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Technical Paper

Field Demonstration of a Camera/Video Imaging System for Heavy Vehicles - Driver Lane Change Performance Preliminary Results

2010-10-05
2010-01-2020
On-board Camera/Video Imaging Systems (C/VISs) for heavy vehicles display live images to the driver of selected areas to the sides, and in back of the truck's exterior using displays inside the truck cabin. They provide a countermeasure to blind-spot related crashes by allowing drivers to see objects not ordinarily visible by a typical mirror configuration, and to better judge the clearance between the trailer and an adjacent vehicle when changing lanes. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute is currently investigating commercial motor vehicle (CMV) driver performance with C/VISs through a technology field demonstration sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). Data collection, which consists of recording twelve CMV drivers performing their daily employment duties with and without a C/VIS for four months, is currently underway.
Technical Paper

Parameter Determination and Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for The National Advanced Driving Simulator of the 2006 BMW 330i

2007-04-16
2007-01-0818
The paper discusses the development of a model for the 2006 BMW 330i for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's (NADS) vehicle dynamics simulation, NADSdyna. The front and rear suspensions are independent strut and link type suspensions modeled using recursive rigid-body dynamics formulations. The suspension springs and shock absorbers are modeled as force elements. The paper includes parameters for front and rear semi-empirical tire models used with NADSdyna. Longitudinal and lateral tire force plots are also included. The NADSdyna model provides state-of-the-art high-fidelity handling dynamics for real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The realism of a particular model depends heavily on how the parameters are obtained from the actual physical system. Complex models do not guarantee high fidelity if the parameters used were not properly measured. Methodologies for determining the parameters are detailed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Simulator Study of Heavy Truck Air Disc Brake Effectiveness During Emergency Braking

2008-04-14
2008-01-1498
In crashes between heavy trucks and light vehicles, most of the fatalities are the occupants of the light vehicle. A reduction in heavy truck stopping distance should lead to a reduction in the number of crashes, the severity of crashes, and consequently the numbers of fatalities and injuries. This study made use of the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). NADS is a full immersion driving simulator used to study driver behavior as well as driver-vehicle reactions and responses. The vehicle dynamics model of the existing heavy truck on NADS had been modified with the creation of two additional brake models. The first was a modified S-cam (larger drums and shoes) and the second was an air-actuated disc brake system. A sample of 108 CDL-licensed drivers was split evenly among the simulations using each of the three braking systems. The drivers were presented with four different emergency stopping situations.
Technical Paper

Comparative Performance Testing of Passenger Cars Relative to Fmvss 214 and the Ue 96/Ec/27 Side Impact Regulations: Phase I

1998-05-31
986168
Based on a long recognized need, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has begun to reexamine the potential for international harmonization of side impact requirements. To this end, NHTSA, as directed by the U.S. Congress, has recently submitted a report to the Congress on the agency plans for achieving harmonization of the U.S. and European side impact regulations. The first phase of this plan involves crash testing vehicles compliant to FMVSS 214 to the European Union side impact directive 96/27/EC. This paper presents the results to date of this research. The level of safety performance of the vehicles based on the injury measures of the European and U.S. side impact regulations is assessed.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Steering System Model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

2004-03-08
2004-01-1072
This paper presents the details of the model for the physical steering system used on the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The system is basically a hardware-in-the-loop (steering feedback motor and controls) steering system coupled with the core vehicle dynamics of the simulator. The system's torque control uses cascaded position and velocity feedback and is controlled to provide steering feedback with variable stiffness and dynamic properties. The reference model, which calculates the desired value of the torque, is made of power steering torque, damping function torque, torque from tires, locking limit torque, and driver input torque. The model also provides a unique steering dead-band function that is important for on-center feel. A Simulink model of the hardware/software is presented and analysis of the simulator steering system is provided.
Technical Paper

NHTSA's Frontal Offset Research Program

2004-03-08
2004-01-1169
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is conducting a research program to investigate the use of the 40 percent offset deformable barrier (ODB) crash test procedure to reduce death and injury, in particular debilitating lower extremity injuries in frontal offset collisions. This paper presents the results of 22 ODB crash tests conducted with 50th percentile male and 5th percentile female Hybrid III (HIII) dummies fitted with advanced lower legs, Thor-Lx/HIIIr and Thor-FLx/HIIIr, to assess the potential for debilitating and costly lower limb injuries. This paper also begins to investigate the implications that the ODB test procedure may have for fleet compatibility by evaluating the results from vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for a Compatibility Test Procedure

2002-03-04
2002-01-1022
A major focus of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) vehicle compatibility and aggressivity research program is the development of a laboratory test procedure to evaluate compatibility. This paper is written to explain the associated goals, issues, and design considerations and to review the preliminary results from this ongoing research program. One of NHTSA's activities supporting the development of a test procedure involves investigating the use of an mobile deformable barrier (MDB) into vehicle test to evaluate both the self-protection (crashworthiness) and the partner-protection (compatibility) of the subject vehicle. For this development, the MDB is intended to represent the median or expected crash partner. This representiveness includes such vehicle characteristics as weight, size, and frontal stiffness. This paper presents distributions of vehicle measurements based on 1996 fleet registration data.
Technical Paper

Accelerometers Equivalency in Dummy Crash Testing

1996-02-01
960454
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has initiated research to develop performance specifications for dummy-based accelerometers in the crash test environment, and to provide criteria for defining and establishing equivalent performance among accelerometers from different manufacturers. These research efforts are within the general guidelines on transducer equivalency outlined in the current revision of the Society of Automotive Engineers recommended practice, Instrumentation for Impact Test, SAE 211/2 March 1995. Representative data from vehicle crash and component level tests have been analyzed to determine the acceleration levels and frequency content in a realistic dynamic environment for dummy-based accelerometers.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Examination of J-Turn and Fishhook Maneuvers That May Induce On-Road, Untripped, Light Vehicle Rollover

2003-03-03
2003-01-1008
Phase IV of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) rollover research program was performed in 2001, starting in the spring and continuing through the fall. The objective of this phase was to obtain the data needed to select a limited set of maneuvers capable of assessing light vehicle rollover resistance. Five Characterization maneuvers and eight Rollover Resistance maneuvers were evaluated [1]. This paper is “Volume 1” of a two-paper account of the research used to develop dynamic maneuver tests for rollover resistance ratings. Test procedures and results from one Characterization maneuver (the Slowly Increasing Steer maneuver) and four Rollover Resistance maneuvers are discussed (the NHTSA J-Turn, Fishhook 1a, Fishhook 1b, and Nissan Fishhook). Details regarding NHTSA's assessment of the Consumers Union Short Course (CUSC), ISO 3888 Part 2, Ford Path Corrected Limit Lane Change (PCL LC), and Open-Loop Pseudo Double Lane Changes are available in “Volume 2” [2].
Technical Paper

An Experimental Examination of Double Lane Change Maneuvers That May Induce On-Road, Untripped, Light Vehicle Rollover

2003-03-03
2003-01-1009
Phase IV of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) rollover research program was performed during the spring through fall of 2001. The objective of this phase was to obtain the data needed to select a limited set of maneuvers capable of assessing light vehicle rollover resistance. Five Characterization maneuvers and eight Rollover Resistance maneuvers were evaluated [1]. This paper is “Volume 2” of a two-paper account of the research used to develop dynamic maneuver tests for rollover resistance ratings. Test procedures and results from four Rollover Resistance maneuvers are presented. The Consumers Union Short Course (CUSC), ISO 3888 Part 2, Ford Path Corrected Limit Lane Change (PCL LC), and Open-Loop Pseudo Double Lane Changes are discussed. Details regarding the NHTSA J-Turn, and the three fishhook maneuvers are available in “Volume 1” [2].
Technical Paper

Effects of Outriggers on Dynamic Rollover Resistance Maneuvers - Results from Phase V of NHTSA's Light Vehicle Rollover Research Program

2003-03-03
2003-01-1011
This paper describes the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) efforts to determine how different outrigger designs can affect J-Turn and Road Edge Recovery test maneuver outcome. Data were collected during tests performed with three different outrigger designs (made from aluminum, carbon fiber, and titanium) having different physical properties (geometry and weight). Four sport utility vehicles were tested: a 2001 Chevrolet Blazer, 2001 Toyota 4Runner, 2001 Ford Escape, and a 1999 Mercedes ML320. The 4Runner and ML320 were each equipped with electronic stability control, however the systems were disabled for the tests performed in this study. A detailed description of the testing performed and the results obtained are discussed. From the results, a comparison of how the three outrigger designs affected the test results is provided.
Technical Paper

Response Corridors of Human Surrogates in Lateral Impacts

2002-11-11
2002-22-0017
Thirty-six lateral PMHS sled tests were performed at 6.7 or 8.9 m/s, under rigid or padded loading conditions and with a variety of impact surface geometries. Forces between the simulated vehicle environment and the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis, as well as torso deflections and various accelerations were measured and scaled to the average male. Mean ± one standard deviation corridors were calculated. PMHS response corridors for force, torso deflection and acceleration were developed. The offset test condition, when partnered with the flat wall condition, forms the basis of a robust battery of tests that can be used to evaluate how an ATD interacts with its environment, and how body regions within the ATD interact with each other.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Truck-Light Vehicle Crash Data for Truck Aggressivity Reduction

2001-11-12
2001-01-2726
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the University of Michigan Transportation Institute are investigating truck design countermeasures to provide safety benefits during collisions with light vehicles. The goal is to identify approaches that would best balance costs and benefits. This paper outlines the first phase of this study, an analysis of two-vehicle, truck/light vehicle crashes from 1996 through 1998 using several crash data bases to obtain a current description and determine the scope of the aggressivity problem. Truck fronts account for 60% of light vehicle fatalities in collisions with trucks. Collision with the front of a truck carries the highest probability of fatal (K) or incapacitating (A) injury. Truck sides account for about the same number of K and A-injuries combined as truck fronts, though injury probability is substantially lower than in crashes involving the front of a truck.
Technical Paper

NHTSA's Compatibility Research Program Update

2001-03-05
2001-01-1167
This paper provides an update of NHTSA's research activities in vehicle compatibility and aggressivity. This paper pres ents new ly initiated efforts underw ay to develop test assessment meth odologie s intende d to evalua te vehic le compatibility. The rigid barrier load cell data collected from 18 years of the agency's New Car Assessment Program testing are reviewed to e valuate potentia l test measures that may be used to evaluate a vehic le's compatibility in vehicle-to-vehicle crashes. These parameters are then evaluated using a series of vehicle-to-vehic le and m oving deformable ba rrier (MDB)-to -veh icle tests. In these tests, the face of the MDB has been instrumented with an array of load cells to compute test measures. This study is part of NHTSA's ongoing compatib ility research program and is being coordinated with the IHRA compatibility group.
Technical Paper

Large truck crash data collection

2001-06-04
2001-06-0159
The National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA) is collecting crash data relating to large trucks. Two data collection programs are specified. One is a crash causation study to investigate the cause of fatal and serious large truck crashes over two years. The other study is a continuous effort collecting data on large truck motor carrier crashes in each state, as coded on police accident reports.
Technical Paper

Large school bus safety restraint evaluation

2001-06-04
2001-06-0158
This paper describes ongoing research conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to evaluate the potential of safety restraints on large school buses. School bus transportation is one of the safest forms of transportation in the United States. Large school buses provide protection because of their visibility, size, and weight, as compared to other types of motor vehicles. Additionally, they are required to meet minimum Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) mandating compartmentalized seating, emergency exits, roof crush and fuel system integrity, and minimum bus body joint strength.
Technical Paper

NHTSA'S crashworthiness modelling activities

2001-06-04
2001-06-0178
NHTSA uses a variety of computer modelling techniques to develop and evaluate test methods and mitigation concepts, and to estimate safety benefits for many of NHTSA's research activities. Computer modeling has been particularly beneficial for estimating safety benefits where often very little data are available. Also modeling allows researchers to augment test data by simulating crashes over a wider range of conditions than would otherwise be feasible. These capabilities are used for a wide range of projects from school bus to frontal, side, and rollover research programs. This paper provides an overview of these activities. NHTSA's most extensive modeling research involves developing finite element and articulated mass models to evaluate a range of vehicles and crash environments. These models are being used to develop a fleet wide systems model for evaluating compatibility issues.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian head impact testing and PCDS reconstructions

2001-06-04
2001-06-0184
Pedestrian research and testing at the NHTSA Vehicle Research and Test Center has recently focused on assessment of proposed ISO and EEVC head impact test procedures, and extension of these procedures to additional vehicle frontal surfaces. In addition to test parameter sensitivity evaluation, reconstruction of PCDS (Pedestrian Crash Data Study) cases with laboratory impact tests and computer simulations has been conducted. This paper presents the results of this research.
Technical Paper

NHTSA'S research program for vehicle aggressivity and fleet compatibility

2001-06-04
2001-06-0179
This paper presents an overview of NHTSA's vehicle aggressivity and fleet compatibility research activities. This research program is being conducted in close cooperation with the International Harmonized Research Agenda (IHRA) compatibility research group. NHTSA is monitoring the changing vehicle mix in the U.S. fleet, analyzing crash statistics, and evaluating any implications that these changes may have for U.S. occupant safety. NHTSA is also continuing full-scale crash testing to develop a better understanding of vehicle compatibility and to investigate test methods to assess vehicle compatibility.
Technical Paper

Simulations of large school bus safety restraints~NHTSA

2001-06-04
2001-06-0226
This paper describes computer crash simulations performed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) under the current research and testing activities on large school bus safety restraints. The simulations of a frontal rigid barrier test and comparative dynamic sled testing for compartmentalization, lap belt, and lap/shoulder belt restraint strategies are presented. School bus transportation is one of the safest forms of transportation in the United States. School age children transported in school buses are safer than children transported in motor vehicles of any other type. Large school buses provide protection because of their size and weight. Further, they must meet minimum Federal motor vehicle safety standards (FMVSSs) mandating compartmentalized seating, improved emergency exits, stronger roof structures and fuel systems, and better bus body joint strength.
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