Nissan has released our original HEV system in Japan on November 2010, and will release it in US market on March 2011. The 1 motor 2 clutch parallel type using conventional 7 speed automatic transmission has been employed without torque converter and with a manganese cathode and laminated type Li-ion Battery. This system is well recognized its higher efficiency but lower weight and cost, however, has never realized due to technical difficulties of smoothness. At this session, performance achievements and hinged breakthrough technologies will be presented. Presenter Tetsuya Takahashi, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
A copper alloy powder composed of Cu-14Ni-3Si-2V-2Cr-1.5Fe-1Al-0.5P has been developed for application to laser-clad valve seats. Laser-clad valve seats offer several advantages such as higher engine output and improved fuel economy owing to lower valve head temperature and an increased intake throat diameter compared with conventional press-fit valve inserts made of ferro-based powder metal. Previously, a material having a principal chemical composition of Cu-12Ni-10Co-3Si-2V-2Nb-1.5Fe-1Al was developed to obtain large hard intermetallic compounds. The microstructure of this material is formed by a two-liquid separation reaction, which has been applied to powders of different chemical compositions for laser-clad valve seats of production engines. Although this material shows superior valve seat wear resistance, it has certain drawbacks, including the high cost of the powder, high probability of microcrack formation and low machinability of the laser-clad layer.
In previous multi-dimensional modeling on spray dynamics and vapor formation, single component fuel with pure substance has been analyzed to assess the mixture formation. Then it should be expected that the evaporation process could be performed for the multicomponent fuel such as actual Gasoline and Diesel gas oil. In this study, vapor-liquid equilibrium prediction was conducted for multicomponent fuels such as 3 and 10 components mixed solution with ideal solution analysis and non-ideal solution analysis. And the computation of distillation characteristics was conducted for the steady state fuel condition fuel condition to understand the evaporation process. As a result, calculated distillation characteristics are consistent well with experiment results. And the evaporation process of a multicomponent droplet in the combustion chamber has been calculated with the variation of ambient pressure and temperature.
A method for detecting drivers' intentions is essential to facilitate operating mode transitions between driver and driver assistance systems. We propose a driver behavior recognition method using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to characterize and detect driving maneuvers and place it in the framework of a cognitive model of human behavior. HMM-based steering behavior models for emergency and normal lane changes as well as for lane keeping were developed using a moving base driving simulator. Analysis of these models after training and recognition tests showed that driver behavior modeling and recognition of different types of lane changes is possible using HMMs.
This paper describes a high-power lithium-ion battery system that has been newly developed for application to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The battery system was designed on the premise of an underfloor location so as to avoid sacrificing interior spaciousness while providing the power output and recharge performance required by the hybrid propulsion system. To meet these requirements, efforts were made to increase the specific power and to reduce the heat generation of the battery to previously unattained levels. As a result, exceptionally high specific power of 1,200 W/kg per cell, battery pack power of 25kW at 20% state of charge (SOC), and high charge/discharge efficiency of more than 95% in the urban driving schedule has been achieved. The battery pack is composed of two box-shaped modules designed with a low height in consideration of underfloor mountability.
Since the VQ engine series of lightweight, compact, low friction and high response engines was released in 1994, they have been rated highly both at home and abroad. Two new 3.0-liter and 3.5-liter V6 engines have been developed as the second generation of the VQ engine and introduced into the North American market. Continuing the characteristics of the first generation, this new VQ engine series achieves a performance figure of 98Nm/L as a result of adopting part shapes defined with a three-dimensional analysis method. The new VQ30DE engine adopts a plastic intake manifold which incorporates a variable induction system with a rotary valve. The new VQ35DE engine adopts a continuously variable valve timing control system and a long branch intake manifold with an inertial induction system. It also incorporates a new concept piston and a hot coined connecting rod to reduce its reciprocating inertial mass.
This paper deals with the development of plastics recycling technology, which is one key to resolving environmental and natural resource problems and encouraging recycling activities. Bumpers are among the heaviest plastic auto parts, so the technology for recycling bumpers is strongly required. Paint remaining on bumpers causes the strength of the recycled material to decline and degrades its surface quality. Therefore, unless the paint is removed, it is impossible to use recycled material to manufacture new bumpers. This hampers recycling efforts and results in low-value recycled material. Consequently, it is essential to develop a simple paint removing without chemical substances for practical plastics recycling at low cost. Two topics are discussed in this paper. The first concerns the mechanism of paint removal and the development of a technique for utilizing that mechanism.
Two working groups in the JSAE Committee of Fatigue–Reliability Section1 are currently researching the issue of fatigue life by both experimental and the CAE approach. Information regarding frequent critical problems on arc–welded structures were sought from auto–manufacturers, vehicle component suppliers, and material suppliers. The method for anti–fatigue design on arc–welded structures was established not only by a database created by physical test results in accordance with the collected information but also with design procedure taking Fracture–Mechanics into consideration. This method will be applied to vehicle development as one of the virtual laboratories in the digital prototype phase. In this paper, both the database from bench–test results on arc welded structures and FEA algorithm unique to JSAE are proposed some of the analysis results associated with the latter proposal are also reported.
The inflow of oil mist particles contained in blow-by gas into the intake system worsens emissions. A higher performance oil mist separator system is required to meet emission regulations which will inevitably become stricter in the future. In developing the oil mist separator, however, much of the development time in the past was spent in carrying out repeated tests and studying separator designs. We, therefore, have improved the separator development process by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) which added several new ideas to improve the analysis accuracy. The comparison of calculated results and experimental results has confirmed that a sufficient accuracy can be obtained to make this method applicable for practical use.
This paper describes a new variable valve system that enables continuous control of valve events, i.e. time periods when the valve is open. In this system, valve events are controlled by varying the camshaft angular speed by means of an offset between the center of the camshaft and that of the medium member that transfers crankshaft torque to the camshaft. The medium member, a rotating disk, has a drive pin to enable the transfer of torque. The system has a mechanism that produces an offset between the center of the rotating disk and that of the camshaft as well as an actuator that drives the mechanism. This makes it possible to develop a compact system that can be installed in existing DOHC direct-acting valve train engines without making any major cylinder head modifications.
A new gasoline-fueled Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) technology has been developed that meets the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) most stringent tailpipe emission levels and zero evaporative emissions, while fulfilling all On-Board Diagnostic II (OBD II) requirements. This paper will describe the various new technologies used in achieving the SULEV standards, such as the HC trap system with an ultra-thin wall substrate for the improvement of catalyst light-off time, and an electrically actuated swirl control valve for reducing cold-start emissions. In addition, a control approach to stabilizing NOx emissions will also be discussed.
Nissan has recently developed and begun driving tests of a fuel cell vehicle equipped with a methanol reformer that produces hydrogen through the use of a catalyst to induce chemical reactions between methanol and water. With this onboard fuel cell system, only methanol in the form of a liquid fuel needs to be supplied, making the system highly practical as an automotive powertrain for near-future application. The Nissan Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) adopts a high-efficiency neodymium magnet synchronous traction motor combined with lithium-ion batteries that enable the vehicle to achieve optimum electric power by switching between a fuel cell-powered driving mode and a battery-powered driving mode. This presentation will cover the current status of the FCV development program and driving test results.
Technologies applied to the Nissan Tino Hybrid, marketed in March 2000, in Japan, are expected to evolve into the core powertrain technologies of the future, for the following technical advantages inherent to hybrid EVs: 1 Regeneration of deceleration energy 2 Motor driven propulsion at low speed, combined with power-assisted operation in the mid- and high-load ranges. It is expected that a number of models will be introduced to the market in the future, which pursue these advantages in various forms, resulting in HEV technologies to accelerate the use of electric power for the vehicle. Fuel cell vehicles will be included in this future scenario. In this paper, our view on the future HEV technologies will be described. In addition, the latest technologies applied to the Nissan Tino Hybrid will be introduced.
This paper describes a half-toroidal continuously variable transmission (CVT) that has been newly developed. The continuously variable unit (CVU) of this CVT adopts a traction drive as its power transmission principle. The major features of this mechanism include its capacity to transmit large torque, quick ratio changes, and high transmission efficiency in the low torque range. The major CVT performance characteristics and dimensions and features of the various parts of the unit are explained here.
An adsorber system for reducing cold-start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions has been developed combining existing catalyst technologies with a zeolite-based HC adsorber. The series flow in-line concept offers a passive and simplified alternative to other technologies by incorporating one additional adsorber substrate into existing converters without any additional valving, purging lines, secondary air, or special substrates. Major technical issues to be resolved for practical use of this system are 1) the ability to adsorb a wide range of HC molecular sizes in the cold exhaust gas and 2) the temperature difference between HC desorption from the adsorber and activation of the catalyst to convert desorbed HCs. This paper describes the current development status of hydrocarbon adsorber aftertreatment technologies. We report results obtained with a variety of adsorber properties, washcoat structures of adsorber catalyst and start-up and underfloor catalyst system combinations.
This paper describes new technologies for achieving exhaust emission levels much below the SULEV standards in California, which are the most stringent among the currently proposed regulations in the world. Catalyst light-off time, for example, has been significantly reduced through the adoption of a catalyst substrate with an ultra-thin wall thickness of 2 mil and a catalyst coating specifically designed for quicker light-off. A highly-efficient HC trap system has been realized by combining a two-stage HC trap design with an improved HC trap catalyst. The cold-start HC emission level has been greatly reduced by an electronically actuated swirl control valve with a high-speed starter. Further, an improved Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) control method has achieved much higher catalyst HC and NOx conversion efficiency.
Design optimisation with respect to interior noise is currently a topic of great concern for the automotive industry. An essential element in this process is to obtain a correct understanding of the various noise sources which are present, and the ways in which these sources propagate to the critical receiver. An experimental source-transfer-receiver methodology is presented, that allows quantifying the structure borne and airborne source strength of the intake system components and its contribution to the interior noise. The method allows interior noise optimisation after identification of the dominant contributors. The methodology is applied to identify the noise contribution of the air intake system to the interior noise of an 8-cylinder upper class vehicle. Correlation of the Structure Borne Transfer Path Analysis and Airborne Source Quantification models with physical decoupling experiments demonstrates a high correspondence.
We have developed a vibration damping technique for the Oil Pan to reduce radiation noise. This technique makes use of oil viscosity. To increase vibration damping of oil pan, we use oil viscosity by forming a thin oil film between the oil pan bottom and an added inner plate. This paper presents the results of vibration tests that were conducted to study the oil damping mechanism and results of applying to a small high-speed diesel engine.
The authors have developed a steering entropy method to easily and accurately quantify the workload imposed on drivers who are engaged in activities apart from the normal driving operations of longitudinal and lateral control. A driver's steering behavior tends to become more discontinuous while performing an activity in addition to driving. To quantify these discontinuities, steering entropy values are obtained from a time-series history of steering angle data. A special-purpose driving simulator and a test procedure have been developed that allow workload evaluations to be conducted efficiently. The simulator and test procedure were used to evaluate the additional workload incurred by 14 different types of activities. The steering entropy results were compared with a dual task method as well as a subjective evaluation method.