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Technical Paper

Development of Brain Injury Criteria (BrIC)

Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models.
Technical Paper

On the Development of the SIMon Finite Element Head Model

The SIMon (Simulated Injury Monitor) software package is being developed to advance the interpretation of injury mechanisms based on kinematic and kinetic data measured in the advanced anthropomorphic test dummy (AATD) and applying the measured dummy response to the human mathematical models imbedded in SIMon. The human finite element head model (FEHM) within the SIMon environment is presented in this paper. Three-dimensional head kinematic data in the form of either a nine accelerometer array or three linear CG head accelerations combined with three angular velocities serves as an input to the model. Three injury metrics are calculated: Cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) – a correlate for diffuse axonal injury (DAI); Dilatational damage measure (DDM) – to estimate the potential for contusions; and Relative motion damage measure (RMDM) – a correlate for acute subdural hematoma (ASDH).
Technical Paper

The Role of Skull Fractures in Short Duration Head Impacts

Head injuries are considered a significant safety problem for vehicle occupants involved in vehicle crashes. Although medical literature on the subject is extensive, the emphasis is mainly on the clinical and studies frequently involve data samples that are not representative to the vehicle occupant population. Also, research efforts on head injury have focused on the head rotational acceleration mechanism. The effect of head contact on brain injuries has not been adequately acknowledged and there has been disagreement regarding skull fracture and its relationship to brain injury. The human head, being an extremely complex structure, has many independent injury modes which cannot be described satisfactorily by a single brain injury mechanism. Many individual pathophysiological disturbances to the skull and its contents together comprise head injuries.
Technical Paper

Traffic Related Disabilities and Impairments and Their Economic Consequences

A study was made of the incidence of traffic related injuries, the related disability and impairment, and the resulting economic consequences. Crash data covering the incidence of injuries and their distribution by injury type and severity show that nearly three and a half million persons per year are injured in traffic crashes, with roughly half of them experiencing at least one day of disability. Brain and spinal cord injuries, both believed to have long term consequences, were examined in greater detail. Epidemiological data covering these injuries indicate about 60,000 persons suffer disabling brain injuries and about 4,000 persons suffer disabling spinal cord injuries each year. These are significantly larger incidence values for these two injury types than shown by the crash data. There is little quantatative data on the disability and impairment resulting from traffic crashes, nor is there agreement on how to report such data.
Technical Paper

A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Human Brain Under Combined Rotational and Translational Accelerations

Finite element modelling has been used to study the evolution of strain in a model of the human brain under impulsive acceleration loadings. A cumulative damage measure, based on the calculation of the volume fraction of the brain that has experienced a specific level of stretch, is used as a possible predictor for deformation-related brain injury. The measure is based on the maximum principal strain calculated from an objective strain tensor that is obtained by integration of the rate of deformation gradient with appropriate accounting for large rotations. This measure is used here to evaluate the relative effects of rotational and translational accelerations, in both the sagittal and coronal planes, on the development of strain damage in the brain. A new technique for the computational treatment of the brain-dura interface is suggested and used to alleviate the difficulties in the explicit representation of the cerebrospinal fluid layer existing between the two solid materials.
Technical Paper

Computational Analysis of Head Impact Response Under Car Crash Loadings

Computational simulations are conducted for several head impact scenarios using a three dimensional finite element model of the human brain in conjunction with accelerometer data taken from crash test data. Accelerometer data from a 3-2-2-2 nine accelerometer array, located in the test dummy headpart, is processed to extract both rotational and translational velocity components at the headpart center of gravity with respect to inertial coordinates. The resulting generalized six degree-of-freedom description of headpart kinematics includes effects of all head impacts with the interior structure, and is used to characterize the momentum field and inertial loads which would be experienced by soft brain tissue under impact conditions. These kinematic descriptions are then applied to a finite element model of the brain to replicate dynamic loading for actual crash test conditions, and responses pertinent to brain injury are analyzed.