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Technical Paper

Effect of Rear-Axle Steering on Vehicle Controllability and Stability of a Medium-Duty Truck

This study establishes the feasibility of improving the motion characteristics of commercial vehicles by applying rear axle steering. A model-matching control algorithm for rear axle steering was used to achieve the desired yaw rate response to steering action. Simulations with a two-degree-of-freedom model evaluated the effectiveness of the control method. Results of vehicle tests on an experimental medium-duty truck with rear axle steering proved that this control method can improve vehicle yaw response. However, the simulation results did not well represent the vehicle test results, because the simulation model was too simple. Adding the roll effect to the model reduced the discrepancy between the simulation and vehicle test results.
Technical Paper

Development of a Medium-Duty Truck with a Mechanical Linkage Type Four-Wheel Steering System

In complying with a customer demand for improving low-speed maneuverability of commercial vehicles in narrow streets, a medium-duty truck with a mechanical linkage type four-wheel steering system with a hydraulic assist and a steering lock device is developed. A mode select gearbox allows a driver to select one of three rear-wheel steering modes; 2WS, same-phase 4WS, and opposite-phase 4WS. The steering lock device is locked during 2WS operation for preventing rear-wheel steering. An electronic control system is applied for easier mode selection, synchronization of locking and unlocking the steering lock device with a mode select operation, and vehicle speed limitation during 4WS operation. We made efforts particularly to suppress vehicle yaw motion when the vehicle is running in the same-phase 4WS mode. Several innovative new mechanisms are incorporated on this vehicle. This paper deals with these mechanisms and these functions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Turbocharger System with Variable Area Turbine Nozzle for Heavy-Duty Trucks

Nissan Diesel Motor Co.,LTD have developed a new turbocharged diesel engine with a variable nozzle turbocharger for the purpose of solving the contradictory problems of mobility and fuel economy, while meeting the 1990 Japanese emission standards. The heavy-duty trucks equipped with this new turbocharged engine have been released in the market recently. The variable nozzle turbocharger capable of maintaining sufficient turbine efficiency over the broad range of engine operating band was jointly developed with Allied Signal, Garrett Automotive Group in United States of America.It's control method, a stepless boost pressure feedback control system, was newly developed in order to make the most effective use of the turbocharger.
Technical Paper

Influence of Vehicle Body Torsional Stiffness on Vehicle Roll Characteristics of Medium-Duty Trucks

Because of smaller ratios of tread to height of gravitational center, longer wheel-bases, and larger moment of inertia, vehicle roll is the most important characteristics governing truck controllability and stability. And longer wheel-bases result in a reduction in vehicle body torsional stiffness. Hence, the influence of vehicle body torsional stiffness on vehicle roll characteristics is investigated. We carried out a simulation analysis and vehicle test on medium-duty trucks, in studying the vehicle frequency response characteristics by changing vehicle design parameters. The results show that a reduction in body torsional stiffness increases the steady state gain of the front roll angle without affecting the yaw and lateral characteristics of vehicle motion. Accordingly, even if body torsional stiffness is unavoidably lowered, reducing the front roll angle by increasing the roll stiffness of the front suspension can maintain appropriate vehicle controllability and stability.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Heavy Duty Truck Ride

To analyze truck ride comfort, the authors developed a relatively simple simulation model in 16 degree-of-freedom. As a result of studying important truck structural features, such as friction of leaf springs, bending stiffness of a frame, etc., calculation results of a transfer function response analysis agreed fairly well with measured data. As means for ensuring better ride comfort, NISSAN DIESEL developed a floating cab suspension system. To optimize the specification of the system, we utilized this analytical method effectively.
Technical Paper

Analysis on Synchronization Mechanism of Transmission

A simulation technique has been developed for describing the synchronization mechanism of a transmission for heavy-duty trucks, to clarify why and how abnormal (two-stage) shift reaction force while upshifting occurs sometimes. It is hard to analyze this phenomenon with a conventional experimental approach because the synchronizer mechanism is complex and synchronization performs in a short time. Hence, the movement and contact force of the synchronizer components are simulated with an analytical model using ADAMS. According to the simulation results, the abnormal shift reaction force occurs during the meshing process of both splines of the sleeve and clutch gear, its cause is a backward movement of the sleeve. The relative relationship between a sleeve movement force at the contact point of both spline chamfers and clutch gear rotational force influences the phenomenon, and it can be reduced by tuning the friction force on the chamfer surfaces.