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Technical Paper

Spray Atomization Study on Multi-Hole Nozzle for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

We investigated the size of fuel spray droplets from nozzles for direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Our findings showed that the droplet size can be predicted by referencing the geometry of the nozzle. In a DIG engine, which is used as part of a system to reduce fuel consumption, the injector nozzle causes the fuel to spray directly into the combustion chamber. It is important that this fuel spray avoid adhesion to the chamber wall, so multi-hole injection nozzles are used to obtain spray shape adaptability. It is also important that spray droplets be finely atomized to achieve fast vaporization. We have developed a method to predict the atomization level of nozzles for fine atomization nozzle design. The multi-hole nozzle used in a typical DIG injector has a thin fuel passage upstream of the orifice hole. This thin passage affects the droplet size, and predicting the droplet size is quite difficult if using only the orifice diameter.
Technical Paper

Multi-Swirl Type Injector for Port Fuel Injection Gasoline Engines

The authors developed a multi-swirl type injector characterized by a short spray penetration length and fine atomization to improve exhaust emissions and fuel consumption for port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engines. In PFI gasoline engines, fuel adhesion to an intake manifold causes exhaust emission. In addition, good mixing of fuel and air causes high combustion efficiency, and as a result the fuel consumption improves. Injectors therefore require two improvements: first, a short spray penetration to avoid fuel adhesion to the intake manifold, and second, a fine atomization spray to generate a good mixture formation of fuel and air. In this study, the authors developed a multi-swirl type injector equipped with multiple orifice holes featuring swirl chambers upstream of each orifice. The key feature of the proposed injector is “involute curve-formed swirl chambers” for generating a uniform thin liquid-film in the orifices.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Particulate Matter in Direct Injection Gasoline Engines by Non-Combustion CFD

A technique of estimating particulate matter (PM) from gasoline direct injection engines is proposed that is used to compute mass density and particle number density of PM by using fuel mass in rich mixtures obtained by using non-combustion computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD code that was developed by the authors employed a Cartesian coordinates system as a discretization method and large eddy simulation (LES) as a turbulence model. Fuel spray droplets were treated with the discrete droplet model (DDM). The code was verified with some experimental data such as those obtained from in-cylinder gas-flows with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and in-cylinder fuel concentration with laser induced fluorescence (LIF). PM emissions from a single-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) to determine the model constants that were required in the estimation model.
Technical Paper

A New Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model Applicable to Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

Gasoline engines employ various mechanisms for improvement of fuel consumption and reduction of exhaust emissions to deal with environmental problems. Direct fuel injection is one such technology. This paper presents a new quasi-dimensional combustion model applicable to direct injection gasoline engine. The Model consists of author's original in-cylinder turbulence and mixture homogeneity sub model suitable for direct fuel injection conditions. Model validation results exhibit good agreement with experimental and 3D CFD data at steady state and transient operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Crank-angle-resolved Measurements of Air-fuel Ratio, Temperature, and Liquid Fuel Droplet Scattering in a Direct-injection Gasoline Engine

Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline vapor concentration, gas temperature, and liquid fuel droplet scattering were made with three-color infrared absorption in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with premium gasoline. The infrared light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug, allowing measurement at a location adjacent to the spark plug electrode. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) using one signal and two pump lasers operating in the near-infrared (near-IR). A portion of the near-IR signal laser residual provided a simultaneous third, non-resonant, wavelength for liquid droplet detection. This non-resonant signal was used to subtract the influence of droplet scattering from the resonant mid-IR signals to obtain vapor absorption signals in the presence of droplet extinction.
Journal Article

A Study of a Multistage Injection Mechanism for Improving the Combustion of Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

Technologies for improving the fuel economy of gasoline engines have been vigorously developed in recent years for the purpose of reducing CO2 emissions. Increasing the compression ratio for improving thermal efficiency and downsizing the engine based on fuel-efficient operating conditions are good examples of technologies for enhancing gasoline engine fuel economy. A direct-injection system is adopted for most of these engines. Direct injection can prevent knocking by lowering the in-cylinder temperature through fuel evaporation in the cylinder. Therefore, direct injection is highly compatible with downsized engines that frequently operate under severe supercharging conditions for improving fuel economy as well as with high compression ratio engines for which susceptibility to knocking is a disadvantage.
Technical Paper

Impingement Behavior of Fuel Droplets on Oil Film

In a direct injection gasoline engine, the impingement of injected fuel on the oil film, i.e. cylinder liner gives rise to various problems such as abnormal combustion, oil dilution and particulate matter emission. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the impingement behavior of the fuel spray onto the oil film. However, there is little information on the impingement behavior of the fuel droplet onto the oil film, whereas many investigations on the impingement behavior of the fuel droplet onto the fuel film are reported. In this study, fundamental investigations were performed for the purpose of clarifying the impingement behavior of the fuel spray onto the oil film. A single fuel droplet mixed with fluorescence dye was dripped on the oil film. To separately measure the fuel and the oil after impingement, simultaneous Mie scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) methods were performed.
Technical Paper

Summary report of Japan Clean Air Program diesel and diesel fuel activities

Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined.
Technical Paper

A Study of a DISI Engine with a Centrally Located High-pressure Fuel Injector

Vehicle manufacturers developed two mixture formation concepts for the first generation of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines. Both the wall-guided concept with reverse tumble air motion or swirl air motion and the air-guided concept with tumble air motion have the fuel injector located at the side of the combustion chamber between the two intake ports. This paper proposes a new GDI concept. It has the fuel injector located at almost the center of the combustion chamber and with the spark plug positioned nearby. An oval bowl is provided in the piston crown. The fuel spray is injected at high fuel pressures of up to 100 MPa. The spray creates strong air motion in the combustion chamber and reaches the piston bowl. The wall of the piston bowl changes the direction of the spray and air motion, producing an upward flow. The spray and air flow rise and reach the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Development of High Pressure Fuel Pump by using Hydraulic Simulator

We developed a high-pressure fuel pump for a direct injection gasoline engine and used a hydraulic simulator to design it. A single plunger design is the major trend for high-pressure fuel pumps because of its simple structure and small size. However, the single plunger causes large pressure pulsation and an unstable flow rate, especially at high engine speed. Therefore, a fuel-pipe layout that inhibits the pressure pulsation and a flow-rate control that stabilizes the flow are the most important challenges in pump design. Our newly developed hydraulic simulator can evaluate the dynamic characteristics of a total fuel supply system, which consists of pump, pipe, injector, and control logic. Using this simulator, we have improved fuel flow by optimizing the outlet check valve lift and the cam profile, and we reduced pressure pulsation by optimizing the layout of fuel pipes. Our simulation results agreed well with our experimental results.
Technical Paper

Study of Fuel Dilution in Direct-Injection and Multipoint Injection Gasoline Engines

Fuel dilution is one of the phenomena requiring attention in direct-injection engines. This study examined the factors contributing to increased fuel dilution in direct-injection and conventional multipoint injection gasoline engines, focusing in particular on fuel dilution in the oil pan. The results showed that fuel dilution is affected by fuel consumption, fuel properties and oil/cooling water temperatures in multipoint injection engines. In addition to these factors, fuel injection timing is another factor that increases fuel dilution in direct-injection engines.
Technical Paper

Development of High-resolution Exciting Source Identification System

We have developed an excitation source identification system that can distinguish excitation sources on a sub-assembly level (around 30mm) for vehicle components by combining a measurement and a timing analysis. Therefore, noise and vibration problems can be solved at an early stage of development and the development period can be shortened. This system is composed of measurement, control, modeling, and excitation source identification parts. The measurement and the excitation source identification parts are the main topics of this paper. In the measurement part, multiple physical quantities can be measured in multi-channel (noise and vibration: 48ch, general purpose: 64ch), and these time data can be analyzed by using a high-resolution signal analysis (Instantaneous Frequency Analysis (IFA)) that we developed.
Technical Paper

A Study of Heat Rejection and Combustion Characteristics of a Low-temperature and Pre-mixed Combustion Concept Based on Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

There have been strong demands recently for reductions in the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel engines from the standpoints of conserving energy and curbing global warming. A great deal of research is being done on new emission control technologies using direct-injection (DI) diesel engines that provide high thermal efficiency. This work includes dramatic improvements in the combustion process. The authors have developed a new combustion concept called Modulated Kinetics (MK), which reduces smoke and NOx levels simultaneously by reconciling low-temperature combustion with pre-mixed combustion [1, 2]. At present, research is under way on the second generation of MK combustion with the aim of improving emission performance further and achieving higher thermal efficiency [3]. Reducing heat rejection in the combustion chamber is effective in improving the thermal efficiency of DI diesel engines as well as that of MK combustion.
Technical Paper

The Turbocharged 2.8 Liter Engine for the Datsun 280ZX

Nissan’s new 2.8 liter in-line 6-cylinder turbocharged engine was developed for Che Datsun 280ZX in order to achieve higher performance and improved fuel economy. The Electronic Concentrated Engine Control System (ECCS), controlled by microprocessor, is provided for this 2.8 liter turbocharged engine. ECCS controls fuel injection, ignition timing, EGR rate and idling speed. It solved the problems related to power and fuel economy by optimizing the control parameters. Further, this system contains a barometric pressure compensator and a detonation controller; thus, the performance of this engine is efficient over a wide range of circumstances and fuel octane ratings. During the development of the engine, computer simulation was employed to predict engine performance and select turbocharger size, valve timing and other important factors.
Technical Paper

Development of Nissan's New Generation 4-Cylinder Engine

This paper describes the new inline 4-cylinder QR engine series that is available in 2.0-liter and 2.5-liter versions. The next-generation QR engine series incorporates new and improved technologies to provide an optimum balance of power, quietness and fuel economy. Its quiet operation results from the adoption of a compact balancer system and the reduced weight of major moving parts. Power and fuel economy have been enhanced by a two-stage cooling system, a continuous variable valve timing control system, a dual close coupled catalyst system, electronic throttle control and an improved direct-injection system. The latter includes an improved combustion chamber concept and improved fuel spray characteristics achieved by driving the injector by battery voltage. A lightweight and compact engine design has been achieved by adopting a high-pressure die cast aluminum cylinder block, resin intake manifold and rocker cover and a serpentine belt drive.
Technical Paper

Development of a Gasoline-Fueled Vehicle with Zero Evaporative Emissions

…Technologies for reducing evaporative emissions generated from gasoline vapors have been developed. To reduce evaporative emissions, both permeation from fuel and vapor lines and breakthrough from the evaporative canister need to be diminished. Fewer fuel line connections are used and hose and valve materials have been modified to reduce permeation. Component test results confirm that permeation is substantially reduced from the level of previous parts. A new type of activated charcoal, which has a high specific heat characteristic and improves adsorption and desorption performance, has been applied to reduce canister breakthrough. Additionally, the amount of purge air has been increased by applying purge control using an air-fuel ratio sensor. The problem of canister breakthrough has thus been resolved by the new evaporative canister combined with increased purge flow to the engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Measurement on Evaporation Process of Multicomponent Fuels

In previous multi-dimensional modeling on spray dynamics and vapor formation, single component fuel with pure substance has been analyzed to assess the mixture formation. Then it should be expected that the evaporation process could be performed for the multicomponent fuel such as actual Gasoline and Diesel gas oil. In this study, vapor-liquid equilibrium prediction was conducted for multicomponent fuels such as 3 and 10 components mixed solution with ideal solution analysis and non-ideal solution analysis. And the computation of distillation characteristics was conducted for the steady state fuel condition fuel condition to understand the evaporation process. As a result, calculated distillation characteristics are consistent well with experiment results. And the evaporation process of a multicomponent droplet in the combustion chamber has been calculated with the variation of ambient pressure and temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-Layer Plastic Fuel Tanks for Nissan Research Vehicle-II

Plastic fuel tanks are light in weight and rustproof, and have good design flexibility. For those currently in use, however, which are made of mono-layer high-density polyethylene, fuel permeability is too high to meet U.S. evaporative emission standards, which are stricter than those in Japan or the EEC. For minimize fuel permeation, the formation of a harrier layer of polyamide resin by multilayer (three-resin five-layer) blow molding is considered more promising than sulphonation or fluorination treatment of the polyethylene resin. This paper describes the fuel permeation mechanism, then outlines the development of a multi-layer plastic fuel tank, discussion its structural features and the development of resins.
Technical Paper

Swirling Flow Type Jet Pump for Transferring Fuel Inside Saddle-Shaped Fuel Tanks

This paper presents a swiring flow type jet pump which has been developed and in put into practical use in transferring fuel between sumps in saddle-shaped fuel tanks. The pump is driven by the force of excess fuel returning from the engine. The major structural features of the pump are described along with its performance. Various problems encountered in the process of developing the pump are discussed along with the technologies developed to resolve them. Particular attention is focused on the effects that the geometries if the nozzle, throat and swirling groove have on fuel transfer efficiency. The results of experiments carried out to analyze these correlations are also presented.
Technical Paper

Analysis on Idle Speed Stability in Port Fuel Injection Engines

It has been reported by several researchers that the L-jetronic fuel injection system offers better idle speed stability than the D-jetronic one in port fuel injection engines. However, the volume between the throttle valve and the intake valves in the L-jetronic system acts as a first order lag element in the system and causes air-fuel ratio fluctuation which, in turn, induces idle speed hunting under certain conditions. This study employs computer simulation to determine the influence of three parameters on idle speed stability: (1) flywheel inertia, (2) intake manifold volume, and (3) air-fuel ratio calibration. It also explores means of improving idle speed stability by controlling the air-fuel ratio and ignition timing. The use of actual engine torque data to estimate the generated torque from the amount of air and fuel in each combustion cycle was the unique feature of this study.