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Journal Article

Study of the Impact of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine Oil Performance

2011-08-30
2011-01-1930
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.
Journal Article

Development of a Parallel Hybrid System for RWD Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0884
In December 2006, Nissan announced its Nissan Green Program 2010 (NGP 2010), a mid-term environmental action plan that includes initiatives to reduce vehicle emissions. In line with this plan, the company intends to introduce a new and original hybrid system in fiscal year 2010. Specifically, this system-called the “Infiniti Direct Response Hybrid”-is a one-motor, two-clutch parallel hybrid system that eliminates the need for a torque converter. It will be featured in the 2012 Infiniti M35 Hybrid and provides the following advantages. 1 Significant improvement in fuel economy even in Highway driving2 Better response and a more direct feeling3 Lightweight and low cost This one-motor, two-clutch system without torque converter possesses a simple but highly capable architecture that is new to the passenger vehicle segment.
Technical Paper

Development of New 1.6Liter Four Cylinder Turbocharged Direct Injection Gasoline Engine with Intake and Exhaust Valve Timing Control System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0419
This paper describes a new 1.6-liter four-cylinder gasoline turbocharged engine with a direct injection gasoline (DIG) system and a twin continuously variable valve timing control (CVTC) system. Demands for higher environmental performance make it necessary to improve engine efficiency further. At the same time, improvement of power performance is important to enhance the appeal of vehicles and make them attractive to consumers. In order to meet these requirements, a 1.6-liter direct injection gasoline turbocharged engine has been developed. By using many friction reduction technologys, this engine achieves the high power performance of a 2.5-liter NA(Naturally Aspirated) gasoline engine and low fuel consumption comparable to that of a smaller displacement engine. In addition, this engine achieves low exhaust emission performance to comply with the US LEV2-ULEV and EU Euro5 emission requirements.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Analysis of Combustion Initiation Characteristics of Low Temperature Plasma Ignition for Internal Combustion Gasoline Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0660
In recent years, the study of volumetric ignition using high-speed (nanosecond) pulsed low temperature plasma for gasoline engines was reported by authors [ 1 ]. However, the fundamental analysis of ignition characteristics of the low temperature plasma ignition and the analysis of combustion initiation mechanism of the low temperature plasma ignition was not enough in the previous paper. In this study, a low temperature plasma igniter of a barrier discharge (silent discharge) model was developed for trial purpose. A fundamental analysis of ignition characteristics was carried out when the low temperature plasma ignition was applied as the ignition system for gasoline engine using single-cylinder. The difference between the ignition characteristics of the low temperature plasma and the thermal plasma of a conventional spark plug was investigated by comparing a combustion characteristic of both in various driving conditions.
Journal Article

Low-Cost FC Stack Concept with Increased Power Density and Simplified Configuration Utilizing an Advanced MEA

2011-04-12
2011-01-1344
In 2006, Nissan began limited leasing of the X-TRAIL FCV equipped with their in-house developed Fuel Cell (FC) stack. Since then, the FC stack has been improved in cost, size, durability and cold start-up capability with the aim of promoting full-scale commercialization of FCVs. However, reduction of cost and size has remained a significant challenge because limited mass transport through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) has made it difficult to increase the rated current density of the FC. Furthermore, it has been difficult to reduce the variety of FC stack components due to the complex stack configuration. In this study, improvements have been achieved mainly by adopting an advanced MEA to overcome these difficulties. First, the adoption of a new MEA and separators has improved mass transport through the MEA for increased rated current density. Second, an integrated molded frame (IMF) has been adopted as the MEA support.
Technical Paper

Appling CAE to Understand the Causality of Dummy Neck Injury Readings

2011-04-12
2011-01-1069
The progress of computer technology and CAE methodology makes it possible to simulate dummy injury readings in vehicle crash simulations. Dummy neck injuries are generally more difficult to simulate than injuries to other regions such as the head or chest. Accordingly, improving the accuracy of dummy neck injury data is a major concern in frontal occupant safety simulations. This paper describes the use of an advanced airbag modeling methodology to improve the accuracy of dummy neck injury readings. First, the following items incorporated in the advanced airbag model are explained. (1) The Finite Point Method (FPM) is used to simulate the flow of gas. (2) A folding model is applied to simulate the folded condition. (3) The fabric material properties used in the simulation take into account anisotropy in the fiber directions and the nonlinear, hysteresis characteristics of stiffness.
Journal Article

Experimental Method Extracting Dominant Acoustic Mode Shapes for Automotive Interior Acoustic Field Coupled with the Body Structure

2013-05-13
2013-01-1905
For a numerical model of vibro-acoustic coupling analysis, such as a vehicle noise and vibration, both structural and acoustical dynamic characteristics are necessary to replicate the physical phenomenon. The accuracy of the analysis is not enough for substituting a prototype phase with a digital phase in the product development phases. One of the reasons is the difficulty of addressing the interior acoustical characteristics due to the complexity of the acoustical transfer paths, which are a duct and a small hole of trim parts in a vehicle. Those complex features affect on the nodal locations and the body coupling surface of acoustic mode shapes. In order to improve the accuracy of the analysis, the physical mechanisms of those features need to be extracted from experimental testing.
Journal Article

Development of Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation System for Steering Evaluation Using Multibody Kinematic Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0086
The adoption of the electronic controlled steering systems with new technologies has been extended in recent years. They have interactions with other complex vehicle subsystems and it is a hard task for the vehicle developer to find the best solution from huge number of the combination of parameter settings with track tests. In order to improve the efficiency of the steering system development, the authors had developed a steering bench test method for steering system using a Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation (HILS). In the steering HILS system, vehicle dynamics simulation and the tie rod axial force calculation are required at the same time in the real-time simulation environment. The accuracy of the tie rod axial force calculation is one of the key factors to reproduce the vehicle driving condition. But the calculation cannot be realized by a commercial software for the vehicle dynamics simulation.
Technical Paper

Independent Control of Steering Force and Wheel Angles to Improve Straight Line Stability

2014-04-01
2014-01-0065
Abstract This paper describes a control method to improve straight-line stability without sacrificing natural steering feel, utilizing a newly developed steering system controlling the steering force and the wheel angle independently. It cancels drifting by a road cant and suppresses the yaw angle induced by road surface irregularities or a side wind. Therefore drivers can keep the car straight with such a little steering input adjustment, thus reducing the driver's workload greatly. In this control method, a camera mounted behind the windshield recognizes the forward lane and calculate the discrepancy between the vehicle direction and the driving lane. This method has been applied to the test car, and the reduction of the driver's workload was confirmed. This paper presents an outline of the method and describes its advantages.
Journal Article

Verification of Flag Usage Patterns by Static Analysis Techniques

2014-04-01
2014-01-0180
A flag is a global boolean variable used to achieve synchronization between various tasks of an embedded system. An application implementing flags performs actions or events based on the value of the flags. If flag variables are not implemented properly, certain synchronization related issues can arise which can lead to unexpected behavior or failure of the underlying system. In this paper, we present an automated verification technique to identify and verify flag usage patterns at an early stage of code development. We propose a two-step approach which consists of: a. identification of all potential flag variables and b. verification of flag usage patterns against predefined set of rules. The results of our experiment demonstrate that the proposed approach reduces the cost and complexity of the flag review process by almost 70%.
Technical Paper

Prediction and Analysis Technology Development for Impact Noise

2014-04-01
2014-01-0895
Abstract In order to enhance product attraction, it is important to reduce the impact noise when a vehicle go over bumps such as bridge joints. Vehicle performance to transitional noise phenomena is not yet analyzed well. In this paper, a prediction method is established by vector composition and inverse Fourier transform with the combination of Multibody Dynamics (MBD) and FEM. Also, a root cause analysis method is established with the following three mechanism analysis methods; transfer path analysis, mode contribution analysis, and panel contribution analysis.
Technical Paper

1.2GPa Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

2014-04-01
2014-01-0991
Abstract To reduce the Body in White (BIW) mass, it is necessary to expand the application of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) to complex shaped parts. In order to apply AHSS to complex shaped parts with thinner gauge, high formability steel is required. However, higher strength steels tend to display lower elongations, compared with low/medium strength steels. Current AHSS are applied to limited parts for this reason. The new 1.2GPa material, with high formability, was developed to solve this issue. The mechanical property targets for the high elongation 1.2GPa material were achieved by precise metallurgical optimization. Many material aspects were studied, such as formability, weldabilty, impact strength, and delayed fracture. As the result of this development, 1.2GPa AHSS has been applied to a new vehicle launched in 2013.The application of this material was the 1st in the world, and achieved a 11kg mass reduction.
Journal Article

A Comparison of the NHTSA Research Offset Oblique and Small Overlap Impact Tests and the IIHS Moderate and Small Overlap Tests

2014-04-01
2014-01-0537
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) have both developed crash test methodologies to address frontal collisions in which the vehicle's primary front structure is either partially engaged or not engaged at all. IIHS addresses Small Overlap crashes, cases in which the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure is not engaged, using a rigid static barrier with an overlap of 25% of the vehicle's width at an impact angle of 0°. The Institute's Moderate Overlap partially engages the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure using a deformable static barrier with 40% overlap at a 0° impact angle. The NHTSA has developed two research test methods which use a common moving deformable barrier impacting the vehicle with 20% overlap at a 7° impact angle and 35% overlap at a 15° impact angle respectively.
Technical Paper

Achieving a Vehicle Level Sound Quality Target by a Cascade to System Level Noise and Vibration Targets

2005-05-16
2005-01-2394
This paper describes a process to achieve a pre-defined vehicle level interior sound quality target, by a sound engineering cascade to targeted noise and vibration development at the system level. Air-borne and structure-borne contributors to interior sound are identified at the system level using a comprehensive Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) in both the frequency and time domains. For significant contributors, the relative importance of the source system (powertrain) and path system (vehicle) are determined. System level changes are simulated, and their effect on interior sound evaluated using TPA. A set of feasible changes is identified that, when combined, achieves the vehicle level interior sound quality target. This set of changes defines system level targets for noise and vibration development, cascaded from the vehicle level target.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of a Coaxial Motor Driven by Compound Current

2005-10-24
2005-01-3755
This paper describes the magnetic circuit design of a coaxial AC motor system, comprising one stator and two rotors, and the test results obtained for a prototype motor. The rotors of the motor share the same stator core and coils, and each rotor uses its magnetic part as a yoke. Magnetic flux linkage of each rotor was determined in consideration of the maximum torque/power conditions and maximum motor speed. Finite Element Method were utilized to design a magnetic circuit for achieving the magnetic flux linkage specification. Tests conducted with a prototype motor showed that the torque characteristics can be divided into magnetic torque and reluctance torque, just like an ordinary IPM motor. Each torque level was improved through field-weakening control. The combined torque obtained when the two rotors were driven simultaneously approximately equaled the sum of the individual torques when the rotors were driven independently.
Technical Paper

A Study of Friction Characteristics of Continuously Variable Valve Event & Lift (VEL) System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0222
A continuously variable valve event and lift (VEL) system, actuated by oscillating cams, can provide optimum lift and event angles matching the engine operating conditions, thereby improving fuel economy, exhaust emission performance and power output. The VEL system allows small lift and event angles even in the engine operating region where the required intake air volume is small and the influence of valvetrain friction is substantial, such as during idling. Therefore, the system can reduce friction to lower levels than conventional valvetrains, which works to improve fuel economy. On the other hand, a distinct feature of oscillating cams is that their sliding velocity is zero at the time of peak lift, which differs from the behavior of conventional rotating cams. For that reason, it is assumed that the friction and lubrication characteristics of oscillating cams may differ from those of conventional cams.
Technical Paper

A Study of String-Stable ACC Using Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

2006-04-03
2006-01-0348
A study was made on a control method for an adaptive cruise control (ACC) system that uses vehicle-to-vehicle communication to achieve a substantial improvement in string stability and natural headway distance response characteristics at lower levels of longitudinal G. A control system using model predictive control was constructed to achieve this desired ACC vehicle behavior. Control simulations were performed using experimental data obtained in vehicle-following driving tests conducted on a proving ground course using a platoon of three manually driven vehicles. The results showed that the proposed ACC system satisfactorily achieved higher levels of required ACC performance.
Technical Paper

Study on Driver's Car Following Abilities Based on an Active Haptic Support Function

2006-04-03
2006-01-0344
A research prototype driver support system to augment perception to enhance situation awareness and control for car following applications is introduced and results from a field test evaluation are reported. The support system applies driving and braking force control and a gas-pedal push-back force whose magnitudes depend on the degree to which an undesirable region in a perceptual control space of time headway (THW) and time to collision (TTC) is penetrated (i.e. criticality based on perceptually meaningful cues [4]).
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Oil Temperature Prediction Method Using 3D Model Simulation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1881
Being able to plan each powertrain performance parameter with improved accuracy is an important factor for shortening the development period. In this regard, advance temperature predictions are particularly important because of the strong correlation between the thermal design and the vehicle layout, engine proper and other related parts. At present, it is still difficult to make thermal performance predictions for the engine oil temperature. There are many examples of studies in which the oil temperature was predicted in a one-dimensional circuit. In those studies, either experimental data were used for the heat release from engine components to the oil or calculations were made with a model that was converted empirically from three-dimensions to one-dimension. Because the mechanisms of oil temperature changes inside the engine are not well understood in detail, it is not possible to examine how modifications of the engine structure might affect the oil temperature.
Technical Paper

A Study for Understanding Carsickness Based on the Sensory Conflict Theory

2006-04-03
2006-01-0096
Two hypotheses based on the sensory conflict theory were postulated as possible means for reducing carsickness: (1) Reducing signals from the vestibular and vision systems through a reduction of low-frequency motion would mitigate carsickness and (2) Controlling stimulation of visual organs so as to reduce the amount of sensory conflict would mitigate carsickness. For hypothesis (1), the relations between subjective carsickness ratings and motions of the vehicle and passengers' body were investigated. Greater correlation was found between carsickness ratings and motions of the passengers' head, where the organs of the vestibular and vision systems are located, than between carsickness ratings and vehicle motions. For hypothesis (2), the incidence of carsickness in passengers who gazed at an in-vehicle display was investigated because there seemed to be large conflict between the vestibular system and the vision system.
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