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Journal Article

Preliminary Evaluation Methodology in Front-Front Vehicle Compatibility

2008-04-14
2008-01-0814
The injury outcome of a front-front two-vehicle crash will be a function of crash-specific, vehicle-specific, and occupant-specific parameters. This paper focuses on a preliminary methodology that was used to evaluate the potential for benefits in making vehicle-specific changes to improve the compatibility of light vehicles across the fleet. In particular, the effect on injury rates of matching vehicle frontal stiffness was estimated. The front-front crash data for belted drivers in the lighter vehicles in the crash from ten years of NASS-CDS data were examined. The frontal stiffness of each vehicle was calculated using data taken during full frontal rigid barrier tests for the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), and only crashes coded in the CDS as “no override” were considered.
Technical Paper

The Interaction of Air Bags with Upper Extremities

1997-11-12
973324
Recently there has been a greater awareness of the increased risk of certain injuries associated with air bag deployment, especially the risks to small occupants, often women. These injuries include serious eye and upper extremity injuries and even fatalities. This study investigates the interaction of a deploying air bag with cadaveric upper extremities in a typical driving posture; testing concentrates on female occupants. The goals of this investigation are to determine the risk of upper extremity injury caused by primary contact with a deploying air bag and to elucidate the mechanisms of these upper extremity injuries. Five air bags were used that are representative of a wide range of air bag ‘aggressivities’ in the current automobile fleet. This air bag ‘aggressivity’ was quantified using the response of a dummy forearm under air bag deployment.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Truck-Light Vehicle Crash Data for Truck Aggressivity Reduction

2001-11-12
2001-01-2726
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the University of Michigan Transportation Institute are investigating truck design countermeasures to provide safety benefits during collisions with light vehicles. The goal is to identify approaches that would best balance costs and benefits. This paper outlines the first phase of this study, an analysis of two-vehicle, truck/light vehicle crashes from 1996 through 1998 using several crash data bases to obtain a current description and determine the scope of the aggressivity problem. Truck fronts account for 60% of light vehicle fatalities in collisions with trucks. Collision with the front of a truck carries the highest probability of fatal (K) or incapacitating (A) injury. Truck sides account for about the same number of K and A-injuries combined as truck fronts, though injury probability is substantially lower than in crashes involving the front of a truck.
Technical Paper

Large truck crash data collection

2001-06-04
2001-06-0159
The National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA) is collecting crash data relating to large trucks. Two data collection programs are specified. One is a crash causation study to investigate the cause of fatal and serious large truck crashes over two years. The other study is a continuous effort collecting data on large truck motor carrier crashes in each state, as coded on police accident reports.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Child Safety Seats in Actual Use

1983-10-17
831656
A comprehensive review of casualty-reducing effectiveness estimates of child safety seats in actual use, obtained by statistical analyses of highway accident data. Recent analyses of large samples of New York and Maryland accidents show statistically significant injury reductions for child safety seats; so does a new analysis of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's accident files. Results from Washington State, Tennessee, New Jersey, and Idaho are also reviewed, as are Nationwide restraint usage and fatality trends. The findings are critically examined for possible data biases. It is concluded that child safety seats definitely reduce deaths and injuries in highway crashes, but that their effectiveness cannot be accurately estimated at this time because of inconsistencies and possible biases in the various studies.
Technical Paper

A Search for Priorities in Crash Protection

1982-02-01
820242
This paper presents the methodology and results of an analysis of the available information on motor vehicle safety which could be used to provide a basis for establishing priorities for future Government and private sector efforts directed at enhanced crash protection. The work was stimulated by several factors: (1) 5 years have elapsed since the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a plan for motor vehicle safety research and development, (2) motor vehicles have changed substantially over the past several years, (3) the quantity and quality of accident data and vehicle crash performance information have increased dramatically over the past 5 years, and (4) Government policies and the amount of Government and private sector resources available for future efforts are changing.
Technical Paper

Deployment of Air Bags into the Thorax of an Out-of-Position Dummy

1999-03-01
1999-01-0764
The air bag has proven effective in reducing fatalities in frontal crashes with estimated decreases ranging from 11% to 30% depending on the size of the vehicle [IIHS-1995, Kahane-1996]. At the same time, some air bag designs have caused fatalities when front-seat passengers have been in close proximity to the deploying air bag [Kleinberger-1997]. The objective of this study was to develop an accurate and repeatable out-of-position test fixture to study the deployment of air bags into out-of-position occupants. Tests were performed with a 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummy and studied air bag loading on the thorax using draft ISO-2 out-of-position (OOP) occupant positioning. Two different interpretations of the ISO-2 positioning were used in this study. The first, termed Nominal ISO-2, placed the chin on the steering wheel with the spine parallel to the steering wheel.
Technical Paper

Traffic Safety Trends and Forecasts

1984-04-01
840880
Motor vehicle fatalities are expected to continue their long term upward trend for the remainder of the 1980 decade to an annual rate of approximately 50,000 by 1990. The assumptions upon which this projection is based include a greater number of vehicles and drivers, increased travel and a higher rate of economic growth. Although the absolute number of fatalities is expected to increase, private and public safety efforts will result in a continuing decline in fatality risks per unit of travel.
Technical Paper

Fatality and injury Reducing Effectiveness of Lap Belts for Back Seat Occupants

1987-02-23
870486
The fatality and injury reducing effectiveness of Tap belts for back seat occupants is estimated by applying the double pair comparison method to 1975-86 Fatal Accident Reporting System and 1982-85 Pennsylvania accident data. Lap belts significantly reduce the risk of fatalities by 17-26 percent, serious injuries by 37 percent, moderate to serious injuries by 33 percent and injuries of any severity by 11 percent, relative to the unrestrained back seat occupant. Lap belts are primarily effective in nonfrontal crashes because the unrestrained back seat occupant is already well protected in frontals. Lap belted occupants have lower head injury risk but higher torso injury risk than unrestrained back seat occupants. This paper presents the views of the author and not necessarily those of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
Technical Paper

A Review of Motor Vehicle Glazing-Related Ejection Injuries

1993-03-01
930740
A review was conducted of injuries associated with ejection through motor vehicle glazing, using the 1988 through 1991 National Accident Sampling System data maintained by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The review indicated that one percent of the occupants in towaway crashes were ejected and that 22 percent of fatalities in towaway crashes were ejected. Fifty-three percent of complete ejections were through the glazing openings in motor vehicles. Current motor vehicle glazing does not contribute significantly to occupant injuries, but the effects of glazing changes on serious injuries will need to be considered.
Technical Paper

Automotive Recorder Research - A Summary of Accident Data and Test Results

1974-02-01
740566
The NHTSA has developed automotive recorders which can measure crash triaxial acceleration/time histories during vehicle collisions. From these acceleration histories (recorded on a magnetic disc), velocity/time histories and velocity change during impact are derived to provide measures of vehicle crash severity. The purpose of developing these recorders is to provide accurate and quantitative relationships of vehicle crash severity with occupant fatalities and serious injuries from real-world accidents. To date, a total of 1200 disc recorders has been produced, approximately 1050 recorders have been installed in fleet vehicles, and 23 accident records have been analyzed. This paper has been prepared to present the progress made in the Disc Recorder Pilot Project as of March 31, 1974. Recorder data from accidents involving vehicles equipped with disc recorders will be discussed and compared with associated reports by accident investigators.
Technical Paper

The New Car Assessment Program - Historical Review and Effect

1994-03-01
941052
This report is a condensed version of the December 1993 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) report to Congress and provides: an historical review and future goals for NCAP. the results of an 18-month study to assess consumer and media needs in understanding and promoting the use of NCAP data. This included consumer focus groups and media studies. These studies indicated that consumers and the media desire comparative safety information on vehicles, a simplified NCAP format to better understand and utilize the crash test results, and would like to see NCAP expanded to include other crash modes. studies of real-world crashes versus NCAP crash tests. These studies conclude that NCAP test conditions approximate real-world crash conditions covering a major segment of the frontal crash safety problem and that there is a significant correlation between NCAP results and real-world fatality risks for restrained drivers.
Technical Paper

Light Vehicle Occupant Protection - Top and Rear Structures and Interiors

1982-02-01
820244
This paper addresses serious, occupant crash injuries from: (a) head impacts with A-pillars, roof headers, and roof side rails, and (b) occupant entrapment and roof intrusion in rollover accidents. It also discusses two less frequent causes of injury: (a) fires in crashes, and (b) occupant ejection through the roof and rear window or rear doors. The paper estimates the relative frequencies of these types of injuries, classified according to the body area injured and the vehicle interior component responsible for the injury. Data for these estimates is from the National Crash Severity Study augmented by the 1979 Fatal Accident Reporting System data. Also, this paper addresses the potential for reducing the severity of these injuries in light motor vehicles, with particular emphasis on AIS 3 and more serious injuries.
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