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Technical Paper

Oxygen Quench Effect on Flame Ionization Detector for Hydrocarbon Emission Measurements

2004-03-08
2004-01-1431
While developing one of the first commercialized Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicles, one vehicle manufacturer also improved the method for measuring low level hydrocarbons [1]. This was accomplished by enhancing the Constant Volume Sample System, and correcting hydrocarbon measurements from the Flame Ionization Detector hydrocarbon analyzer for the effect of oxygen quench. Based on the manufacturer's results, it appears that the variation in oxygen content of the calibration gas, span gas, zero gas, and sample gas can affect the accuracy of low level hydrocarbon measurement. Within the last couple of years, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the California Air Resources Board approved the Bag Mini Diluter method for emission sampling [2,3]. This method was developed by the American auto industry in cooperation with government agencies within the American Industry/Government Emissions Research Consortium.
Journal Article

Summary and Progress of the Hydrogen ICE Truck Development Project

2009-06-15
2009-01-1922
A development project for a hydrogen internal combustion engine (ICE) system for trucks supporting Japanese freightage has been promoted as a candidate for use in future vehicles that meet ultra-low emission and anti-global warming targets. This project aims to develop a hydrogen ICE truck that can handle the same freight as existing trucks. The core development technologies for this project are a direct-injection (DI) hydrogen ICE system and a liquid hydrogen tank system which has a liquid hydrogen pump built-in. In the first phase of the project, efforts were made to develop the DI hydrogen ICE system. Over the past three years, the following results have been obtained: A high-pressure hydrogen gas direct injector developed for this project was applied to a single-cylinder hydrogen ICE and the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) corresponding to a power output of 147 kW in a 6-cylinder hydrogen ICE was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Degradation of DeNOx Performance of a Urea-SCR System in In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles Complying with the New Long-Term Regulation in Japan and Estimation of its Mechanism

2016-04-05
2016-01-0958
Degradation of the deNOx performance has been found in in-use heavy-duty vehicles with a urea-SCR system in Japan. The causes of the degradation were studied, and two major reasons are suggested here: HC poisoning and deactivation of pre-oxidation catalysts. Hydrocarbons that accumulated on the catalysts inhibited the catalysis. Although they were easily removed by a simple heat treatment, the treatment could only partially recover the original catalytic performance for the deNOx reaction. The unrecovered catalytic activity was found to result from the decrease in conversion of NO to NO2 on the pre-oxidation catalyst. The pre-oxidation catalyst was thus studied in detail by various techniques to reveal the causes of the degradation: Exhaust emission tests for in-use vehicles, effect of heat treatment on the urea-SCR systems, structural changes and chemical changes in active components during the deactivation were systematically investigated.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Combustion Control of Diesel HCCI

2005-05-11
2005-01-2132
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions in diesel engine. In general, high octane number fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because these fuels briefly form lean homogeneous mixture because of long ignition delay and high volatility. However, it is necessary to improve injection systems, when these high octane number fuels are used in diesel engine. In addition, the difficulty of controlling auto-ignition timing must be resolved. On the other hand, HCCI using diesel fuel (diesel HCCI) also needs ignition control, because diesel fuel which has a low octane number causes the early ignition before TDC. The purpose of this study is the ignition and combustion control of diesel HCCI. The effects of parameters (injection timing, injection pressure, internal/external EGR, boost pressure, and variable valve timing (VVT)) on the ignition timing of diesel HCCI were investigated.
Technical Paper

Modeling Atomization and Vaporization Processes of Flash-Boiling Spray

2004-03-08
2004-01-0534
Flash-boiling occurs when a fuel is injected to a combustion chamber where the ambient pressure is lower than the saturation pressure of the fuel. It has been known that flashing is a favorable mechanism for atomizing liquid fuels. On the other hand, alternative fuels, such as gaseous fuels and oxygenated fuels, are used to achieve low exhaust emissions in recent years. In general, most of these alternative fuels have high volatility and flash-boiling takes place easily in fuel spray, when they are injected into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine under high pressure. In addition, fuel design concept the multicomponent fuel with high and low volatility fuels has been proposed in the previous study in order to control the spray and combustion processes in internal combustion engine. It is found that the multicomponent fuel produce flash-boiling with an increase in the initial fuel temperature.
Technical Paper

Comparison of an Alternative Particulate Mass Measurement with Advanced Microbalance Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-0589
The regulated level of particulate mass for 2007 heavy duty diesel on-road engines is 0.01 g/bkhp-hr. Measurement of this low level of particulate by weighing is costly and time consuming. The weighing method must measure 100 μg or less of particulate on a filter that weighs about 100 mg with a resolution of ± 2.5 μg or better. This means that the microbalance and sampling handling procedure must be accurate within ±25 ppm by mass or ±1/40,000. It requires a microbalance with 0.1 μg precision housed in a special environment. Moreover, the weighing method involves a lengthy process. The filter must be equilibrated, and then pre- and post-weighed, usually with repeat measurements. An alternative to gravimetric analysis is a thermal mass analyzer that measures the semi-volatile organic fraction (SOF), as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned quartz filter. The calibration of the thermal mass measurement is discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Trapping Performance of Fine Particles from a Diesel Engine by Various DPFs with Different Surface Structures

2004-03-08
2004-01-0598
The regulation of particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines is coming to be very stringent at present. The usage of diesel particulate filter (DPF) is now under consideration in many heavy-duty diesel vehicle manufacturers to reduce PM emission from a diesel engine. The possibility that very fine particles may pass through DPF is suggested. The understanding of fine particles emission behaviors and the countermeasure of reducing particle emissions from DPF will come to be important in near future. The behavior of particle size distribution after DPF has not been studied enough yet. In this study, fine particles generated by a diesel engine are introduced to honeycomb type and SiC (Silicon Carbite) fiber type DPFs and the collection performances of fine particles by various DPFs with different surface structures have been examined.
Technical Paper

Development of DME Engine for Heavy-duty Truck

2006-04-03
2006-01-0052
In recent years, attention has focused on smokeless, sulfur-free dimethyl ethyl (DME) as a clean fuel for heavy-duty diesel vehicles [1]. In this development, the DME engine applied for 20-ton GVW truck was developed under the auspices of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Japan, the first known instance worldwide. With careful design of the fuel system considering DME's unique fuel characteristics and suitable combustion improvement, higher torque was obtained with DME, compared to diesel fueling. and also use of the proper EGR and catalyst, exhaust emissions levels were generally less than one-fourth of new long-term regulation value promulgated in 2005 Japan.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine System for Application of Biodiesel Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-2028
Application of biodiesel fuel (BDF) to diesel engine is very effective to reduce CO2 emission, because biodiesel is carbon neutral in principle. However, biodiesels yield an increase in NOx emission from conventional diesel engine, compared with diesel fuel case. Therefore, some strategies are needed for meeting the future emission regulations when using biodiesel. In this study, rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) was applied to diesel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst. NOx reduction rate of NSR catalyst was drastically decreased by using RME, even if injection quantity of RME for rich spike was enhanced. However, an increase in EGR rate could reduce NOx emission without the deterioration in smoke and PM emissions.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Measuring System for Engine Exhaust Solid Particle Number Emission - Performance and Vehicle Tests

2006-04-03
2006-01-0865
The prototype solid particle counting system (SPCS) has been used to study solid particle emission from gasoline and diesel vehicles. As recommended by the PMP draft proposal, exhaust is diluted by a Constant Volume Sampler (CVS). The SPCS takes the sample from the CVS tunnel. Transient test cycles such as EPA FTP 75, EPA HWFET (EPA Highway Fuel Economy Cycle), and NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) were tested. The repeatability of the instrument was evaluated on the diesel vehicle for three continuous days. The instrument exhibits good repeatability. The differences for the EPA ftp 75, the EPA HWFET, and the NEDC in three continuous tests are ± 3.5%. The instrument is very sensitive as well and detects the driving differences. A large number of solid particles are found during the hard acceleration from both the gasoline and the diesel vehicles. Solid particle emissions decrease quickly at deceleration and when vehicles approach constant speed.
Technical Paper

Application of Biodiesel Fuel to Modern Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0233
The 1997 Kyoto protocol came into effect in February, 2005 to reduce greenhouse gases within the period 2008-2012 by at least 5 % with respect to 1990 levels. Application of biodiesel fuel (BDF) to diesel engine is very effective to reduce CO2 emission, because BDF is carbon neutral in principle. The purpose of this project is to produce a light-duty biodiesel truck which can be suitable for emission regulation in next generation. The effect of BDF on the performance and emissions of modern diesel engine which was equipped with the aftertreatment for PM and NOx emissions was investigated without modifications of engine components and parameters, as a first step for research and development of biodiesel engine. Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) was selected in behalf of BDF, and combustion characteristics, engine performance and exhaust emissions were made a comparison between RME and petroleum diesel fuel by steady operation and Japan transient mode (JE05) tests.
Technical Paper

Effective NOx Reduction in High Boost, Wide Range and High EGR Rate in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1438
The emission reduction from diesel engines is one of major issues in heavy duty diesel engines. Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine for heavy-duty trucks has also been researched and developed since 2002. The main specifications of the SCD Engine are six cylinders in-line and 10.5 l with a turbo-intercooled and cooled EGR system. The common rail system, of which the maximum injection pressure is 200 MPa, is adopted. The turbocharger is capable of increasing boost pressure up to 501.3 kPa. The EGR system consists of both a high-pressure loop (HP) EGR system and a low-pressure loop (LP) EGR system. The combination of these EGR systems reduces NOx and PM emissions effectively in both steady-state and transient conditions. The emissions of the SCD Engine reach NOx=0.2 g/kWh and PM=0.01 g/kWh with aftertreatment system. The adopted aftertreatment system includes a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Particulate Sampler for On-board PM Measurement

2008-04-14
2008-01-1180
Horiba on-board diesel exhaust particulate sampler (OBS-PM) is a filter based partial flow particulate sampling system used for On-board diesel particulate matter (PM) measurement. It takes sample from either raw or diluted exhaust. It can run at constant dilution ratios or at variable dilution ratios with proportional control on the sample flow. The diluted exhaust moves through a pre-weighed 47 mm particulate filter and PM is collected on the filter. By weighing the loaded sample filter, PM emission from the engine or the vehicle can be determined. The performance of the OBS-PM meets most of requirements for a real-time partial flow sample system (PFSS) recommended by ISO 16183 [2]. The physical size and the power consumption of the instrument are minimized. It is powered with four 12 volts batteries, and can be installed on a vehicle for real-world PM emission evaluation.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Characterization of Particulate Emissions from Advanced Diesel Combustion

2007-07-23
2007-01-1945
The applicability of several popular diesel particulate matter (PM) measurement techniques to low temperature combustion is examined. The instruments' performance in measuring low levels of PM from advanced diesel combustion is evaluated. Preliminary emissions optimization of a high-speed light-duty diesel engine was performed for two conventional and two advanced low temperature combustion engine cases. A low PM (<0.2 g/kg_fuel) and NOx (<0.07 g/kg_fuel) advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and early injection timing was chosen as a baseline. The three other cases were selected by varying engine load, injection timing, injection pressure, and EGR mass fraction. All engine conditions were run with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. An extensive characterization of PM from these engine operating conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

Study of the Effect of Boiling Point on Combustion and PM Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine Using Two-Component n-Paraffin Fuels

2002-03-04
2002-01-0871
Fuel composition is investigated as a parameter influencing fuel/air mixing of direct injected fuel and the subsequent consequences for particulate emissions. Presumably, enhanced mixing prior to ignition results in a larger portion of fuel burning as a premixture and a smaller portion of diffusion burning around fuel-rich regions. This would potentially lower particulate emissions without overly compromising hydrocarbon emissions or high load operation. Using mixtures of n-paraffin fuels, particulate emissions were measured and the results were compared with in-cylinder visualization of the injection process and two-color method calculations of flame temperature. In general, lower boiling point fuels exhibited higher flame temperatures, less visible flame, and lower particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of SF6 Gas for Testing Instrumental Integrity of the Emerging SULEV/PZEV Measurement Technology

2002-03-04
2002-01-1300
For the past several years, manufacturers have been developing emission measurement systems for Super Ultra Low Emission (SULEV) measurements. The Bag Mini-Diluter (BMD) with an advanced exhaust flow measurement device is designed as an alternative to the traditional method for sampling vehicle exhaust, the constant volume sampler (CVS). Exhaust sampling instruments require system verification tests. The system verification test described and mandated for the CVS in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §86.119-90(c) is a simulated test with propane. The very low concentration measurements required for SULEV regulations demand a more enhanced and accurate verification technique and procedure than the method described in the CFR. This investigation focuses on the technique and necessary equipment for verifying system integrity of the entire emission sampling system, including the Bag Mini-Diluter and the exhaust flow measurement device in the test cell.
Technical Paper

PM Measurement with Partial Dilution Tunnel - Influence of Sampling Line on PM Measurement -

2001-09-24
2001-01-3580
The full-flow dilution tunnel (hereinafter referred to as full tunnel) measurement method has become the de facto standard for the evaluation of particulate matter (hereinafter referred to as PM) emitted from diesel-powered vehicles. However, due to its drawbacks such as bulkiness and expensiveness, a method that uses a very small partial dilution tunnel (hereinafter referred to as micro tunnel) has been developed, mainly in Europe, nearly to the level of practicality. With this method, a higher degree of freedom in controlling sampling flow and temperature can be obtained. Another advantage of the micro tunnel is that the system is compact. However, the micro tunnel's measurement accuracy remains uncertain because the accumulation of measurement data is not yet sufficient. Measuring PM while varying micro tunnel operating parameters permitted a check on the equivalency with a full tunnel system.
Technical Paper

A New Type Partial Flow Dilution Tunnel with Geometrical Partitioning for Diesel Particulate Measurement

2001-09-24
2001-01-3579
The authors have developed a new partial flow dilution tunnel (hereafter referred to as PPFT), whose principal device is a flux splitting gas divider, as a new means of measuring particulate emissions which can be applied to transient cycle testing of diesel engines. The advantage of this system is that it can achieve perfect constant velocity splitting by means of its structure, and theoretically can also maintain high splitting performance despite fluctuations in the exhaust flow rate, including those due to engine exhaust pulsation. We compared this system with a full tunnel by analyzing the basic performance of the system and measuring particulate matter (PM) using an actual vehicle engine.
Technical Paper

A CFV Type Mini-dilution Sampling System for Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Measurement

1999-03-01
1999-01-0151
The traditional method for sampling vehicle exhaust has been the constant volume sampler (CVS) technique as described in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). This method dilutes the entire exhaust output from the vehicle, meters the mixture, and takes a proportional sample for measurement. The Mini-diluter sampling method reverses this process by first metering a small sample and then diluting to a fixed dilution ratio. This approach offers new opportunities to improve the quality of the sample measurement. This is especially interesting considering the lower emissions levels from ULEVs. The usefulness of this idea will depend on the development of stable and repeatable devices to implement it. This paper describes the operation of and presents results from a Mini-dilution system that uses critical flow venturis to provide a stable and repeatable dilution.
Technical Paper

Association of Impact Velocity with Risks of Serious Injuries and Fatalities to Pedestrians in Commercial Truck-Pedestrian Accidents

2016-11-07
2016-22-0007
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck-pedestrian crash impact velocity and the risks of serious injury and fatality to pedestrians. We used micro and macro truck-pedestrian accident data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans. The fatality risk was ≤5% for light-duty trucks, box vans, and sedans at impact velocities ≤ 30 km/h and for medium-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤20 km/h. The fatality risk was ≤10% for heavy-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤10 km/h. Thus, fatality risk appears strongly associated with vehicle class.
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