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Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on the Emission Characteristics of HCCI Engine Operation Using N-Heptane

This paper presents the emission characteristics of a HCCI engine operation using n-heptane. The experiments were conducted in a single cylinder Co-operative Fuel Research (CFR) engine equipped with an air-assist port fuel injector. The effects of intake temperature, air/fuel ratio, compression ratio, turbo-charging, and EGR rate on exhaust emissions were explored. The analysis of the exhaust gases included oxides of nitrogen (NOx), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and soot. The hydrocarbon species present in exhaust gases and their concentrations at several operating conditions were also characterized. The strategies to obtain low HC, CO and NOx emissions are presented and discussed. The approaches to effectively retard HCCI combustion phase without deteriorating combustion efficiency are examined. It was found that HCCI combustion produces extremely low soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Influence of Close-Proximity Traffic on the Aerodynamic Drag Experienced by Tractor-Trailer Combinations

Recent research to investigate the aerodynamic-drag reduction associated with truck platooning systems has begun to reveal that surrounding traffic has a measurable impact on the aerodynamic performance of heavy trucks. A 1/15-scale wind-tunnel study was undertaken to measure changes to the aerodynamic drag experienced by heavy trucks in the presence of upstream traffic. The results, which are based on traffic conditions with up to 5 surrounding vehicles in a 2-lane configuration and consisting of 3 vehicle shapes (compact sedans, SUVs, and a medium-duty truck), show drag reductions of 1% to 16% for the heavy truck model, with the largest reductions of the same order as those experienced in a truck-platooning scenario. The data also reveal that the performance of drag-reduction technologies applied to the heavy-truck model (trailer side-skirts and a boat-tail) demonstrate different performance when applied to an isolated vehicle than to conditions with surrounding traffic.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Drag Reduction Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles Using Surface, Wake and Underbody Pressure Measurements to Complement Aerodynamic Drag Measurements

A multi-year, multi-vehicle study was conducted to quantify the aerodynamic drag changes associated with drag reduction technologies for light-duty vehicles. Various technologies were evaluated through full-scale testing in a large low-blockage closed-circuit wind tunnel equipped with a rolling road, wheel rollers, boundary-layer suction and a system to generate road-representative turbulent winds. The technologies investigated include active grille shutters, production and custom underbody treatments, air dams, wheel curtains, ride height control, side mirror removal and combinations of these. This paper focuses on mean surface-, wake-, and underbody-pressure measurements and their relation to aerodynamic drag. Surface pressures were measured at strategic locations on four sedans and two crossover SUVs.
Technical Paper

Influences on Energy Savings of Heavy Trucks Using Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control

An integrated adaptive cruise control (ACC) and cooperative ACC (CACC) was implemented and tested on three heavy-duty tractor-trailer trucks on a closed test track. The first truck was always in ACC mode, and the followers were in CACC mode using wireless vehicle-vehicle communication to augment their radar sensor data to enable safe and accurate vehicle following at short gaps. The fuel consumption for each truck in the CACC string was measured using the SAE J1321 procedure while travelling at 65 mph and loaded to a gross weight of 65,000 lb, demonstrating the effects of: inter-vehicle gaps (ranging from 3.0 s or 87 m to 0.14 s or 4 m, covering a much wider range than previously reported tests), cut-in and cut-out maneuvers by other vehicles, speed variations, the use of mismatched vehicles (standard trailers mixed with aerodynamic trailers with boat tails and side skirts), and the presence of a passenger vehicle ahead of the platoon.
Technical Paper

The Fate of Chlorine and Heavy Metals During Pyrolysis of Automobile Shredder Residue*

One of the major sources of chlorine in automobiles is polyvinyl chloride (PVC). When old discarded automobiles enter the recycling loop by far the largest percent of this material finds its way into the solid waste fraction known as automobile shredder residue (ASR). While the majority of this waste is currently disposed of in landfills new processes are currently being evaluated to recycle and recover the valuable resources contained in this solid waste. Pyrolysis, the thermal cracking of the polymeric materials present in ASR, to recover the petrochemical hydrocarbons is one such technology which is receiving attention. However, like combustion with energy recovery, the pyrolysis process is receiving close scrutiny in terms of its environmental impact. These concerns have centered around the fate of the chlorine and the heavy metals present in the ASR.
Technical Paper

Concurrent Quantitative Laser-Induced Incandescence and SMPS Measurements of EGR Effects on Particulate Emissions from a TDI Diesel Engine

A comparison of scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements of diesel particulate matter (PM) was performed. The results reveal the significance of the aggregate nature of diesel PM on interpretation of size and volume fraction measurements obtained with an SMPS, and the accuracy of primary particle size measurements by LII. Volume fraction calculations based on the mobility diameter measured by the SMPS substantially over-predict the space-filling volume fraction of the PM. Correction algorithms for the SMPS measurements, to account for the fractal nature of the aggregate morphology, result in a substantial reduction in the reported volume. The behavior of the particulate volume fraction, mean and standard deviation of the mobility diameter, and primary particle size are studied as a function of the EGR for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads for a turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Aromatics Type on the Particulate Matter and NOx Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The influence of fuel aromatics type on the particulate matter (PM) and NOx exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty, single-cylinder, DI diesel engine was investigated. Eight fuels were blended from conventional and oil sands crude oil sources to form five fuel pairs with similar densities but with different poly-aromatic (1.6 to 14.6%) or total aromatic (14.3 to 39.0%) levels. The engine was tuned to meet the U.S. EPA 1994 emission standards. An eight-mode, steady-state simulation of the U.S. EPA heavy-duty transient test procedure was followed. The experimental results show that there were no statistically significant differences in the PM and NOx emissions of the five fuel pairs after removing the fuel sulphur content effect on PM emissions. However, there was a definite trend towards higher NOx emissions as the fuel density, poly-aromatic and total aromatic levels of the test fuels increased.
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Model for Soot Formation and Oxidation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

The concentration of carbonaceous particulate matter in the exhaust of diesel engines depends on the rates of formation and oxidation of soot in the combustion chamber. Soot forms early in the combustion process when local fuel-rich areas exist, whereas soot oxidation occurs later when more air is entrained into the fuel spray. Based on this understanding, a phenomenological combustion model is established. In the model, the cylinder volume is divided into four zones: a rich fuel spray core, a premixed-burning/burned gas zone, a mixing controlled burning zone and a lean air zone. Soot formation takes place in the mixing controlled burning zone where the local C/O ratio is above the critical value. Soot oxidation occurs in the premixed-burning/burned gas zone as air is entrained. By using a quasi-global chemical reaction scheme, the oxidation of soot particles by different species can be investigated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Exhaust Emissions of a Single Cylinder DI Diesel Engine

In this study, the AVL 8-mode steady-state simulations of the EPA transient test were conducted on a two litre single cylinder Ricardo Proteus research engine using two fuel matrices, one consisting fuels having different cetane numbers and the other consisting fuels of different aromatic contents. Engine exhaust emissions of NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and particulates were measured at two different injection timings. The results show that the single cylinder engine behaves similarly as a number of multi-cylinder production engines. The 8-mode simulation was also shown to produce exhaust emissions close to those obtained from the EPA transient test procedure. The cetane number response of the research engine indicates that an increase in cetane number of the fuel with cetane improvers reduced NOx emissions but increased particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR using Fuels Derived from Oil Sands and Conventional Crude

The exhaust emissions from a single-cylinder version of a heavy-duty diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were studied using 12 diesel fuels derived from oil sands and conventional sources. The test fuels were blended from 22 refinery streams to produce four fuels (two from each source) at three different total aromatic levels (10, 20, and 30% by mass). The cetane numbers were held constant at 43. Exhaust emissions were measured using the AVL eight-mode steady-state test procedure. PM emissions were accurately modeled by a single regression equation with two predictors, total aromatics and sulphur content. Sulphate emissions were found to be independent of the type of sulphur compound in the fuel. NOx emissions were accurately modeled by a single regression equation with total aromatics and density as predictor variables. PM and NOx emissions were significantly significantly affected by fuel properties, but crude oil source did not play a role.
Technical Paper

Potential for the Accumulation of Ice and Snow for a Boat-Tail Equipped Heavy-Duty Vehicle

With increasing use of boat-tails on Canadian roads, a concern had been raised regarding the possibility for ice and snow to accumulate and shed from the cavity of a boat-tail affixed to a dry-van trailer, posing a hazard for other road users. This paper describes a preliminary evaluation of the potential for ice and snow accumulation in the cavity of a boat-tail-equipped heavy-duty vehicle. A transient CFD approach was used and combined with a quasi-static particle-tracking simulation to evaluate, firstly, the tendency of various representative ice or snow particles to be entrained in the vehicle wake, and secondly, the potential of such particles to accumulate on the aft end of a dry-van trailer with and without various boat-tail configurations. Results of the particle tracking analyses showed that the greatest numbers of particles impinge on the base of the trailer for the no-boat-tail case, concentrated on the upper surface of the back face of the trailer.
Technical Paper

In-Cabin Aeroacoustics of a Full-Scale Transport Truck

The noise generated by the flow of air past a transport truck is a key design factor for the manufacturers of these vehicles as the sound levels in the cabin are a significant component of driver comfort. This paper describes a collaboration between Volvo GTT and the National Research Council Canada to measure the in-cabin aeroacoustics of a full-scale cab-over tractor in the NRC 9 m Wind Tunnel. Acoustic instrumentation was installed inside the tractor to record cabin noise levels and externally to acquire tunnel background noise data. Using a microphone mounted on the driver’s-side tunnel wall as a reference to remove variations in background noise levels between data points, differences in cabin noise levels were able to be detected when comparing the tractor with different configurations. The good repeatability of the data allowed for differences of as little as 0.5 dB to be measured.
Technical Paper

Effects of Cetane Enhancing Additives and Ignition Quality on Diesel Engine Emissions

The effects of cetane number and the cetane enhancing additives on diesel exhaust emissions were investigated on a single cylinder DI research engine. The engine used in this study incorporates the features of contemporary medium-to-heavy duty diesel engines and is tuned to US EPA 1994 emission standards. The engine experiments were run using the AVL 8-mode steady-state simulation of the U.S. EPA heavy-duty transient test procedure. The experimental fuels included diesel fuels obtained from different sources with various natural cetane ratings as well as a number of fuels blended by adding two cetane improvers into three base fuels. The two cetane improvers we used were a nitrate-type additive and a peroxide-type additive. Increasing the cetane number resulted in a general decrease in NOx emissions. Similar reductions in NOx emissions were observed with increasing cetane number for all the base fuels irrespective of the cetane improver used in the fuel.
Journal Article

Characterization of the Ultrafine and Black Carbon Emissions from Different Aviation Alternative Fuels

This study reports gaseous and particle (ultrafine and black carbon (BC)) emissions from a turbofan engine core on standard Jet A-1 and three alternative fuels, including 100% hydrothermolysis synthetic kerosene with aromatics (CH-SKA), 50% Hydro-processed Esters and Fatty Acid paraffinic kerosene (HEFA-SPK), and 100% Fischer Tropsch (FT-SPK). Gaseous emissions from this engine for various fuels were similar but significant differences in particle emissions were observed. During the idle condition, it was observed that the non-refractory mass fraction in the emitted particles were higher than during higher engine load condition. This observation is consistent for all test fuels. The 100% CH-SKA fuel was found to have noticeable reductions in BC emissions when compared to Jet A-1 by 28-38% by different BC instruments (and 7% in refractory particle number (PN) emissions) at take-off condition.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Aerodynamics of Drag Reduction Technologies for Light-duty Vehicles: a Comprehensive Wind Tunnel Study

In a campaign to quantify the aerodynamic drag changes associated with drag reduction technologies recently introduced for light-duty vehicles, a 3-year, 24-vehicle study was commissioned by Transport Canada. The intent was to evaluate the level of drag reduction associated with each technology as a function of vehicle size class. Drag reduction technologies were evaluated through direct measurements of their aerodynamic performance on full-scale vehicles in the National Research Council Canada (NRC) 9 m Wind Tunnel, which is equipped with a the Ground Effect Simulation System (GESS) composed of a moving belt, wheel rollers and a boundary layer suction system. A total of 24 vehicles equipped with drag reduction technologies were evaluated over three wind tunnel entries, beginning in early 2014 to summer 2015. Testing included 12 sedans, 8 sport utility vehicles, 2 minivans and 2 pick-up trucks.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Fuels Derived from Oil Sands and Conventional Crude Oil

The effects of fuel properties of both oil-sands-derived and conventional-crude-oil-derived diesel fuels were investigated on a single-cylinder DI research engine. The engine used in this study incorporated features of contemporary medium- to heavy-duty diesel engines and was tuned to the U.S. EPA 1994 emission standards. The engine experiments were run using the AVL 8-mode steady-state simulation of the U.S. EPA heavy-duty transient test procedure. The experimental fuels included 12 fuels blended using refinery streams to have controlled total aromatic levels and 7 other diesel fuels obtained from different sources. The results showed that at a constant cetane number (44) and sulfur content (150 ppm), oil-sands-derived fuels produced similar NOx emissions as their conventional-crude-oil-derived counterparts and total aromatic content and fuel density could be used in a regression model to predict NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Gaseous and Particle Emissions from a Turbo-Jet Engine Operating on Alternative Fuels at Simulated Altitudes

Gaseous and particle emission assessments on a 1.15 kN-thrust turbojet engine were conducted at five altitudes in an altitude chamber with Jet A-1 fuel, pure Fischer Tropsch (FT), and two mixed fuels of JP-8 with FT or Camelina-based hydro-processed jet fuels. In general, lower emissions in CO₂, NOx, and particle number as well as higher emissions in CO and THC were observed at higher altitudes compared to lower altitudes. These observations, which were similar for all test fuels, were attributed to the reduced combustion efficiency and temperature at higher altitudes. The use of alternative fuels resulted in lower CO₂ emissions, ranging from 0.7% to 1.7% for 50% to 100% synthetic fuel in the fuel mixture at various altitudes. In terms of CO, the use of 100% FT fuel resulted in CO reduction up to 9.7% at 1525 m altitude and up to 5.9% at 9145 m altitude.
Technical Paper

Immediate Impacts on Particulate and Gaseous Emissions from a T56 Turbo-Prop Engine Using a Biofuel Blend

Adoption of hydro-processed esters and fatty acid biojet fuels is a critical component for the sustainability of the aviation industry. Aviation biofuels reduce pollution and provide alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. A study of the impacts of biofuels on emissions from a T56 turbo-prop engine was undertaken as a joint effort among several departments of the Government of Canada. In this study, particulate (including particle number and black carbon (BC) mass) and regulated gaseous emissions (CO2, CO, NO, NO2, THC) were characterized with the engine operating on conventional F-34 jet fuel and jet fuel blended with camelina-based hydro-processed biojet fuel (C-HEFA) by 50% in volume. Emissions characterization, conducted after 20-hour ground engine durability tests, showed immediate significant reductions in particle number and BC mass when the engine was operated on the C-HEFA blend.
Technical Paper

Icing Test and Measurement Capabilities of the NRC’s Gas Turbine Laboratory

The National Research Council’s Gas Turbine Laboratory provides industry leading icing facilities that allow manufacturers to develop, validate and certify new products for flight in adverse conditions. This paper shows how NRC measurement techniques are used across the facilities, and presents a literature-review of recently developed capabilities. The overview includes new details on some facilities, and future capabilities that are in development or planned for the near future. Methods developed at the NRC for characterizing inclement conditions are discussed and include the Isokinetic Probe, Particle Shadow Velocimetry, the Particle Detection Probe, and a size-binned real-time thermodynamic evaporation model.
Technical Paper

Validation and Instrumentation of a Small Modular Multi-Stage Axial Compressor for Ice Crystal Icing Research

The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) has undergone the development of a Small Axial Compressor Rig for modelling altitude ice accretion in aircraft engines. The rig consists of two axial compressor stages measuring approximately 150mm in diameter, an extension duct to allow residence time for partial melting of ice crystals and a test piece. The axial compressor stages are intended to provide realistic engine conditioning such as fracture, pressure rise, temperature rise and centrifuging of glaciated ice crystals entering the rig. The rig was designed for use in altitude icing wind tunnels such as the NRC’s altitude icing wind tunnel (AIWT), research altitude test facility (RATFac.), and those of other organization such as NASA Glenn and Technical University of Braunshweig. Previous development work [1] provided partial validation of the aerodynamic performance of just the first compressor stage at 90% power.