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Technical Paper

An Observation and Analysis of the Combustion Under Supercharging on a DI Diesel Engine

Supercharging as the method of increasing the output of diesel engines has a long history. Recently, because the potential for lower exhaust emissions for a given power output, supercharging has been considered as a method to reach increasingly strict emissions standards. Some research investigating the effects of supercharging has shown favorable results in terms of emissions(e.g.[1][2][3] *). Also some fundamental studies have examined the effect of ambient pressures on the characteristics of spray and ignition in constant volume combustion borb[4][5][6][7]. However, for further improvement of combustion when utilizing supercharging, more detailed information inside of the combustion chamber is needed about the effects of supercharging on fuel spray and combustion. In order to gather this information, it is necessary to observe the processes within the combustion chamber of a supercharged engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Properties of Biodiesel on Its Combustion and Emission Characteristics

The use of biofuel is essential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. This paper highlights the use of biodiesel as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emission from the diesel engine of heavy-duty vehicles. Biodiesel is fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) obtained through ester exchange reaction by adding methanol to oil, such as rapeseed oil, soybean oil, palm oil, etc. The CO₂ emission from combustion of biodiesel is defined to be equivalent to the CO₂ volume absorbed by its raw materials or plants in their course of growth. On the other hand, however, biodiesel is known to increase the NOx emission when compared with operating with conventional diesel fuel, then suppressing this increase is regarded as a critical issue. This study is intended to identify the fuel properties of biodiesel free from increase in the NOx emission.
Technical Paper

Transient Behavior of VOCs Emission and Particle Size Distribution during Active Regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filter Equipped Diesel Engine

In order to reduce fine particle emission, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) has begun to be equipped to a diesel engine. During regeneration of DPF, nanoparticles are known to be formed downstream of DPF. VOCs emission during regeneration is of interest in view of toxicity and formation mechanism of nanoparticles. A heavy duty diesel engine equipped with DPF was investigated to measure particle and VOCs emissions using PTR-TOFMS (Proton Transfer Reaction - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer). PTR-TOFMS is a new on-line mass spectrometer using chemical ionization and its application to engine exhaust measurements is new. During active regeneration of the DPF, fine particle emission was increased by nucleation. But VOCs as well as THC emissions increased prior to particle increase. After the regeneration the particle and VOCs emissions decreased immediately to the level of normal operation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Boiling Point Differences of Two-Component Normal Paraffin Fuels on Combustion and Emission in CI Engines

The effect of boiling point difference as well as the flash boiling of two-component normal paraffin fuels on combustion and exhaust emission has been examined under different test conditions. To obtain a wide variation in boiling point between components different high boiling point fuels (n-undecane, n-tridecane and n-hexadecane) were blended with a low boiling point fuel (n-pentane) and different low boiling point fuels (n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane) were blended with a high boiling point fuel (n-hexadecane). In addition the volume fraction of n-pentane was varied to have the best mixture ratio with n-tridecane. These fuel combinations exhibit different potential for flash boiling based on a certain ambient condition. The results indicate that though the potential for flash boiling is the highest for a mixture of n-pentane and n-hexadecane it emits about 20% higher PM than a mixture of n-pentane and n-tridecane.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Hydrogen Jet Configuration by Single Hole Nozzle and High Speed Laser Shadowgraphy in High Pressure Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

A new ignition-combustion concept named PCC (Plume Ignition Combustion Concept), which ignite rich mixture plume in the middle of injection period or right after injection of hydrogen is completed, is proposed by the authors in order to reduce NOx emissions in high engine load conditions with minimizing trade-offs on thermal efficiency. In this study fundamental requirements of hydrogen jet to optimize PCC are investigated by using single and multi-hole nozzle with a combination of high speed laser shadowgraphy to visualize propagating flame. As a result, it was infered that igniting the mixture plume in the middle of injection period with minimizing jet penetration to chamber wall is effective reducing NOx formation even further.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Method for HDV Fuel Economy Performance with PC Simulation and Mapping Procedure

As countermeasures against global warming caused by carbon dioxide, improvement of automotive fuel economy to lower CO2 emission becomes important. In order to promote less CO2 vehicles, appropriate methods to evaluate vehicle fuel economy performance are needed. However, the existing fuel economy test is limited to passenger cars and light duty trucks. The test is executed on a chassis dynamometer. However, if this test method is applied to heavy-duty vehicles (HDV), a large sized chassis dynamometer is needed. Furthermore, heavy duty vehicles have wide variations in a combination of an equipped engine, body shape, a transmission gear, a permissible limit of pay load, and so on. This leads to the increase in the number of chassis dynamometer tests. Therefore, it is difficult to use chassis dynamometer test to evaluate HDV fuel economy performance.
Journal Article

Optimization of PM Measurements with a Number Counting Method

Repeatabilities of PM measurements on a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) using a filter weighing method and a number counting method with a full flow dilution system and a partial flow system were evaluated. The filter method with partial flow exhibited the best repeatability. However, a good correlation between the full flow and the partial flow number counting results suggests that the fluctuations observed using the number counting method were caused by changes in the engine exhaust. Applying a strict preconditioning procedure should improve the repeatability of the number counting method because this method is more sensitive than the filter weighing method. In addition, the effects of the specifications for the number counting method were evaluated. The results indicate that the hose length from the tip of the sampling probe to the inlet of the number counting system had a negligible effect.
Journal Article

Study of DME Diesel Engine for Low NOx and CO2 Emission and Development of DME Trucks for Commercial Use

Study of DME diesel engines was conducted to improve fuel consumption and emissions of its. Additionally, DME trucks were built for the promotion and the road tests of these trucks were executed on EFV21 project. In this paper, results of diesel engine tests and DME truck driving tests are presented. As for DME diesel engines, the performance of a DME turbocharged diesel engine with LPL-EGR was evaluated and the influence of the compression ratio was also explored. As for DME trucks, a 100,000km road test was conducted on a DME light duty truck. After the road test, the engine was disassembled for investigation. Furthermore, two DME medium duty trucks have been developed and are now the undergoing practical road testing in each area of two transportation companies in Japan.
Journal Article

Summary and Progress of the Hydrogen ICE Truck Development Project

A development project for a hydrogen internal combustion engine (ICE) system for trucks supporting Japanese freightage has been promoted as a candidate for use in future vehicles that meet ultra-low emission and anti-global warming targets. This project aims to develop a hydrogen ICE truck that can handle the same freight as existing trucks. The core development technologies for this project are a direct-injection (DI) hydrogen ICE system and a liquid hydrogen tank system which has a liquid hydrogen pump built-in. In the first phase of the project, efforts were made to develop the DI hydrogen ICE system. Over the past three years, the following results have been obtained: A high-pressure hydrogen gas direct injector developed for this project was applied to a single-cylinder hydrogen ICE and the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) corresponding to a power output of 147 kW in a 6-cylinder hydrogen ICE was confirmed.
Technical Paper

A New Transient NOx Direct Catalytic Decomposition on a Rh-based Catalyst

It has been found that over Rh/a specified support NOx is eliminated using rich/lean excursions in a different reaction mechanism from a Lean NOx Trap system, where NO is decomposed into nitrogen and oxygen. The contribution of the transient NOx direct decomposition to NOx elimination depends on both reaction conditions and supports. 0.1-0.5wt%Rh and 0.5wt%Pd/a specified support: X can mainly catalyze the transient NO decomposition. On the other hand, on another Rh-based catalyst NO reduction proceeds mainly in the Lean NOx trap system. As expected from the NO elimination mechanism, the newly developed catalyst has shown a high tolerance against SOx.
Journal Article

The Performance of Multi-Cylinder Hydrogen / Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Hydrogen can be produced by electrolyzation with renewable electricity and the combustion products of hydrogen mixture include no CO, CO2 and hydrocarbons. In this study, engine performance with hydrogen / diesel dual fuel (hydrogen DDF) operation in a multi-cylinder diesel engine is investigated due to clarify advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen DDF operation. Hydrogen DDF operation under several brake power conditions are evaluated by changing a rate of hydrogen to total input energy (H2 rate). As H2 rate is increased, an amount of diesel fuel is decreased to keep a given torque constant. When the hydrogen DDF engine is operated with EGR, Exhaust gas components including carbon are improved or suppressed to same level as conventional diesel combustion. In addition, brake thermal efficiency is improved to 40% by increase in H2 rate that advances combustion phasing under higher power condition. On the other hand, NOx emission is much higher than one of conventional diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Association of Impact Velocity with Risks of Serious Injuries and Fatalities to Pedestrians in Commercial Truck-Pedestrian Accidents

This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck-pedestrian crash impact velocity and the risks of serious injury and fatality to pedestrians. We used micro and macro truck-pedestrian accident data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans. The fatality risk was ≤5% for light-duty trucks, box vans, and sedans at impact velocities ≤ 30 km/h and for medium-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤20 km/h. The fatality risk was ≤10% for heavy-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤10 km/h. Thus, fatality risk appears strongly associated with vehicle class.
Journal Article

Analysis of Behavior of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions under On-road Driving Conditions Using Real Car Simulation Bench (RC-S)

The investigation of vehicle performances under on-road conditions has been required for emission reduction and energy saving in the real world. In this study, Real Car Simulation Bench (RC-S) was developed as an instrument for actual vehicle bench tests under on-road driving conditions, which could not be performed by using conventional chassis dynamometer (CH-DY). The experimental results obtained by RC-S were compared with the on-road driving data on the same car as used in RC-S tests. As a result, it was confirmed that RC-S could accurately reproduce the behavior of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions under on-road driving conditions.
Journal Article

Simultaneous Improvement of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Camless Engine

Further improvement in fuel consumption is needed for diesel engines to address regulatory requirement particularly for heavy duty diesel in Japan enforced in 2015, in addition to the compliance to the regulatory requirements for exhaust emission, which seems to be more stringent in future. The authors have participated in the project of “Comprehensive Technological Development of Innovative, Next-Generation, Low-Pollution Vehicles” organized by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), and innovative devices such as multi stage boosting system, ultra high-pressure fuel injection system and variable valve actuation (camless) system had been developed in this project from a standpoint of simultaneous improvement of fuel consumption and exhaust emission. In camless system, intake and exhaust valves are driven by hydraulic pressure. So, fully flexible setting of opening and closure timings and lift of the intake and exhaust valves is possible.
Journal Article

Efficiency and Emissions-Optimized Operating Strategy of a High-pressure Direct Injection Hydrogen Engine for Heavy-duty Trucks

Hydrogen engines are required to provide high thermal efficiency and low nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. There are many possible combinations of injection pressure, injection timing, ignition timing, lambda and EGR rate that can be used in a direct-injection system for achieving such performance. In this study, several different combinations of injection and ignition timings were classified as possible combustion regimes, and experiments were conducted to make clear the differences in combustion conditions attributable to these timings. Lambda and the EGR rate were also evaluated for achieving the desired performance, and indicated thermal efficiency of over 45% was obtained at IMEP of 0.95 MPa. It was found that a hydrogen engine with a high-pressure direct-injection system has a high potential for improving thermal efficiency and reducing NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Pressure and Temperature Dependent Formation Process of up to Triple-Ring PAH from Benzene

The formation pathway for poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied by not only fundamental chemists but also motor engineers due to the formation of nanoparticle precursors and soot in vehicle emissions. In this study, the formation process of up to triple-ring PAHs was investigated using a flow tube reactor. The gaseous products from the pyrolysis of benzene were analyzed by using GC-MS in the temperature range of 850 - 1277 K and pressure range of 50 - 760 mmHg. We found that PAH products formed at temperatures greater than 1050 K, and the formation process was pressure dependent.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics and Performance Increase of an LPG-SI Engine with Liquid Fuel Injection System

Compared with petroleum fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) demonstrates advantages in low CO2 emission because of propane and butane, which are the main components of LPG, making H/C ratio higher. In addition, LPG is suitable for high efficient operation of a spark ignition (SI) engine due to its higher research octane number (RON). Because of these advantages, that is, diversity of energy source and reduction of CO2, in the past several years, LPG vehicles have widely used as the alternate to gasoline vehicles all over the world. Consequently, it is absolutely essential for the performance increase of LPG vehicles to comprehend the combustion characteristics of LPG and to obtain the guideline for engine design and calibration. In this study, an LPG-SI engine was built up by converting fuel supply system of an in-line 4-cylinder gasoline engine, which has 1997 cm3 displacement with MPI system, to LPG liquid fuel injection system [1].
Technical Paper

Real-time Analysis of Benzene in Exhaust Gas from Driving Automobiles Using Jet-REMPI Method

Real-time analysis of benzene in automobile exhaust gas was performed using the Jet-REMPI (supersonic jet / resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization) method. Real-time benzene concentration of two diesel trucks and one gasoline vehicle driving in Japanese driving modes were observed under ppm level at 1 s intervals. As a result, it became obvious that there were many differences in their emission tendencies, because of their car types, driving conditions, and catalyst conditions. In two diesel vehicle, benzene emission tendencies were opposite. And, in a gasoline vehicle, emission pattern were different between hot and cold conditions due to the catalyst conditions.
Technical Paper

Effective NOx Reduction in High Boost, Wide Range and High EGR Rate in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

The emission reduction from diesel engines is one of major issues in heavy duty diesel engines. Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine for heavy-duty trucks has also been researched and developed since 2002. The main specifications of the SCD Engine are six cylinders in-line and 10.5 l with a turbo-intercooled and cooled EGR system. The common rail system, of which the maximum injection pressure is 200 MPa, is adopted. The turbocharger is capable of increasing boost pressure up to 501.3 kPa. The EGR system consists of both a high-pressure loop (HP) EGR system and a low-pressure loop (LP) EGR system. The combination of these EGR systems reduces NOx and PM emissions effectively in both steady-state and transient conditions. The emissions of the SCD Engine reach NOx=0.2 g/kWh and PM=0.01 g/kWh with aftertreatment system. The adopted aftertreatment system includes a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel Blending on Emission Characteristics of Modern Diesel Engine

The use of biodiesel fuels as an alternative fuel for petroleum diesel fuel is very effective for the reduction of CO2 emission, because biodiesel is produced from renewable biomass resources. Biodiesel is usually blended to conventional diesel fuel in various proportions. It is possible that this biodiesel blending causes the problems on emission characteristics of modern diesel engine, because it could be confirmed that the application of neat biodiesel to modern diesel engines whose control parameters were optimized for conventional diesel fuel deteriorated the emission performances. It is necessary to clarify the effect of biodiesel blending on exhaust emissions of modern diesel engine. Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) was selected as a biodiesel used in this study.