nine remaining cases, six were AIS 2 and three AIS 3. To date, the limited data indicate that the air bag deployed as expected in all frontal crashes severe enough to require occupant restraint beyond that provided by the vehicle interior. Additionally, in collisions in which the air bag did not deploy, the crashes were of such low severity that no actuation was expected and none took place.
Technical Paper

Hardware Evaluation of Heavy Truck Side and Rear Object Detection Systems

1995-02-01
951010
This paper focuses on two types of electronics-based object detection systems for heavy truck applications: those sensing the presence of objects to the rear of the vehicle, and those sensing the presence of objects on the right side of the vehicle. The rearward sensing systems are intended to aid drivers when backing their vehicles, typically at very low “crawl” speeds. Six rear object detection systems that were commercially available at the time that this study was initiated were evaluated. The right side looking systems are intended primarily as supplements to side view mirror systems and as an aid for detecting the presence of adjacent vehicles when making lane changes or merging maneuvers. Four side systems, two commercially available systems and two prototypes, were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Air Bags - Legions of Fable - Consumer Perceptions and Concerns

1998-02-23
980905
This paper discusses the consumer and news media perceptions about air bags that had to be taken into account by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in making rulemaking decisions in 1997. Addressing these perceptions was a major concern as the agency made preparations to allow identifiable groups of people at risk from an air bag deployments to have on-off switches installed in their vehicles.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Human Driver Behavior in Highway Cut-in Scenarios

2017-03-28
2017-01-1402
The rapid development of driver assistance systems, such as lane-departure warning (LDW) and lane-keeping support (LKS), along with widely publicized reports of automated vehicle testing, have created the expectation for an increasing amount of vehicle automation in the near future. As these systems are being phased in, the coexistence of automated vehicles and human-driven vehicles on roadways will be inevitable and necessary. In order to develop automated vehicles that integrate well with those that are operated in traditional ways, an appropriate understanding of human driver behavior in normal traffic situations would be beneficial. Unlike many research studies that have focused on collision-avoidance maneuvering, this paper analyzes the behavior of human drivers in response to cut-in vehicles moving at similar speeds. Both automated and human-driven vehicles are likely to encounter this scenario in daily highway driving.
Technical Paper

A Simple CCD Based Lane Tracking System

1999-03-01
1999-01-1302
A low cost system has been developed to measure a vehicle's lateral position relative to the lane markings on a roadway. The system is capable of tracking white or orange lines, solid or dashed edge lines, while operating in daylight or at night. The tracking system is comprised of two “off-the-shelf” black and white charge coupled device (CCD) video cameras along with commonly available electronic components. The lane tracking system is capable of outputting real time data at 30Hz through an analog output. Using the data from this sensor system it is possible to detect lane changes, determine the magnitude and duration of lane exceedances, and other metrics commonly used by researchers in the transportation community. This paper will discuss the design and performance of the system, processing of the raw lane tracker data, and the benefits and limitations of the technology.
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