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Technical Paper

Mechanism Controlling Autoignition Derived from Transient Chemical Composition Analysis in HCCI

2007-07-23
2007-01-1882
The chemical mechanism responsible for controlling ignition timing by using additives in HCCI has been investigated. Dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol were used as the main fuel and the additive, respectively. Fuel consumption and intermediate formation in the first stage (cool ignition) were measured with crank angle resolved pulse-valve sampling and exhaust gas analysis, where HCHO, HCOOH, CO, H2O2 and other species were detected as the intermediate. The effect of methanol addition retarding ignition is represented by an analytical model in which the growth rate of the chain reaction is reduced by the methanol addition.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Reaction Mechanisms Controlling Cool and Thermal Flame with DME Fueled HCCI Engines

2006-10-16
2006-01-3299
Autoignition in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) process typically exhibits heat release in two stages called cool flame and thermal flame. The mechanisms governing these two stages were investigated using a DME-fueled HCCI engine and numerical simulations. Composition analysis after cool flame showed that the cool flame is explained by a chain reaction mechanism in which the chain terminator is the intermediate species formed in cool flame. In the case of thermal flame, although the chain reaction mechanism is complex, the behavior is clearly described by thermal explosion theory in which the rate-determining reaction is H2O2 decomposition.
Technical Paper

Pressure and Temperature Dependent Formation Process of up to Triple-Ring PAH from Benzene

2008-10-06
2008-01-2437
The formation pathway for poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied by not only fundamental chemists but also motor engineers due to the formation of nanoparticle precursors and soot in vehicle emissions. In this study, the formation process of up to triple-ring PAHs was investigated using a flow tube reactor. The gaseous products from the pyrolysis of benzene were analyzed by using GC-MS in the temperature range of 850 - 1277 K and pressure range of 50 - 760 mmHg. We found that PAH products formed at temperatures greater than 1050 K, and the formation process was pressure dependent.
Journal Article

Optimization of PM Measurements with a Number Counting Method

2008-10-06
2008-01-2436
Repeatabilities of PM measurements on a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) using a filter weighing method and a number counting method with a full flow dilution system and a partial flow system were evaluated. The filter method with partial flow exhibited the best repeatability. However, a good correlation between the full flow and the partial flow number counting results suggests that the fluctuations observed using the number counting method were caused by changes in the engine exhaust. Applying a strict preconditioning procedure should improve the repeatability of the number counting method because this method is more sensitive than the filter weighing method. In addition, the effects of the specifications for the number counting method were evaluated. The results indicate that the hose length from the tip of the sampling probe to the inlet of the number counting system had a negligible effect.
Technical Paper

Real-time Analysis of Benzene in Exhaust Gas from Driving Automobiles Using Jet-REMPI Method

2009-11-02
2009-01-2740
Real-time analysis of benzene in automobile exhaust gas was performed using the Jet-REMPI (supersonic jet / resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization) method. Real-time benzene concentration of two diesel trucks and one gasoline vehicle driving in Japanese driving modes were observed under ppm level at 1 s intervals. As a result, it became obvious that there were many differences in their emission tendencies, because of their car types, driving conditions, and catalyst conditions. In two diesel vehicle, benzene emission tendencies were opposite. And, in a gasoline vehicle, emission pattern were different between hot and cold conditions due to the catalyst conditions.
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