Pedestrian Lower Extremity Response and Injury: A Small Sedan vs. A Large Sport Utility Vehicle
Vehicle front-end geometry and stiffness characteristics have been shown to influence pedestrian lower extremity response and injury patterns. The goal of this study is to compare the lower extremity response and injuries of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) tested in full-scale vehicle-pedestrian impact experiments with a small sedan and a large sport utility vehicle (SUV). The pelves and lower limbs of six PMHS were instrumented with six-degree-of-freedom instrumentation packages. The PMHS were then positioned laterally in mid-stance gait and subjected to vehicle impact at 40 km/h with either a small sedan (n=3) or a large SUV (n=3). Detailed descriptions of the pelvic and lower extremity injuries are presented in conjunction with global and local kinematics data and high speed video images. Injured PMHS knee joints reached peak lateral bending angles between 25 and 85 degrees (exceeding published injury criteria) at bending rates between 1.1 deg/ms and 3.7 deg/ms.